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Magi

(116 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Fort in north-western Britannia (Not. Dign. Occ. 40,14; 40,49) with a numerus Pacensium as a garrison (4th cent. AD). Site contentious but an altar (CIL VII 1291) built by vik(ani) Mag... in Old Carlisle refers to it. It is, however, conceivable that M. was the fort in Burrow Walls and Maglona was the one in Old Carlisle (Not. Dign. Occ. 40,13; 40,29). Both forts were held right through to the 4th cent. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography E. Birley, The Roman Fort and Settlement at Old Carlisle, in: Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Archaeolog…

Brigantes

(120 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] The B. settled in northern England, from the Tyne-Solway isthmus to Derbyshire. In the Iron Age the B. lived in scattered communities; there were few hill-forts or large settlements. Their queen Cartimandua entered into a treaty relationship with Rome before AD 50 but lost the support of her nobles and had to appeal for Roman assistance, before the leadership was stripped from her in c. AD 69 (Tac. Hist. 3,45). The B. were defeated by Q. Petilius Cerealis (AD 71-74) and Cn. Julius Agricola (AD 77-78) and organized as a civitas with Isurium Brigantum (now Aldborough) as…

Portus

(1,551 words)

Author(s): Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart) | Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Et al.
[German version] [1] Artificially extended harbour complex near Ostia This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre An artificial harbour complex, created under the emperor Claudius (AD 41-54) to extend the harbour of Ostia (with plan) and enlarged under Trajan (AD 98-117), c. 3 km northwest of Ostia. The Claudian harbour basin ( c. 80 hectares) was protected from the sea by a mole structure (but not actually safe; in AD 62 almost 200 ships went down in a storm: Tac. Ann. 15,18) and marked by a lighthouse (cf. plan: 1) (according to Suet. C…

Segontium

(140 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] One of the main forts of the Roman occupation of North Wales [1], modern Caernarfon at the southwestern end of the Menai Strait. The first building phase dates from the governorship of Iulius [II 3] Agricola ( c. 77/8 AD). The living quarters exhibit at least three building phases from the early 2nd century AD onwards. Rebuilding in stone took place under Hadrianus (117-138). The 2nd cent. garrison was evidently small. One of the main buildings from the Antonine period was probably the officium of a procurator [2]. After being destroyed and rebuilt the fort was he…

Eboracum

(290 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | | Coloniae | Commerce | Legio | Limes | Limes | Pertinax | Rome | Rome | Britannia (Today York). With its strategically favourable location in the heart of the Vale of York, E. presented itself to the Romans as a base for their military control of northern Britannia. The earliest garrison was stationed in E. under Q. Petilius Cerealis in AD 71/74 [1]. The legionary camp ( legio IX Hispana) was a wood-earth fort of the 70s; the reconstruction in stone took place in the early 2nd cent. The legio VI Victrix replaced the legio I…

Viroconium

(158 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] (Οὐιροκόνιον/ Ouirokónion). Roman legionary camp, in c. AD 55 laid out in connection with military operations in the valley of the upper Sabrina (modern Severn) [1. 292 f.]; modern Wroxeter in Shropshire, England. Abandoned in c. AD 74, as late as the end of the 1st cent., V. developed into the capital of the civitas Cornoviorum [2]. In AD 128/9, The city acquired a forum [1. 288] and, no later than the middle of the 2nd cent., thermal baths [3]. Numerous private houses were built from the 2nd cent. onwards. In the 4th cent., the …

Camboricum

(30 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] ‘Ford on the river bend’ (It. Ant. 474,7), presumably modern Icklingham (Suffolk) [1. 294]. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography 1 A. L. F. Rivet, C. Smith, The Place-names of Roman Britain, 1979.

Castra

(2,134 words)

Author(s): Le Bohec, Yann (Lyon) | Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne) | Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana) | Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Et al.
A. Military camp [German version] [I 1] General The Roman soldiers always made sure that they were protected by fortifications. This also applied when they only stopped for a night on campaigns. In the evening of their arrival the field camp had to be set up and destroyed again on the morning of departure. The plural castra was the name given to any kind of military camp, the singular castrum certainly existed but was not used in mil. vocabulary. Castellum is the diminutive form of castra (Veg. Mil. 3,8) and also had a civilian meaning. The origin of the Roman camps is uncertain; because …

Ratae

(177 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Roman fort in Britannia, built before AD 50 at the site of an Iron-Age settlement on the present-day Soar River and held for c. 20 years. The fort and its vicus grew into the core of a prosperous town (It. Ant. 477,4; Ptol. 2,3,20: Ῥάγε/Rháge; CIL VII 1169; cf. CIL XVI 160), present-day Leicester [1. 52 f.]. Already before AD 100, R. was the main city of the Coritani or Corieltauvi [2]. The forum and the basilica were built under Hadrian (AD 117-138), the baths in c. AD 150. Parts of the baths have survived as the Jewry Wall, as…

Limes

(12,382 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) | Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Et al.
[German version] I. General In the religious and administrative theory of the land surveyors, the Latin word limes denoted the path marking the boundary between two pieces of land, while in military and political usage (Tac. Ann. 1,50; Frontin. Str. 1,3,10) it meant the border between Roman and non-Roman territory (SHA Hadr. 12). Over recent years, research has led the military connotation of the term limes, which has been used almost exclusively from the 19th cent., to be expanded to comprehend also the historico-geographical and socio-economic fields. Where the limites were origin…

Mons Graupius

(294 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] The Roman invasion of eastern Scotland under Iulius [II 3] Agricola brought Roman troops across the isthmus between the Forth and Clyde in AD 82 or 83 (Tac. Agr. 29,2-38,2; [1]). In contrast to the tribes of southern Scotland, the Caledonii to the north of the isthmus were very much more dangerous opponents. They were led against the Romans by Calgacus, who had probably been elected commander by the clans. He first evaded the legions, but, when the Roman advance made progress acro…

Noviomagus

(1,862 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] [1] City of the Bituriges Vivisci in Aquitania The city of the Bituriges Vivisci (Βίτουργες Οὐβίσκοι/ Bítourges Oubískoi) in Aquitania mentioned in Ptol. 2,7,7 (Νουιόμαγος/ Nouiómagos) is generally identified with a Roman vicus near Brion (Saint-Germain-d'Esteuil) in the Médoc between Lesparre and Pauillac ( département of Gironde). This town with an ancient sanctuary of the Medulli had been inhabited from the 3rd cent. BC; urban development is recognisable from the time of Claudius (41-54 AD). It was in this period that the fanum (sanctuary) and the theatre we…

Margidunum

(184 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] On the great Roman road of the Fosse Way between Lincoln and Leicester lay various Roman settlements; one of the largest was M., near East Bridgeford, Nottinghamshire. Originally a Roman fort (late Claudian/early Neronian period), abandoned in around AD 70 [1; 2]. M. probably served as a military supply base, since the local iron ore was intensively smelted. After the end of the military occupation, the civilian settlement continued on both sides of the Fosse Way, possibly in conjunction with a mansio (or mutatio). Residential and other buildings were modest. Th…

Bremenium

(68 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] One of a line of Roman outposts north of Hadrian's Wall near the modern High Rochester. Established by Agricola (AD 77-84), the camp was renovated by Lollius Urbicus (AD 139-142), and again restored under Septimius Severus and Diocletian [1. 242-244]. CIL VII p. 178f.  Limes Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography 1 E. B. Birley, Research on Hadrian's Wall, 1961. D. J. Breeze, The Northern Frontiers of Roman Britain, 1961, 138f.

Ictis

(143 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] British island connected to the mainland at low tide where, according to Diod. Sic. 5,22,2, the inhabitants of Belerion (Land's End in south-west-Britain) sold Tin from their mines - this was the beginning of the tin trade between Britannia and the Mediterranean region. The location of I. is still under debate. Possibilities include St. Michael's Mount in Mounts Bay, Cornwall [1. 176], which is connected to the mainland at low tide, and Mount Batten in the Plymouth Sound, Devon, w…

Durovernum

(150 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | | Britannia | Britannia Modern Canterbury; arose in the form of an Iron Age oppidum on the Stour in the late 1st cent. BC. The Roman city developed shortly after AD 43, perhaps revealing the pre-Roman character of the tribes of Cantion (Kent). Public buildings were erected in the late 1st and early 2nd cents. A large theatre was added in the late 2nd cent. [1]; defensive works were built in the late 3rd cent. An extra muros Christian church, probably from the 4th cent., survived until c. AD 700 (Bede, Hist. Eccl. 1,26). A…

Magnae

(170 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] (or Magni). Roman fort on Hadrian's Wall in northern England (Not. Dign. Occ. 40,43; Geogr. Rav. 107,11), probably dating to the Flavian period (AD 69-96), modern Carvoran, identified because of epigraphical evidence ( numerus Magn(c)es(ium) [1. 1825]). In the early 2nd cent., before M. became part of the Hadrianic Limes after AD 122, it may have been part of Trajan's border line [2. 192-196]. The fort was not integrated into the vallum as was usually the case, but remained situated to the south. Under Hadrian and after him, the cohors I Hamiorum was stationed there unt…

Cantiaci

(107 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Tribe in the area of Kent and East Sussex. Its name is derived from the region of Cantium. Caes. B Gall. 5,22,1 tells of four indigenous kings; this account allows the conclusion that there were a number of sub-tribes. The tribal centre was  Durovernum, also important was Durobrivae (modern Rochester). Numerous villae were built in C. in the early Imperial Age, especially in eastern and southern Kent. In the 3rd cent.,  Rutupiae,  Dubrae, Regulbium (modern Reculver) and  Portus Lemanae (modern Lympne) were garrisons of the classis Britannica. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bib…

Dubrae

(151 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Modern Dover, was of great importance during the period of Roman occupation of  Britannia, as a port and coastal fortress. The first-rate port may well have been used during the invasion of AD 43. A fort was built in the late 2nd cent. to accommodate a unit of the classis Britannica [1]. The fort was replaced in the late 3rd cent. by a coastal fortress as protection against the Saxons. Parts of the docks and the moles have been discovered in the port area of Dover. A well preserved Roman lighthouse on East Hill, octagonal in the …

Tintagel

(81 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] A headland on the northern coast of Cornwall, for a long time connected with King Arthur and his court. Limited settlement in the late Roman period was followed by more intensive settlement from the late 5th cent. AD onwards with many imports from the eastern Mediterranean, particularly amphorae and fine pottery. At that time T. was evidently the residence of the kings of the Dumnonii. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography C. Thomas, The Book of T.: Arthur and Archaeology, 1993.
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