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Boletum

(45 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] City known to us only through inscriptions (CIL II 5843; 5845), probably located near Barbastro/Hispania Tarraconensis. The place name Boletania lasted beyond the Middle Ages; Arab geographers wrote Bortana, which has survived as today's Boltaña. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 384f.

Rubricatum flumen

(50 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] River flowing into the Mare Tyrrhenum  to the south of Barcino(na) in the territory of the Laietani (Mela 2,90; Plin. HN 3,21; Ptol. 2,6,18), modern Llobregat. Upstream is the city of Rhoubrikata (Ῥουβρικάτα; Ptol. 2,6,74), modern Rubí. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography TIR K/J 31 Tarraco, 1997, 134.

Complega

(55 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Celtiberian town, only mentioned in App. Hisp. 42f. in association with the Roman campaigns of 181-179 BC. A. Schulten [2. 136] identified C. with  Contrebia (C. a Celtic variant, not identical with  Complutum, as [1. 795]) still has. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 E. Hübner, s.v. C., RE IV, 794f. 2 A. Schulten, Numantia 1, 1914. Tovar 3, 340.

Lutia

(124 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Possibly modern Cantalucia near Osma in the Spanish province of Soria [1]. The name is presumably Iberian [2]. When in 134/3 BC the position of the fortress Numantia was besieged by the Romans and became untenable, the youth of L. was inclined to provide help to the Numantians who were in dire straits. But the elders betrayed this to Scipio, who hurried there and as punishment had the hands of 400 young men cut off (App. Hisp. 409-411). L. is mentioned on the bronze tablet of Luzaga as a member of an Arevacian league of cities and on coins ( lutaqs). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliog…

Pompaelo

(95 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] City in the lands of the Vascones, modern Pamplona in Navarre, founded by Pompeius [I 3] (Str. 3,4,10: Πομπέλων ὡς ἂν Πομπηιόπολις/ Pompélōn hōs àn Pompēiópolis, 'Pompelon as if Pompeiopolis') in the winter of 75/4 BC during a war with Sertorius where the Tarraco-Oiasso (Str. l.c.) and Astorga-Roncevalles (It. Ant. 455,5) roads cross. Roman remains: street and drainage system, city wall, a macellum, building sites with mosaics, small finds. Inscriptions: CIL III 2958-2961. Episcopal see since the 6th cent. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 2,3, 1989, …

Althia

(69 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] According to Pol. 3,13,5, the mightiest city of the  Olcades in the upper Guadiana valley, conquered by  Hannibal in 220 BC. Liv. 21,5,4 calls the city Cartala. Its location remains unknown. There is little likelihood that the proposed [1. 216] identification with today's Altea (Alicante province) is valid. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 G. V. Sumner, Roman Policy in Spain before the Hannibalic War, in: HSPh 72,1968,205-246. Tovar 3, 1989,185.

Mentesa

(111 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
Name, possibly Iberian [1. 549], of two towns. [German version] [1] M. Bastitanorum (CIL II 3377f.; 3380), modern La Guardia, south east of Castulo (Plin. HN 3,9; 19; 25; It. Ant. 402,4). Mint and bishopric in the Visigothic period. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) [German version] [2] Town beside modern Villanueva de la Fuente (Μέντισα; Méntisa). Probably near the modern Villanueva de la Fuente, close to the source of the Guadiana Menor, in the conventus of Carthago Nova (CIL II p. 434f.; Plin. HN 3,25; Ptol. 2,6,59; CIL XI 3281-3284). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 2. A. Schulte…

Palma

(82 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Commerce | Hispania, Iberia City in Maiorica (modern Majorca), the largest of the Baliares Islands, founded in 122 BC after a victory over the local inhabitants by the consul Caecilius [I 19], subsequently Baliaricus, and named after the palm of victory (Str. 3,5,1; Mela 2,124; Plin. HN 3,77f.; Ptol. 2,6,78). It has the same name today. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 2,3, 1989, 277  TIR K/J 31 Tarraco, 1997, 117.

Cartima

(82 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Modern Cártama, province of Málaga. Iberian, according to [1. 1126] Celtiberian town; mainly epigraphically verified (CIL II 1949-1962; identical with Certima in Liv. 40,47,2?). In AD 53/54, it became a civitas libera (CIL II 1953: decemviri), under Vespasian a municipium civium Latinorum (CIL II 1956 and Suppl. 5488). According to inscriptions and extant remains (CIL II p. 248; Suppl. p. 876), C. also seems to have enjoyed prosperity later on. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 3. Tovar 1, 132.

Lagni

(93 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Celtiberian town near Numantia; name possibly Iberian [1]. For coin evidence cf. [2; 3]. Allied to Numantia, L. was conquered and destroyed by the consul Q. Pompeius in 141 BC (Diod. Sic. 33,17). L. may be identical to Malia (App. Hisp. 329); on the contradictory reports in the sources cf. [4]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder, s.v. L. 2 A. Vives, La moneda hispánica 2, 1924, 64 3 A. Hübner, Monumenta linguae Ibericae, s.v. lagne, 1893, 38 4 H. Simon, Roms Kriege in Spanien, 1962, 110. Tovar 3, 461.

Iberus

(162 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
(Hiberus). Name of two Spanish rivers, derived from the people of the same name, not - as ancient scholars (Plin. HN 3,21; Just. Epit. 44,1,2) believed - the other way around [1. 307-315]. [German version] [1] Modern Ebro Modern Ebro. All sources agree that the ancient I., with its tributaries, corresponds almost completely to the modern Ebro. The single difference: the ancient river was navigable (Plin. HN 3,21) as far as Vareia (modern Varea, east of Logroño), today only as far as Tortosa (other, newer views contradict this ident…

Numantia

(488 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Hispania, Iberia | Pyrenean peninsula City in northern central Spain at the confluence of the rivers Duero, Merdancho and Tera on a hill (Muela de Garray, 67 m above river level), 6 km from Soria (Castilla la Vieja plateau). It had been settled since the late Neolithic (about 2000 BC) and in the Bronze Age. The adjoining Iron Age settlement from about 850 BC bears all the hallmarks of the more recent Hallstatt Culture, particularly from the 5th cent. [3. vol. 2, 110-113, 225ff.]. In the 4th/3rd cents. BC the place was fortified. N. (pr…

Hispal(is, Spalis)

(222 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | | Coloniae | Pyrenean peninsula Modern Seville. First mentioned as a base for Caesar's Spanish campaigns, but surely an ancient Iberian settlement; Phoenician origin has been assumed. H. belongs to the few cities that have retained their importance from antiquity until today. For antiquity this is attested by literary sources, inscriptions (CIL II Suppl. p. 1145f.) and coins [1]. Its importance is based on its geopolitically favourable locat…

Medobriga

(119 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] (or Medubriga; Celtic [1. 526] ‘Castle of Medus’). Town in Lusitania ( Lusitani), captured in 48 BC by Q. Cassius [I 16] Longinus, together with the Herminius mons (the modern Sierra de la Estrella), to which the inhabitants had fled (Bell. Alex. 48,2). According to CIL II 760, the Meidobrigenses were involved in the building of the Tagus bridge in Alcántara during the reign of Trajan. According to Pliny, the inhabitants of M. were also known as Plumbari ( qui et Plumbari, HN 4,118) - apparently, there was a lead-mine associated with M. [2. 254f.]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bib…

Clunia

(220 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | | Coloniae The important ruins of C. lie c. 40 km north-west of Uxama Argaela (now Osma near Coruña del Conde; CIL II p. 382). On Augustan coins the name is spelled Clounioq, later C. [2. 111ff.) and is probably Celtic ([1. 131]; a different view in [3. 1048]). C. played a part in the revolt by  Sertorius (75 BC: Liv. Per. 92; 72 BC: Exsuperantius 8; Flor. 2,10,9), in that of 55 BC (Cass. Dio 39,54) and that of  Galba in AD 68 (Suet. Galba 9,2;…

Ilerda

(181 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | | Pyrenean peninsula Ancient Iberian city on the Sicoris (modern Segre), modern Lérida (loss of the Iberian prefix I). Remains are mostly found above the modern city. Inscriptions: CIL II Suppl. p. 1146. Possibly already mentioned in Avien. 475. I. repeatedly played a role in Roman military history, especially in Caesar's battles with Pompey's legates. Augustus raised I. to the status of municipium (coins, Plin. HN 3,24). It is still mentioned several times in Ausonius (e.g. commemoratio professoru…

Caesaraugusta

(154 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | | Coloniae | Commerce | Pilgrimage Modern Zaragoza on the Iberus. Originally the likely location of the Iberian settlement of Saduia (Plin. HN 3,24: Salduba) in the tribal area of the Edetani (Ptol. 2,6,62). The Roman colony, founded under Augustus, developed into one of Spain's most important urban centres (cf. Mela 2,88; Str. 3,2,15; 4,10; 13). Important road junction. Possibly the garrison of the 10th legion up to the time of Nero. C.…

Edetani

(198 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian tribe on the Spanish east coast. The main city was Liria, today still known as Liria on the Guadalaviar (CIL II p. 509), and the tribal area corresponded roughly to the hinterland of Valencia and Saguntum ([1. 111]). Schulten [2. 326] refers to them as the inhabitants of the province of Teruel further to the north. The location can be deduced from that of the main city and from other sources (cf. also [3. 58]: Edeta[nia]). The E. are mentioned for the years of 209 and 141 BC: Pol. 10,34,2 (uncertain reading); App. Ib. 330f. (here, Sedetania should clearly be read as Edet…

Ilergetes

(86 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian tribe around  Ilerda in the modern province of Huesca. The I. are often mentioned in the context of the Second Punic War. They initially supported the Carthaginians, were defeated by the Romans in 205 BC (Liv. 29,3) and later became socii (Liv. 34,11). Mentioned in Str. 3,4,10 and Plin. HN 3,21, but not later. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography A. Schulten (ed.), Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 3, 1935, 232 Tovar 3, 1989, 46f. Schulten, Landeskunde 1, 21974, 309 A. Vives, La moneda hispánica 2, 1924, 52.

Carmo

(107 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Hispania, Iberia | Phoenicians, Poeni | Pyrenean peninsula Settlement of the  Turdetani, modern Carmona (province of Sevilla in Spain). C. rose to importance during the conflicts between Rome and Carthage (3rd/2nd cents. BC; App. Ib. 25; Liv. 33,21,6ff.). Caes. B Civ. 2,19,4 and Str. 3,2,2 refer to C. as one of the most important towns of Baetica. The names of some of the officials of this   municipium civium Romanorum or Latinorum are known from coins [1. 199] and from inscriptions (CIL II 1378ff.; 5120). Barceló, Pedro (Pots…
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