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Malchus

(686 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
(* Mlk =‘ king; Greek Μάλκος, Málkos; Latin Malchus, Maleus, Mazeus). [German version] [1] Carthaginian, father of Carthalo Carthaginian, father of Carthalo [1]. Historicity and interpretation of the only source text concerning M. as first historically tangible personality of Carthage in Iustin (18,7; cf. Oros. 4,6,6-9) are frequently and vehemently contested to the present day, beginning with the titular character of his name and his place in the chronology of the (early?) 6th cent. BC. M. is supposed to have fo…

Lycus

(2,142 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Λύκος; Lýkos). Mythology and religion: L. [1-9], historical persons: L. [10-13], rivers: L. [14-19]. [German version] [1] Son of Poseidon and the Pleiad Celaeno Son of Poseidon and the Pleiad Celaeno [1] (Ps.-Eratosth. Katasterismoi 23), only Apollod. 3,111 mentions his translation to the Islands of the Blessed, possibly to differentiate him from L. [6], with whom he is connected by Hyg. Fab. 31, 76 and 157 in spite of the descent from Poseidon. Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Son of Prometheus and Celaeno Son of Prometheus and Celaeno [1], on whose tomb in th…

Machanidas

(131 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Μαχανίδας/ Machanídas, cf. Syll.3 551). As the guardian of Pelops, dictator in Sparta from 211(?) to 207 BC (Liv. 27,29,9: tyrannus Lacedaemoniorum; [1. 408; 2. 65]); active opponent of the Achaeans who were allied with Philippus V in the First Macedonian War; conquered Tegea in 209 and attacked Argus as well as Elis in 208 during the Olympic Peace, but was defeated in the battle of Mantinaea (late summer 207; Pol. 11,11-18; Plut. Philopoemen 10; [2. 66]). M. was killed on the edge of the battlefield…

Astymedes

(122 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] Rhodian, son of the nauarch Theaedeton (Inscr. Lindos 216f) [1. 1524; 2. 18825], supported Rhodian military aid in the 3rd Macedonian war as a representative of the friends of Rome (Pol. 27,7,3) [2. 187; 3. 183], in 167-166 BC he defended Rhodes' stance in Rome with explanations that were sharply criticized by Polybius (30,4-5,22; Liv. 45,22-24; Diod. Sic. 31,5,1) [1. 22-23, 153; 2. 206; 3. 197], but only regained amicitia in 164 with a more humble speech (Pol. 31,6,1. 7) [1. 160-161; 3. 205-211]. As a nauarch in the Rhodian-Cretan war he on…

Halcyoneus

(53 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ἁλκυονεύς/ Halkyoneús or Ἀλκυονεύς/ Alkyoneús). Son of  Antigonus [2] Gonatas, to whom he brought the head of his fallen archrival  Pyrrhus in Argos in 272 BC; rebuked by his father as a barbarian, H. treated Pyrrhus' son Helenus honourably (Plut. Pyrrhus 34; Plut. Mor. 119C; Ael. VH 3,5). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)

Leontius

(1,073 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Et al.
(Λεόντιος; Leóntios). [German version] [1] Ptolemaic commander of Seleucid Pieria, late 3rd cent. BC Ptolemaic commander of Seleucea Pieria; in 219 BC, he surrendered the city to Antiochus [5] III after initial resistance in a hopeless position. Ameling, Walter (Jena) [German version] [2] General of peltasts, 3rd cent. BC Macedonian, named general of peltasts by Antigonus [3] Doson in his will. Together with Megaleas, L. opposed the pro-Achaean politics of Philippus V and his mentor Aratus [2]; after inciting the elite troops against the k…

Morzius

(86 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Μόρζιος; Mórzios) of Gangra, prince of (south) Paphlagonia (Str. 12,562,41). As an alleged ally of Antiochus [5] III, like Ariarathes IV of Cappadocia, M. supported the Celts against Cn. Manlius [I 24] Vulso (Liv. 38,26,4) in 189 BC. Around 182/180 Pharnaces of Pontus plundered M.'s territory and in 179 had to pay him compensation as part of the peace treaty with the main enemy, Eumenes [3] II of Pergamon (Pol. 25,2,5;9). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography J. Hopp, Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der letzten Attaliden, 1977, 46.

Mago

(1,896 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ruffing, Kai (Münster) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
(* Mgn = ‘(god's) gift’; Greek Μάγων; Mágōn). [German version] [1] Carthaginian king (?), 2nd half 6th cent. BC Carthaginian, leading figure (king?) in the 2nd half of the 6th cent. BC; successor of Malchus [1], efficient promoter of Carthaginian power (Iust. 18,7,19; 19,1,1; [1. 173f.; 2. 475f.]), to whom a great army reform with the goal of the deployment of mercenaries is erroneously attributed [3. 184-187]. As father (?) of Hamilcar [1] and Hasdrubal (Iust. 19,1,2), M. is considered the ancestor of the Magonid…

Mandonius

(134 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] Iberian. Like his brother Indibilis, together with whom he is mostly mentioned, he was a prince of the Ilergetes; in the 2nd Punic War he changed sides several times as an ally initially of the Carthaginians and then of the Romans: he joined P. Cornelius [I 71] Scipio in 208 BC, because of the good treatment the latter had given to M.'s wife and relatives who had been taken hostage (Pol. 10,18,7-15; 35,6-8; Liv. 26,49,11-16; 27,17,3). Later he was received back into the alliance w…

Sufetes

(140 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Punic sptm = 'judge'; Latin sufetes). Highest-ranking functionaries of the civil administration in Punic and probably also in Libyan and Sardo-Punic cities [1. 461, 467 note 7, 470, 473 note 58]. From at least the 6th cent. BC, sufetes are also attested in Carthage [1. 458-460; 2. 69 note 10], where (instead of the usual two) there is occasionally evidence of four sufetes. In addition to certain religious duties, it fell to the sufetes to control judicial and financial affairs and pre…

Micythion

(132 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Μικυθίων; Mikythíōn) from Chalcis [2], son of Mikylion (Syll.3 585, 235f.), an influential friend of the Romans, who in the years 198-192 BC stopped a pro-Aetolian or a pro-Seleucid movement in Chalcis but then had to flee before the Seleucid king Antiochus [5] III. (Liv. 35,38,1-12; 46,9-13; 50,10; 51,4; 6; Diod. 29,1) [1. 81-84; 130]. He returned after the Roman victory and continued to be part of the principes (compare IG XII 9,904).In 179/8 BC he acted as próxenos in Delphi (Syll.3 585,235f.). In 170 BC, in spite of his great age and difficulty in walking…

Diaeus

(208 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Δίαιος; Díaios) of Megalopolis; a radical opponent of Rome, strategos of the Achaeans in 150/49, 148/7, and 146 BC. In 146 BC, D., together with  Critolaus led the league into catastrophe (Pol. 38,10,8; 18,7-12) [1. 127, 228]. Following a dispute with Menalcidas of Sparta over bribery and capital jurisdiction, D. travelled to Rome in 149/8, where the former had fled; the Senate, however, did not come to any decision (Paus. 7,11-12) [1. 220-222]. After an Achaean-Spartan passage at arms, M…

Zeuxippus

(402 words)

Author(s): Börm, Henning (Kiel) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Ζεύξιππος/ Zeúxippos). [German version] [1] Father of Cyclops Father of Cyclops and ancestor of the Attic hero Myrmex [1]. Börm, Henning (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Apollo and the Nymph Syllis Another Z., son of Apollo and the Nymph Syllis, successor to the emigré king Phaestus [1] of Sicyon (Paus. 7,6,7). Börm, Henning (Kiel) [German version] [3] Legendary king and founder of Byzantium Legendary king, of indeterminable period, who has been presented since the time of Iohannes Lydus [3] ( c. AD 500) as the founder of Byzantium [1. 261] and who also appears in apocalyp…

Timoxenus

(144 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Τιμόξενος/ Timóxenos). [German version] [1] Strategos of the Achaean League, 3rd cent. BC Achaean, political friend of Aratus [2], several times  stratēgós of the Achaean League (Achaeans): in 225/4 BC and/or 224/3 (Pol. 2,53,2; Plut. Kleomenes 20,8; Plut. Aratos 38,3; cf. [1. 254 f.; 2. 149]), 221/0 (Pol. 4,6,4; Plut. Aratos 47,3) and 216/5 (Pol. 5,106,1). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 F. W. Walbank, A Historical Commentary on Polybius, vol. 1, 1970 2 R. Urban, Wachstum und Krise des Achäischen Bundes von 280 bis 222 v. Chr., 1979. [German version] [2] Athen…

Morcus

(59 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Μόρκος/ Mórkos). Illyrian. In 169 BC, he and Parmenion were sent to Dion as envoys from Genthius to Perseus to conclude the Illyrian-Macedonian alliance against Rome. In 168 BC, he took part in Metrodorus's [4] negotiations on Rhodes (Pol. 29,3,9; 29,11,1-6; Liv. 44,23,4f.). Macedonian Wars Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography E. Olshausen, Prosopographie der hellenistischen Königsgesandten, 1974, 281f.

Agelaus

(362 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Ἀγέλαος; Agélaos). A suggestive hero name (‘leader of the warring people’): [German version] [1] Figure from the Iliad: Greek, whom Hector kills Greek, whom Hector kills (Hom. Il. 11,302). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Figure from the Iliad: Greek, whom Diomedes kills Trojan, whom Diomedes kills (Hom. Il. 8,257). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [3] Figure of Greek myth: Son of Hercules and Omphale Son of Hercules and Omphale, progenitor of the Lydian kings (Apollod. 2,165). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [4] Figure of Greek myth: Son o…

Critolaus

(280 words)

Author(s): Sharples, Robert (London) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Κριτόλαος). [German version] [1] Of Phaselis, peripatetic head of school of Phaselis, peripatetic head of a school in the 1st half of the 3rd cent. BC [1; 2] and one of the most important peripatetic philosophers of the period between  Straton and  Andronicus [4] (Testimonies in [3]). He accompanied  Carneades and  Diogenes [15] of Babylon in 156/5 BC in the philosphers' delegation to Rome. C. defended the Aristotelian theories of the eternity of the World and the fifth element (of which he assumed the s…

Acesimbrotus

(57 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ἀκεσίμβροτος; Akesímbrotos, Latin Acesimbrotus). Rhodian nauarch in the second Macedonian War, in 199 BC supported the Romans with 20 ships at the conquest of Oreos (Liv. 31,46,6; 47,2) and represented Rhodian interests 198/7 in the negotiations between  Flamininus and  Philip V (Pol. 18,1,4; 2,3) [1. 70]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 H. H. Schmitt, Rom und Rhodos, 1957.

Barcids

(206 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Βαρκαῖοι; Barkaîoi). Relatives of  Hamilcar Barcas (Punic hbrq, brk:, Greek Βάρκας, Lat. Barcas, Boccor) ‘Lightning’ [1. 220-221], one of the most prominent families of Carthage, which traced itself back to  Dido (Sil. Pun. 1,71-77) [1.76]. From 237 BC Hamilcar provided the B. with a solid power base, after the (re-?) conquest of Hispania [2. 271-273; 3. 26]; until the withdrawal of  Mago, the last Carthaginian general of Iberia, in the year 206 (Liv. 28,36-37; App. Hisp. 37,151) [3. 40…

Cleuas

(53 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Κλεύας; Kleúas). Macedonian officer of  Perseus; as garrison commander of  Phanote (Epeirus) in the year 169 BC equally successful against Ap.  Claudius [I 4] Centho as subsequently at  Antigonea [4], where C. jointly with the Epirote general Philostratus forced the Romans back to Illyria (Liv. 43,21,5; 23,1-5). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
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