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Sornatius, C.

(36 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
[German version] Documented for 72-68 BC as legate of Licinius [I 26] Lucullus in the 3rd Mithradatic War (Mithridates [6] VI.; Plut. Lucullus 17,1; 24,1; 30,3; 35,1; IPerg 431; MAMA 6,260). Bartels, Jens (Bonn)


(1,664 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Benz, Lore (Kiel) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Plotke, Seraina (Basle)
I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] P. Relative of Cicero's second wife Publilia A close relative (brother?) of Cicero's second wife Publilia; for this reason, he is frequently mentioned in Cicero's letters to T. Pomponius [I 5] Atticus. Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] P., Volero People's tribune in 472 and 471 BC People's tribune in 472 and 471 BC (MRR 1, 29 f.). P. is said to have introduced a bill in 472 to have the election of the tribunes of the plebs take place not in the comitia curiata, which were dominated by patricians and their clients, but in the comitia tributa (Co…


(767 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Italic family name [1], which first appears in senatorial circles at the end of the 1st cent. BC. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] Two brothers who were fairly well known publishers at the time of Horace (Hor. Epist. 1,20,2; 2,3,345). Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] S., C. First attested by the coins he minted in 39 BC as quaestor of Antony [I 9] (BMCRR 2,504), for whom he was governor of Syria and Cilicia from 38 BC. With Herod [1] he successfully fought Antigonus [5] who had been installed in Iudaea by the Parthians (…


(54 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
[German version] Roman gens name [1]. Only known representative: C. V., recorded  56-44 BC, versatile businessman (credit broker, pigment producer and long-distance trader) from Puteoli, who had close relations with Pomponius [I 5] Atticus and Cicero. Bartels, Jens (Bonn) Bibliography 1 Schulze, 254 2 J. Andreau, Patrimoines, échanges et prêts d'argent, 1997, 99-118 3 D'Arms, Index s. v. V.


(2,206 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton) | Et al.
Name of a Roman plebeian family, probably from Caudium (CIL I2 1744 f.) and attested from the time of the 2nd Punic War. The branch of the Libones (S. [I 5-7; II 4-7]) attained the consulship with S. [I 7] and was part of the Roman high nobility in the early Imperial period. The Curiones (S. [I 1-4]), prominent in the 2nd and 1st cents. BC, disappeared with the Republic. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] S. Curio, C. As aedile in 196 BC, he built the Temple of Faunus on the Tiber Island. Praetor urbanus in 183 and the second plebeian to be elected curio [2] maximus


(163 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
Name of a Roman plebeian family (occasionally confused with Laetorius); attained some distinction only in the 2nd cent. BC; insignificant in the Imperial Period. [German version] [1] P. Cestianus, L. Quaestor 43/2 BC Quaestor in 43/42 BC under M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus; issued denarii depicting a pilleus between two daggers, with the legend Eid(ibus) Mar(tiis), thus celebrating the assassination of Caesar on the Ides of March of 44 BC (RRC 508). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] P. Cestianus, M. Probably governor of Macedonia in 63/2 Quaestor before 69 BC (Cic. Font…


(3,206 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Beck, Jan-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Et al.
Nomen gentile, probably originally Etruscan, occurred at Rome only from the 1st cent. BC onwards. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] A certain S. from Camerinum was commissioned to recruit followers for Catilina at Picenum in 63 BC, presumably because he was of the Umbrian-Picenan municipal nobility (cf. CIL I2 1921; 1929) (Sall. Catil. 27,1). Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] Friend of Horace's; he hoped to enter the cohors amicorum of a member of the imperial household through his relationship with the latter (Hor. Carm.…


(519 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
(Πυθόδωρος/ Pythódōros). [German version] [1] Athenian, paved the way (in 411BC) for the oligarchic constitution of the 400 Athenian who, according to [Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 29,1-2 (cf. Thuc. 8,67,1), in 411 BC made a motion in the public assembly to elect a further 20 'preliminary counselors' ( próbouloi) to draw up proposals for saving the state. He thus paved the way for the oligarchic constitution of the 400 ( tetrakósioi ). Diog. Laert. 9,54 (= Diels/Kranz 80 A 1) names him as the prosecutor of Protagoras [1]. P. may be identical with the …


(2,074 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman patrician family, derived from the praenomen Quintus; in inscriptions and MSS also Quintilius. In the annalistic tradition the family was one of Rome's oldest, supposed to have arrived in Rome under the king Tullus Hostilius (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,29,7; cf. Liv. 1,30,2, though he has Quinctii); of a consul recorded in 453 BC and a consular tribune in 403 nothing further is known. In the historical period, members of the family are known from the end of the 3rd cent. on (bearing the inherited cognomen Varus), but they achieved no lasting noble status. The most promin…


(1,947 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Et al.
Widespread Italic nomen gentile. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] V., L. Roman equestrian from Picenum, c. 106-59 BC. In 89 BC, V. probably served on the staff of Cn. Pompeius [I 8] Strabo (ILS 8888; [1. 161 f.]) and subsequently enriched himself as a favourite of L. Cornelius [I 90] Sulla (Sall. Hist. 1,55,17). He later joined the conspiracy of Catilina (Q. Tullius Cic. commentariolum petitionis 10), but betrayed it to Cicero in 63 BC (Cass. Dio. 37,41; Oros. 6,6,7). In 62, it seems that opponents o…


(110 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
[German version] [1] S., M. Praef. of Ap. Claudius [I 24] Pulcher who had five members of the council of Salamis in Cyprus starve when he was to enforce a loan repayment for M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus. In 51 BC Cicero put an end to this and in 50 achieved repayment at an annual interest rate of 12 %, but S. rejected this and insisted on an annual rate of 48 %  (Cic. Att. 5,21,10 ff.; 6,1,5 ff.; 6,2,7 f.). Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [2] S., M. In 50 BC agent for M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus' loans to king Ariobarzanes [5] (Cic. Att. 6,1,4; 3,5). Bartels, Jens (Bonn) Bibliography W. Will, Julius …


(833 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
(also Vinucius). Italian nomen gentile , recorded from the 1st cent. BC onwards (Schulze, 110; 380). I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] V., L. Mint master between 54 and 52 BC (RRC 436; MRR 2, 455), tr. pl. in 51 (Cic. Fam. 8,8,6) and cos. suff. in 33 BC (InscrIt 13,251; 254 f.). He was presumably the procos. Asiae who in 27 or shortly after enacted a decree of the consuls Agrippa [1] and Augustus in Cyme [3] [1]. Attribution of other procos. named V. in inscriptions is uncertain [2]. If AE 1988,20 refers to him he must still have been alive in 17 BC. V. [II 1] was his son. Bartels, Jens (…


(1,168 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Common given name of Oscan or Umbrian origin not used by the Roman upper class (abbreviated in inscriptions as Sa. or Sal.), later appears as a nomen gentile; also a slave name. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Era [German version] [I 1] Slave leader (Slave leader) see Tryphon [2]. Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] Centurion named only by Plutarch as one of Pompeius' murderers Centurion named only in Plut. Pompeius 78,1 and 79,4 as one of Pompey's murderers. Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [I 3] Freedman and probable agent of Caesar Freedman probably active as …


(25 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
[German version] From 56 BC (Cic. Ad Q. Fr. 2,3,7) wife of T. Pomponius [I 5] Atticus, mother of Caecilia [2]. Bartels, Jens (Bonn)

Verres, C.

(1,096 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
[German version] ( c.115-43 BC), son of the senator C. V. († c. 71 BC) and probably one Tadia. Nearly all information about V. derives from Cicero’s speeches in 70, during V.’ trial (Cic. Div. Caec.; Cic. Verr. 1; 2), and, in view of this context, is accordingly to be treated with great caution. Apart from the usual accusations, such as a passion for gambling, consorting with prostitutes and prostituting himself ( ibid. 2,1,32 f.; 2,5,33 f.), virtually nothing is known of his youth. V. was married to Vettia, sister of his later quaestor T. Vettius and of P. Vettius [I 2] Chilo. In 84 BC, V. was q…


(6,399 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Et al.
Name of a Roman family. According to tradition, its members of the 5th cent. BC (Atratini, S. [I 3-8]) are supposed to have been patricians and champions of patrician privileges (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 10,41,5; 10,42,3), an assumption that may have been a retrospective invention (the Sempronii only became patricians under Caesar or Augustus); in the historical period, we know only of plebeian branches of the family during the Republic (Asellio, Blaesus, Gracchus, Longus, Tuditanus) who played an important role in the 3rd and 2nd cents. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period …


(949 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
(In an older form also Peinarius, CIL I2 1357; 2469f.). Name of a patrician gens. According to tradition, they maintained a cult for Hercules at the Ara Maxima together with the Potitii (further evidence there). Hercules himself - or Evander [1] - is said to have transferred the cult to them at an extremely early time. The derivation of the name from πεινᾶν ( peinân, 'starve') is a scholarly construction based on the P. having had the smaller share in the sacrifices for Hercules (Serv. Aen. 8,270, i.a.). The family was also traced back to Pinus, the ostensib…


(71 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
Italic nomen gentile derived from the Umbri people (Schulze, 257; 523). [German version] [1] U., P. Freed slave whose former business activities had made him familiar with Gaul, and because of this in 63 BC he was supposed to win the Allobroges over to Catilina (Cic. Catil. 3,14; Sall. Catil. 40). When the Senate resolved he should be executed he took to flight (Sall. Catil. 50,4). Bartels, Jens (Bonn)


(772 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] V., P. Ancestor of V. [I 2] from Reate, who was told of a victory over Perseus [2] in a dream in 168 BC (Cic. Nat. D. 2,6; 3,13; Val. Max. 1,8,1). Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] V., P. Born c. 95 BC, d. after 42 BC. Presumably from Reate (Cic. Nat. D. 2,6 on V. [I 1]), V. achieved a political rise in Rome under the patronage of the Iulii Caesares: since he was married (schol. Bobiensia 149 St.) to Antonia, a niece of L. Iulius [I 6] Caesar, the latter as consul in 64 may have sponsored…


(234 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
[German version] [1] V. Tullus, C. Recorded in 53-48 BC as a junior officer of Caesar (Caes. B Gall. 6,29,3: adulescentem; 8,46,4(?); Caes. B Civ. 3,52,2). Brother or cousin of V. [3]. Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [2] V. Tullus, L. (before 109 - after 46 BC). Although he failed to be elected aedile, in 66, V. succeeded in gaining a consulship (Cic. Planc. 51);during his year of office, his most memorable deed appears to have been his rejection of Catilina's candidacy for a consulship (Sall. Catil. 18,3). In 56, he spoke up for…
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