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Lancia

(300 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] Town near modern Mansilla de las Mulas, northern Spain Town of the Astures near modern Mansilla de las Mulas, northern Spain, approximately 20 km from León (on the Celtic place name [1; 2], also [3; 4]). Conquered in 25 BC by P. Carisius, but spared (Cass. Dio 53,25,8; Flor. Epit. 2,33,37f.; Oros. 6,21,10; cf. also Plin. HN 3,28; Ptol. 2,6,28; It. Ant. 395,3; [5]). Substantial, almost exclusively Roman remains; Roman coins. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder, s.v. L. 2 A. Schulten, Los Cántabros y Astures ..., 1943, 107, 151 3 F. Abbad Rios, F. Jordá Cerdá, In…

Bergistani, Bargusii

(68 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian tribe in Hispania Tarraconensis (now Cataluña); the place name Berga (province of Barcelona) commemorates it. On his march to Italy Hannibal passed through the tribe's territory (Pol. 3,35; Liv. 21,19; 23). In the first phase of the Roman conquest of Spain the B. put up resistance, but were subdued by Cato in 195 BC (Liv. 34,16ff.). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 39f.

Grac(c)urris

(125 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Town in the upper Ebro valley; precise location unknown. In 179 BC founded as a Gracchuris by Tib. Sempronius Gracchus in place of the Iberian town of Ilurcis (Liv. Epitome 41; Festus p. 86,5). G. is mentioned later in the war against Sertorius in 76 BC (Liv. Epitome 41). Pliny (HN 3,24) names G. among the oppida Latii veteris of the conventus of Caesaraugusta. There are no inscriptions, but G. appears on several coins from the time of Tiberius as a municipium [1. 113f.]. Later G. is no longer mentioned. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 A. Vives, La moneda hispánic…

Cempsi

(70 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Only mentioned by Avien. 182ff. and by Dionys. Per. 338. They were probably a Celtic tribe (different in [1. 978]), who originally lived on the island of Cartare (probably in the  Baetis delta), later south of the Tagus and in the Anas valley. Possibly identical with the Celtici (cf. Str. 3,1,6). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 1. A. Schulten, Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 1, 21955, 104ff. Tovar 2, 195f.

Callaici

(149 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Celtic tribe in north-western Hispania, giving its name to the modern region of Galicia. First mentioned in connection with the Celtiberian Wars (181-133 BC) (App. Ib. 300). The Roman governor Iunius Brutus, who crushed them between 138 and 136 BC, was given the cognomen Callaicus. Caesar, too, had dealings with them during his propraetorship in 60 BC. For a time, the C. appeared alongside the  Astures and  Cantabri, when Augustus was at war with these and subjugated them finally …

Cauca

(85 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Celtiberian town, modern Coca (province of Segovia). First mentioned in the context of the brutal war conducted by  Lucullus in 151 BC (App. Ib. 51f.). Scipio, too, laid the town to ruins in the course of his battle against Numantia (App. Ib. 89). In the imperial age, the town belonged to the conventus of  Clunia (Plin. HN 3,26), and gained fame as the birthplace of emperor  Theodosius I (Zos. 4,24,4). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 334 F. Wattemberg, La región vaccea, 1959.

Bilbilis

(131 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Celtiberian settlement on the Cerro de Bámbola near Calatayd (province of Zaragoza); its name is possibly derived from the river Birbilis (Just. Epit. 44,38), an alternative name for the Salo, or the name of one of its tributaries. In Roman times, the road from Augusta [2] Emerita to Caesaraugusta passed through B. It is a matter of debate whether B. was a   colonia or a   municipium . It is the birthplace of Martial, who extolled the wealth of his homeland. The town fell into ruin in…

Baecula

(73 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Punic Wars Settlement in the mining area on the upper  Baetis (modern Bailen). In 208 BC, it was the location of one of the decisive battles of the Second Punic War, in which Hasdrubal was defeated by P.C. Scipio Africanus. Hasdrubal subsequently departed from Spain (Pol. 10,38,7; 11,20,5; Liv. 27,18,1; 28,13,5; App. Ib. 24). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 153-154.

Pyrene

(485 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] City in the easternmost Pyrenees near Rhode (Πυρήνη; Pyrḗnē). City of Iberian or Phocaean origin in the region between the Sordi and the Ceretes peoples (Avien. 559), therefore in the easternmost Pyrenees (P. [2]) near Rhode. Here, according to Hdt. 2,33, was the source of the Istrus [2] (Danube); P. was a rich city, seven days' journey from Pylae [1] Gadeirides (Avien. 562-565) and often visited by merchants from Massalia. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 460. [German version] [2] Mountains, modern Pyrenees (Πυρήνη/ Pyrḗnē, Πυρηναῖα/ Pyrēnaîa, Πυρ…

Cerretani

(69 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian tribe of the southern Pyrenees, province of Cerona (Str. 3,4,11). Earliest mention in Avien. Or. mar. 550 ( Ceretes). Steph. Byz. knows of a city called Brachyle in the land of the C. They were famous for the quality of their ham (Mart. 13,54). In the imperial age, the tribe divided into Iuliani and Augustani (Plin. HN 3,23). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 44f., 447.

Maesesses

(63 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Tribe of the Bastetani (Liv. 28,3,3) in eastern Andalusia in a fertile region with silver mines. In 207 BC their region was conquered by P. Cornelius [I 71] Scipio [1]. Orongis (probably identical with Aurgi, modern Jaén [2]) was situated here. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 A. Schulten (ed.), Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 3, 1935, 131 2 Schulten, Landeskunde 1, 84.

Calagurris

(168 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] Fibularia This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity A settlement of the  Vascones, probably the modern Loarre in the Spanish province of Huesca in Spain. Bishop Ianuarius, one of the participants in the Council of Iliberis, may have come from C. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 381-382. [German version] [2] Nasica This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity Iberian town on the Iberus in the Spanish province of Zaragoza, modern Calahorra. It played a part in the Celtiberian Wars (181-133 BC) and i…

Sicoris

(49 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Left-hand tributary of the Iberus [2] (Ebro) in Hispania Tarraconensis (Caes. Civ. 1,40,1; 48,3; 61,1; 63,1; Plin.  HN 3,24), modern Segre. It rises in the territory of the Cerretani and in its course passes through Ilerda (Lérida). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography TIR K/J 31 Tarraco 146 f.

Ilurcavones

(54 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] (Ilercavones). An Iberian tribe around Dertosa, on the lower Ebro. They submitted to the Romans in 218 BC (Liv. 21,60,3; for later times cf. also Liv. 22,21,6; Caes. B Civ. 1,60,2; Ptol. 2,6,16; Plin. HN 3,21). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography A. Schulten (ed.), Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 4-8, 1925ff. (Index) Tovar 3, 34f.

Murgis

(82 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: City in southern Spain, since the Augustan provincial reform on the border between Hispania Baetica and Hispania Tarraconensis. The city's name, according to [2], is Iberian. Its location on the Campo de Dalias, 31 km to the west of Almería, is documented in inscriptions (CIL II Suppl. 5489f.; cf. Plin. HN 3,8; 17, Baeticae finis; Itin. Anton. 405,2; Ptol. 2,4,9; [2. 84f.]). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Tovar 2, 1974 2 Holder, s.v. M.

Ercavica

(165 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Celtiberian settlement. The origin of the name is uncertain: it may be Celtiberian ([1. 1485] or Basque [2. 72]). Despite being attested in several sources, the precise location of E. cannot be established ([3]: on the Cabeza del Griego west of Cuenca? A contrary view is [2. 331,5]; cf. also CIL II p. 419, 425). It belonged to the conventus of Caesaraugusta (Plin. HN 3,24; CIL II 4203). The nobilis et potens civitas (‘noble and mighty city’) surrendered in 179 BC without resistance to the propraetor Tib. Gracchus (Liv. 40,50,1). It was a municipium (coins: [4. 109]) an…

Centobriga

(68 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Town mentioned only in the context of the anecdote about  Metellus' mild treatment of the besieged population of C. (142 BC; Val. Max. 5,1,5; Liv. POxy. 161-163). C. -- the name is Celtic [1. 989] -- was probably situated in the valley of the Jalón [3. 354]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 1 2 A. Schulten, Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 4, 1937, 33f. 3 Id., Numantia 1, 1914 4 Tovar 3, 369-370.

Lusitani, Lusitania

(554 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Name Iberian [1], similarly the people with a marked Celtic element which is evaluated in various ways [2]. Originally the L. settled between the Durius and the Tagus (cf. [3]) and advanced to the Anas (App. Hisp. 239). The later Roman province of L. set up by Augustus corresponds approximately to modern Portugal and therefore comprises a much bigger region than the original settlement area. The country encompasses only a few towns [4] which presumably, as with the Celtiberi, originally served as refuges. Especially in the north there are numerous castros, i.e. ring wa…

Accis

(177 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae Town of the  Bastetani (Ptol. 2,6,60), on the crossing of the road from  Tarraco via  Carthago Nova to  Castulo and  Malaca. The ancient settlement was built along the slopes of the western Guadix (province of Granada). Its Roman name of Colonia Iulia Gemella or Gemellensis (CIL II 3391; 3393 f.) points to its origins as a military colony, founded either by Caesar in 45 BC or later by Augustus. A. was under the jurisdiction of the conventus Carthaginiensis. Its inhabitants had the ius Italiae (Plin. HN 3,25); CIL II…

Lyco

(60 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] City of the Bastetani, name probably Iberian. A more precise location cannot be determined and identification with Ilugo, Ilucia, Ἴλουνον/ Ílounon remains problematical [1]. At L. the Lusitani inflicted heavy losses on L. Aemilius [I 32] Paullus in 190 (Liv. 37,46,7). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 A. Schulten (ed.), Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 3, 1935, 199ff. Tovar 3, 157.
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