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Malchus

(686 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
(* Mlk =‘ king; Greek Μάλκος, Málkos; Latin Malchus, Maleus, Mazeus). [German version] [1] Carthaginian, father of Carthalo Carthaginian, father of Carthalo [1]. Historicity and interpretation of the only source text concerning M. as first historically tangible personality of Carthage in Iustin (18,7; cf. Oros. 4,6,6-9) are frequently and vehemently contested to the present day, beginning with the titular character of his name and his place in the chronology of the (early?) 6th cent. BC. M. is supposed to have fo…

Hyrcanus

(581 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main)
Epithet of Jews, after  Hyrcania on the Caspian Sea, introduced by repatriates from the diaspora there. [German version] [1] Around 200 BC Son of the Ptolemaic general tax leaseholder of Coile Syria and Phoenicia, Josephus, from the Jewish magnate family of the Tobiads. After the conquest of Ptolemaic Syria by  Antiochus [5] III in the year 200 BC he retreated to Trans-Jordan, where his grandfather Tobias had founded the family's position of power as commander of the Jewish military settlers. H. presumably kept a pro…

Aristobulus

(1,172 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Ἀριστόβουλος; Aristóboulos). [German version] [1] Judas A. I., High Priest 104-103 BC Judas A. I, son and successor of John  Hyrcanus, High Priest in 104-103 BC, had his mother and brother incarcerated or killed to secure his rule. This and his philhellenic leanings determined his negative image in Jewish tradition. The claim of Josephus that he took on the title of king is thrown into doubt by (rare) coins with the Hebrew legend: ‘Judas the High Priest and the Council of Elders of the Jews’. During his ca…

Malichus

(118 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (Μάλιχος; Málichos, variant form: Malchus, Μάλχος; Málchos). Confidant and secret rival of Antipater [4], whom he served in 57 BC as a unit commander against the Hasmonaean prince Alexander (Jos. BI 1,162; Jos. Ant. Iud. 14,84), and in 43 during the levy of the tribute demanded by C. Cassius [I 10], murderer of Caesar (Jos. BI 1,220; Jos. Ant. Iud. 14,273-276). In the same year, he had Antipater poisoned (Jos. BI 1,226; Jos. Ant. Iud. 14,281), but fell prey to the vengeance of his victim's son, Herodes [1] the Great (Jos. BI 1,234; Jos. Ant. Iud. 14,288-293). Bringmann, Klaus…

Herodes

(2,828 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Ἡρῴδης; Hērṓidēs). [German version] [1] H. I.; Herod the Great. Born in c. 73 BC, son of  Antipater [4] and the Arabian woman Cyprus. In 47 appointed strategos of Galilaea, he came into conflict with the Sanhedrin of Jerusalem because of the execution on his own authority of persons involved in a revolt. The Roman governor of Syria Sex.  Iulius [I 11] Caesar made him the strategos of Coilesyria and Samaria. In 43 he proved himself to be indispensable to one of the murderers of Caesar, C.  Cassius [I 10], in the exploitation of the land, likewise in 41 after …

Papirius

(3,269 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Et al.
Roman nomen gentile, in its older form, Papisius (Cic. Fam. 9,21,3), from which one of the 16 old rural tribes ( tribus ) took its name. The patrician gens formed several branches at an early time (5th/4th cents. BC: Crassi, Cursores, Mugillani, 3rd cent.: Masones) who played a significant role in the military successes of the Republic, but became either extinct no later than the 2nd cent. BC or politically insignificant. The younger plebeian branch of the Carbones rose in the 2nd half of the 2nd cent. and gained notoriety…

Antipater

(2,083 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
[German version] [1] Macedonian commander (320-319 BC) Son of Iolaus,  399/398 BC, was certainly already active militarily and diplomatically under  Philippus and under his father  Amyntas and brothers. He was especially connected with  Alexander [4] and secured his throne after the murder of Philippus. During Alexander's invasion in Asia he remained with half of the Macedonian army as governor of Europe. He monitored Greece and sent mercenaries and Macedonian contingents during the first year of the …

Gemellus

(150 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Friend of king Herod I, entrusted with political and diplomatic commisions Friend of King Herod I. Entrusted with political and diplomatic commissions and with the education of Alexander, the eldest son of the king of Mariamme, he accompanied him in 23 BC to Rome for five years. When in 14 BC Herod began to distrust his son, G. fell from grace (Jos. Ant. Iud. 16,241-243). Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] Accompanied his father Anatolius, the governor, AD 361 to Phoenicia Son of Anatolius, Cilician, brother of Apolinarius, with whom he …

Antigonus

(1,768 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Et al.
(Ἀντίγονος; Antígonos). [German version] [1] Monophthalmus Diadoch (‘The One-eyed’), 382-301 BC.  Hetairos of  Philippus and  Alexander [4], married to  Stratonice, was the father of  Demetrius. During Alexander's invasion of Asia, commander of the Greek hoplites, satrap of Greater Phrygia from 333 until Alexander's death [323]. He defeated rebels and remnants of Persian troops, he gained Lycaonia and in 331 he received in addition the administration of Lycia-Pamphylia. In Priene he was honoured for an achievement, the nature of which is unknown. (IPriene 2). After Alexander's…

Mattathias

(82 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (Hebr. mattityah), from Modeïn, a member the Jewish Joarib class of priests, clan father of the Hasmoneans. M. resisted the religious edict of Antiochus [6] IV. Joined by the pious ones (Greek Ἀσιδαῖοι/ Asidaîoi, Hebr. Ḥasīdīm), who had also fled into the Judaean desert, he began a guerilla war against the Jewish loyalists. After his death (167/166 BC) his son Judas [1] Maccabaeus became the leader of the Jewish rebellion (1 Macc 2,1-70). Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography Schürer, vol. 1.

Tetrarches, Tetrarchia

(1,200 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Burckhardt, Leonhard (Basle) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
(τετράρχης/ tetrárchēs, τετραρχία/ tetrarchía). [German version] I. Definition The noun tetrarches (from τετράς/ tetrás = 'entity of four parts' and ἄρχειν/ árchein = 'rule') designates a military rank, but specifically the head of a tribal area within a fourfold alliance ( tetrás or tetrarchía); subsequently a ruler of lesser rank (see below III.). The two meanings were brought together at the time of Diocletian, so that the term now meant rule in four parts of the Roman Empire, but with differentiated competencies for each ruler (see below IV.). Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) …

Cicero

(4,825 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Leonhardt, Jürgen (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] I. Historic M. Tullius C., born on 3 January 106 BC in  Arpinum. The Tullii Cicerones maintained manifold relations with the Roman urban aristocracy. They enabled C. to prepare for a public career in close association with the most important speakers of his time, L. Licinius Crassus ( cos. 95) and M. Antony ( cos. 99), as well as the leading authorities in civil and sacred law, Mucius Scaevola Augur and Mucius Scaevola Pontifex. The Social Wars and the subsequent civil war turmoil kept C. away from the forum. He was initiated into co…

Judas

(534 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Domhardt, Yvonne (Zürich)
[German version] [1] J. Maccabaeus Son of Mattathias, leader of rebels in the 2nd cent. BC (The epithet probably from Hebrew maqqaebaet, ‘the hammer’, owing to military success). Third son of the priest Mattathias ( Hasmonean), in 167/166 BC he took over leadership of the Jewish rebels who rose against the desecration of the Temple in Jerusalem, the ban on the Jewish religion and the pressure of taxation under  Antiochus IV [6]. J. proved himself to be a master of guerrilla tactics and politics as well as a charisma…

Alexandra Salome

(129 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] 140-67 BC, first married to  Aristoboulus [1] I, then in her second marriage to  Alexander Iannaeus [II 16], succeeded him on the throne in 76 and named her son  Hyrcanus II high priest. She ended the inherited conflict with the  Pharisees and made them participate in the government. Their intent to execute the advisors of Alexander Iannaeus was hindered by the intervention of the Jerusalem aristocracy. She was protected from the expansion plans of  Tigranes I of Armenia through m…

Iulius

(18,763 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Liebermann, Wolf-Lüder (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Et al.
Name of an old patrician family, probably connected with the name of the god  Jupiter [1. 281; 2. 729]. The gens was one of the so-called ‘Trojan families’, who were said to have moved from Alba Longa to Rome under king Tullus Hostilius [I 4] (see below). The Iulii were prominent in the 5th and 4th cents. BC. Their connection to the family branch of the Caesares, which rose to prominence from the 3rd cent. and whose outstanding member was the dictator  Caesar (with family tree), is unclear. Caesar's adoptive son,…

Diogenes

(4,653 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
(Διογένης; Diogénēs). Known personalities: the Cynic D. [14] of Sinope, the philosophical historian D. [17] Laertius. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] Macedonian troop commander in Attica since 233 BC Athenian (?) [1. 341,1], Macedonian troop commander in Attica since 233 BC, who is supposed to have demanded Corinth from the Achaeans (Plut. Arat. 34,1-4) [2. 168,63] at the rumour of the death of  Aratus [2]; after the death of  Demetrius [3] II in 229, he facilitated the liberation of Athens from Maced…

Iosephus

(1,520 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
(Ἰώσηπ(π)ος; Iṓsēp(p)os, Ιώσηφ(ος); Iṓsēph(os)). From Hebrew yosep yosipyah ‘may God add (further children)’, a prevalent Jewish name in memory of the biblical patriarch Joseph (Gen. 35; 37-50), e.g. in the Herodian family. [German version] [1] Uncle and brother-in-law of Herod [1] the Gr. Uncle and brother-in-law of  Herod [1]  the Great (Jos. Ant. Iud. 15,65; 81). He acted as his deputy for the duration of Herod's journey to M.  Antonius [I 9] in 34 BC. He became involved in the intrigues surrounding Queen  Mariamme, his wife Salome pr…

Aretas

(562 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main)
(epigraphically hritt = Haritat, Greek Ἀρέτας; Arétas, also Ἀρέθας; Aréthas). Name of several rulers of the Arabian  Nabataeans. [German version] [1] I. King of the Nabataeans (1st half 2nd cent. BC) A. I, mentioned in the oldest Nabataean inscription as ‘king of the Nabataeans’ [1. 545 f.], is probably identical to the A., ‘tyrant of the Arabs’, mentioned in 2 Macc 5,8, with whom the deposed Jewish High Priest  Jason vainly sought refuge after his failed attempt on Jerusalem in 168 BC. Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] II. (Herotimos) King of the Nabataeans…

Iustus

(481 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] [1] Imperator Caesar C.P. Niger Iustus Augustus, Roman emperor 193-194 AD, see Pescennius see  Pescennius Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] I. of Tiberias Jew. historian, 1st cent. AD Jewish historian of the 1st cent. AD, wrote a ‘Jewish War’ (66-70/74), in which he dealt critically with the work of the same name by  Josephus [4] Flavius (this made Josephus write a retort in his autobiography: Vita 65), and a chronological-genealogical work on Jewish kings from Moses to  Iulius [II 5] Agrippa II. This work, which appears to…
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