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Munda

(195 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
Iberian [1] name of two cities. [German version] [1] City in southern Spain This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Hispania, Iberia City in southern Spain, modern-day Montilla near Córdoba (Bell. Hisp. 30ff. [2]; Plin. HN 3,12). Scene of two ancient battles: It was there that Cn. Cornelius [I 77] Scipio defeated the Carthaginians (Liv. 24,42,1-4) in 214 BC; in 45 BC Caesar defeated the Pompeians there. The latter occasion probably marked the final destruction of M. (Bell. Hisp. 41). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) [German version] [2] City in Celtiberia City in Celtiberia, con…

Olcades

(86 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian people in the region of modern Alcoy, north of Alicante in southeastern Spain, with a centre in Althaea or Cartana (Pol. 3,13f.; 33,9; Liv. 21,5; site unknown); subjugated by Hannibal [4] straight after he was appointed strategos in 221 BC. In 219 the O. sent troops to Africa to secure the Libyan coast. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography P. Barceló, Hannibal, 1998, 35  G.V. Sumner, Roman Policy in Spain before the Hannibalic War, in: HSPh 72, 1967, 205-246, esp. 215f.  Tovar 2, 94f.

Segisamo

(64 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Station on the road from Tarraco to Asturica at modern Sasamón (Str. 3,4,13; Plin. HN 3,26; Ptol. 2,6,50; CIL II Suppl. p. 932 f.). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography P. Barceló, Das kantabrische Gebirge im Altertum, in: E. Olshausen, H. Sonnabend (eds.), Gebirgsland als Lebensraum (Geographica Historica 8), 1996, 53-61, plate XIX  F. J. Lomas Salmonte, Asturia prerromana y altoimperial, 1989, 87  TIR K 30 Madrid, 1993, 207 f.

Ilorci

(78 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian town in the area of the upper  Baetis, with the tomb of one of the two Scipios who fell in 211 BC, probably Cn. Scipio (Plin. HN 3,25). The equation of I. with the modern Lorca (province of Murcia) is disputed. CIL II p. 476. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography A. Schulten (ed.), Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 3, 1935, 91 J. B. Keune, s.v. I., RE Suppl. 3, 1229 G. Alföldy, Röm. Städtewesen auf der neukastilischen Hochebene, 1981, 38.

Cantabri

(147 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Alongside the  Astures, the C. were the most important tribe of the Spanish Atlantic coastal region. The main income of this tribe, which was split up into various groups, was derived from breeding cattle in the mountainous regions of the modern districts of Asturia and Santander; arable farming was very much of secondary importance only. Food shortages in the mountains may have been the motivation for the C.'s raids on the  Vaccaei, who settled in the fertile Duero valley. The C.…

Suessetani

(76 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian tribe (Liv. 25,34,6; 28,24,4; 34,20,1 on events in the years 210 to 184 BC; Plin. HN 3,24: 'Suessetania') between the Iberus [1] (Ebro) and the Pyrenees [2], between Vascones in the west, Sedetani in the south and Lacetani in the east; Corbio [2] (location unknown) was one of its settlement centres (Liv. 39,42,1). The S. may have been identical with the Cessetani. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography TIR K 30 Madrid, 1993, 215.

Italica

(247 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae | Hispania, Iberia City near Santiponce in the vicinity of Seville. Founded in 206 BC by P. Cornelius Scipio and settled with veterans (App. Hisp. 38) as a vicus civium Romanorum (CIL II 1119). From the time of Caesar, I. appears as a municipium (Bell. Alex. 52,4; coins), from the time of Hadrian (AD 117-138) as a colonia (Gell. NA 16,13,4; CIL II 1135; XI 2699; XII 1856). I. was the home of the emperors Trajan and Hadrian, but probably not that of the poet Silius Italicus. The legio VII (CIL II 1125f.) and the cohors III Gallica

Gerunda

(149 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Pyrenean peninsula (modern Gerona). The place name is probably Iberian (an almost complete collection of toponymical evidence in [1. 2015]). It is debatable whether the Iberian coins with Krsa (?) on it refer to G. [2. 81]. The place is frequently mentioned in inscriptions (CIL II p. 614; Suppl. p. 1145). According to Plin. HN 3,23, G. was an oppidum civium Latinorum. In the Christian period G. played a role as the city of the martyr Felix (died during the reign of Diocletian; Prudent. 4,2…

Il(l)urco

(74 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pyrenean peninsula Iberian town in the province of  Hispania Baetica, modern Pinos Puente near Illora la Vieja west of Granada (Plin. HN 3,10). Its location is certain from inscriptions (CIL II p. 284; Suppl. p. 1147). Coins [1. 107f.; 2. 1234]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 A. Vives, La moneda hispánica 3, 1924 2 J. B. Keune, s.v. I., RE Suppl. 3, 1233-1235. Tovar 1, 136; 3, 163ff.

Berones

(41 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Celtic tribe on the middle Iberus in La Rioja. Their most important towns were Tricio, Oliba and  Vareia (Liv. fr. 91: validissima urbs). Sertorius occupied the tribe's territory in 76 BC. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 77-78.

Tagonius

(50 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] River in the territory of the Carpetani (Plut. Sertorius 17,2), modern Tajuña. It rises in the extreme east of the Sierra de Guadalajara at Maranchón, flows past Caracca and into the Tagus (Tajo) on its right side. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography TIR K 30 Madrid, 1993, 216.

Lauro

(211 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] City between Saguntum and Valentia Iberian [1] city between Saguntum and Valentia on the hill of La Pedrera [2; 3]; the settlement from the Roman period lies somewhat to its west on the site of modern Puig. L. was destroyed in the battles between Pompey and Sertorius (Plut. Sertorius 18, Plut. Pompey 18; App. B Civ. 1,109; Frontin. Str. 2,5,31; Oros. 5,23,6f.). Mentioned by Plin. HN 14,71 because of its excellent wine. Coins [4], inscription CIL II 3875, XV 4577f. Viticulture Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 2, 163 2 C. Konrad, Plutarch's Sertorius. A H…

Munigua

(173 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Town in southern Spain (Sierra Morena) near modern Villanueva de las Minas in the province of Seville (the form of the name has been deduced from municipium [ Flavium] Muniguense, CIL II 1049-1051 [2]), modern Castillo de Mulva. Probably an Iberian [1] place name. Under Vespasian (AD 69-79) municipium; M. had a special official to apply municipal rights, known as the promotor (?) iuris Latini (CIL II 1052). In the 2nd cent., M. became a prosperous mining town with a large terraced sanctuary (emperor cult?) [3; 4]. Around AD 300, M. was abandon…

Arbucale

(106 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Described in Pol. 3,14,1 (cf. Liv. 21,5,6) as a city of the  Vaccaei (in the provinces of Segovia and Salamanca) [1. 98]. Further references in [2]. Its location is unknown: Toro and Alba de Tormes are considered as possibilities [1. 323]. In 220 BC, after putting up a strong resistance, the city had to surrender to  Hannibal. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Tovar 3, 1989 2 E. Hübner, s. v. A., RE 2,1, 420-421. R. Martin Valls, G. Delibes de Castro, Toro ciudad celtibérica, in: Boletín del Seminario de Estudios de Arte y Arqueologia 43, 1977, 306 ff. F. Wattemb…

Segobriga

(102 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] Ibero-Roman city Ibero-Roman city (Str. 3,4,13: Σεγοβρίγα/ Segobríga; Ptol. 2,6,56: Σεγουβία/ Segoubía; Plin. HN 3,25), Ruins - including an amphitheatre - on the Cabeza del Griego hill, 2 Roman miles to the south of Saelices (province of Cuenca). S. was a member of the  conventus of Carthago Nova (CIL II 4252). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) [German version] [2] Bishopric at Castellón Bishopric at Castellón, suffragan to Tarragona, later to Cartagena, modern Segorbe [1]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 M. Almagro, Historía de Albarracín y su sierra…

Complutum

(106 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity Celtiberian town, whose location near Alcalá de Henares was determined from ruins and inscriptions (CIL II p. 410; Suppl. p. 941). The name of C. is probably Iberian according to Holder [1. 1087] but Roman according to Hübner [2. 795] (‘City of Rain’). Its inhabitants belonged to the  Carpetani (Ptol. Geog. 2,6,56). C. only became important in the Christian period (Paul. Nol. 31,607; Prudent 4,41ff.; Chron. min. 3,648), especially as a diocesan town [3. 444]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 1 2…

Durius

(178 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] The modern river Duero (Span.; Portug. Douro). The pre-Celtic name is D. (Sil. Pun. 1,438; 5,323; [1. 1380]), possibly with variant Duris (CIL II 2370). All references (Str. 3,3,2; 4; 6; 3,4,12; 20; Mela 3,8; 10; Plin. HN 4,112f.; 115) indicate that its course was the same in antiquity as it is today. That it was navigable by large vessels for 800 stadia upstream (Str. 3,3,4) is still true today: from its mouth to Barca d'Alva; sailing even small boats on its upper course is today not possible, where…

Oretani

(147 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Celtic Iberian tribe in the area of the middle and upper Guadiana and on the northern slope of the Sierra Morena ( Oretana iuga, Plin. HN 3,6), with their centre in Oretum, 33 km west of Valdepeñas on the Jabalón [1; 2]. They were first mentioned as troops sent to Africa by Hannibal [4] in 219 BC to secure Metagonia and Carthage (Ὀρῆτες Ἴβηρες/ Orêtes Íbēres, Pol. 3,33,9, possibly to differentiate them from the Ωρητανοί/ Ōrētanoí, Ptol. 2,6,58, or O. Germani, Plin. HN 3,25 [3. 29721]) who lived in the sa…

Limia

(125 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Coastal river south of Miño, modern Lima. According to [1], the name is Celtic. Ancient references: ‘Millia and Oblivio’, Mela 3,10; ‘Lethe’, Sil. Pun. 1,236; 16,476; ‘Oblivio’, Flor. Epit. 1,33,48; ‘L., Limaea and Aeminius’, Plin. HN 4,112; 115; Λίμιος, Ptol. 2,6,1; Λιμαία, Λήθης and Βελιών, Str. 3,3,4f.; Λήθης, App. Hisp. 301; 304. Explanations of the diversity of names are given by [2]; suppositions of a city L. and the residents of the river, the Lusitanian Limici, in [4]; on the sources in [3]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder, s.v. L. 2 Schulten, Landeskunde 1, 353f. 3 A. Schulten, Fontes H…

Hispania Baetica, Hispania Ulterior

(134 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] The beginnings of the province Hispania Baetica (HB) are linked to Augustus' restructuring of the provinces in 27 BC (Cass. Dio 80,2). The earliest document naming HB is an inscription in the Forum Augustum in Rome (ILS 103). From the 2nd cent. AD, HB was named Baetica Provincia or Hispania Baetica (ILS 269). The borders of HB are the Anas (Guadiana) in the west, the Sierra Morena in the north, and the Atlantic and the Mediterranean in the south. The capital of this senatorial province was  Corduba.  Lusitania Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography C. Castillo Garcia, Städte und Personen der Baetica, in: ANRW II 3, 1975, 601-654 J. M. Blázquez et al., Historia de España Antigua II, 1978 C. Ames, Unt. zu den Religion in der Baetica in röm. Zeit, thesis 1998.

Boletum

(45 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] City known to us only through inscriptions (CIL II 5843; 5845), probably located near Barbastro/Hispania Tarraconensis. The place name Boletania lasted beyond the Middle Ages; Arab geographers wrote Bortana, which has survived as today's Boltaña. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 384f.

Rubricatum flumen

(50 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] River flowing into the Mare Tyrrhenum  to the south of Barcino(na) in the territory of the Laietani (Mela 2,90; Plin. HN 3,21; Ptol. 2,6,18), modern Llobregat. Upstream is the city of Rhoubrikata (Ῥουβρικάτα; Ptol. 2,6,74), modern Rubí. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography TIR K/J 31 Tarraco, 1997, 134.

Complega

(55 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)

Lutia

(124 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Possibly modern Cantalucia near Osma in the Spanish province of Soria [1]. The name is presumably Iberian [2]. When in 134/3 BC the position of the fortress Numantia was besieged by the Romans and became untenable, the youth of L. was inclined to provide help to the Numantians who were in dire straits. But the elders betrayed this to Scipio, who hurried there and as punishment had the hands of 400 young men cut off (App. Hisp. 409-411). L. is mentioned on the bronze tablet of Luzaga as a member of an Arevacian league of cities and on coins (

Pompaelo

(95 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] City in the lands of the Vascones, modern Pamplona in Navarre, founded by Pompeius [I 3] (Str. 3,4,10: Πομπέλων ὡς ἂν Πομπηιόπολις/ Pompélōn hōs àn Pompēiópolis, 'Pompelon as if Pompeiopolis') in the winter of 75/4 BC during a war with Sertorius where the Tarraco-Oiasso (Str. l.c.) and Astorga-Roncevalles (It. Ant. 455,5) roads cross. Roman remains: street and drainage system, city wall, a macellum, building sites with mosaics, small finds. Inscriptions: CIL III 2958-2961. Episcopal see since the 6th cent. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 2,3, 1989, …

Althia

(69 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] According to Pol. 3,13,5, the mightiest city of the  Olcades in the upper Guadiana valley, conquered by  Hannibal in 220 BC. Liv. 21,5,4 calls the city Cartala. Its location remains unknown. There is little likelihood that the proposed [1. 216] identification with today's Altea (Alicante province) is valid. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 G. V. Sumner, Roman Policy in Spain before the Hannibalic War, in: HSPh 72,1968,205-246. Tovar 3, 1989,185.

Mentesa

(111 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
Name, possibly Iberian [1. 549], of two towns. [German version] [1] M. Bastitanorum (CIL II 3377f.; 3380), modern La Guardia, south east of Castulo (Plin. HN 3,9; 19; 25; It. Ant. 402,4). Mint and bisho…

Palma

(82 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Commerce | Hispania, Iberia City in Maiorica (modern Majorca), the largest of the Baliares Islands, founded in 122 BC after a victory over the local inhabitants by the consul Caecilius [I 19], subsequently Baliaricus, and named after the palm of victory (Str. 3,5,1; Mela 2,124; Plin. HN 3,77f.; Ptol. 2,6,78). It has the same name today. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 2,3, 1989, 277  TIR K/J 31 Tarraco, 1997, 117.

Cartima

(82 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Modern Cártama, province of Málaga. Iberian, according to [1. 1126] Celtiberian town; mainly epigraphically verified (CIL II 1949-1962; identical with Certima in Liv. 40,47,2?). In AD 53/54, it became a civitas libera (CIL II 1953: decemviri), under Vespasian a municipium civium Latinorum (CIL II 1956 and Suppl. 5488). According to inscriptions and extant remains (CIL II p. 248; Suppl. p. …

Lagni

(93 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)

Iberus

(162 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
(Hiberus). Name of two Spanish rivers, derived from the people of the same name, not - as ancient scholars (Plin. HN 3,21; Just. Epit. 44,1,2) believed - the other way around [1. 307-315]. [German version] [1] Modern Ebro Modern Ebro. All sources agree that the ancient I., with its tributaries, corresponds almost completely to the modern Ebro. The single difference: the ancient river was navigable (Plin. HN 3,21) as far as Vareia (modern Varea, east of Logroño), today only as far as Tortosa (other, newer views contradict this ident…

Numantia

(488 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Hispania, Iberia | Pyrenean peninsula City in northern central Spain at the confluence of the rivers Duero, Merdancho and Tera on a hill (Muela de Garray, 67 m above river level), 6 km from Soria (Castilla la Vieja plateau). It had been settled since the late Neolithic (about 2000 BC) and in the Bronze Age. The adjoining Iron Age settlement from about 850 BC bears all the hallmarks of the more recent Hallstatt Culture, particularly from the 5th cent. [3. vol. 2, 110-113, 225ff.]. In the 4th/3rd cents. BC the place was fortified. N. (probably a Celtic place name [2. 794]), the settlement of the Celtiberian Arevaci, is first mentioned in connexion with events in 195 BC (controlling the rebellions which had begun in 197), when the consul Cato [1] marched past on the return from Segontia (Gell. 16,1,3f.; Fest. 220,9; [3. vol. 1, 323f.; 4. vol. 2, 109, 133]). Since 180 there had been a peace treaty with Rome, which was broken in 154 by an uprising of the Celtiberi and Lusitani (Lusitania). As a consequence, N. was besieged b…

Hispal(is, Spalis)

(222 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | | Coloniae | Pyrenean peninsula Modern Seville. First mentioned as a base for Caesar's Spanish campaigns, but surely an ancient Iberian settlement; Phoenician origin has been assumed. H. belongs to the few cities that have retained their importance from antiquity until today. For antiquity this is attested by literary sources, inscriptions (CIL II Suppl. p. 1145f.) and coins [1]. Its importance is based on its geopolitically favourable locat…

Medobriga

(119 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] (or Medubriga; Celtic [1. 526] ‘Castle of Medus’). Town in Lusitania ( Lusitani), captured in 48 BC by Q. Cassius [I 16] Longinus, together with the H…

Clunia

(220 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | | Coloniae The important ruins of C. lie c. 40 km north-west of Uxama Argaela (now Osma near Coruña del Conde; CIL II p. 382). On Augustan coins the name is spelled Clounioq, later C. [2. 111ff.) and is probably Celtic ([1. 131]; a different view in [3. 1048]). C. played a part in the revolt by  Sertorius (75 BC: Liv. Per. 92; 72 BC: Exsuperantius 8; Flor. 2,10,9), in that of 55 BC (Cass. Dio 39,54) and that of  Galba in AD 68 (Suet. Galba 9,2;…

Ilerda

(181 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | | Pyrenean peninsula Ancient Iberian city on the Sicoris (modern Segre), modern Lérida (loss of the Iberian prefix I). Remains are mostly found above the modern city. Inscriptions: CIL II Suppl. p. 1146. Possibly already mentioned in Avien. 475. I. repeatedly played a role in Roman military history, especially in Caesar's battles with Pompey's legates. Augustus raised I. to the status of municipium (coins, Plin. HN 3,24). It is still mentioned several times in Ausonius (e.g. commemoratio professoru…

Caesaraugusta

(154 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | | Coloniae | Commerce | Pilgrimage Modern Zaragoza on the Iberus. Originally the likely location of the Iberian settlement of Saduia (Plin. HN 3,24: Salduba) in the tribal area of the Edetani (Ptol. 2,6,62). The Roman colony, founded under Augustus, developed into one of Spain's most important urban centres (cf. Mela 2,88; Str. 3,2,15; 4,10; 13). Important road junction. Possibly the garrison of the 10th legion up to the time of Nero. C. retained its importance into the late Roman period (Paul. Nol. Epist. 301; Prudent. Peristephanon 4,54). Bishops of C. attended the synods of Illiberis and Serdica, and also numerous Spanish councils. Franks and later Visigoths captured the city. In the 8th c…

Edetani

(198 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian tribe on the Spanish east coast. The main city was Liria, today still known as Liria on the Guadalaviar (CIL II p. 509), and the tribal area corresponded roughly to the hinterland of Valencia and Saguntum ([1. 111]). Schulten [2. 326] refers to them as the inhabitants of the province of Teruel further to the north. The location can be deduced from that of the main city and from other sources (cf. also [3. 58]: Edeta[nia]). The E. are mentioned for the years of 209 and 141 BC…

Ilergetes

(86 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian tribe around  Ilerda in the modern province of Huesca. The I. are often mentioned in the context of the Second Punic War. They initially supported the Carthaginians, were defeated by the Romans in 205 BC (Liv. 29,3) and later became socii (Liv. 34,11). Mentioned in Str. 3,4,10 and Plin. HN 3,21, but not later. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography A. Schulten (ed.), Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 3, 1935, 232 Tovar 3, 1989, 46f. Schulten, Landeskunde 1, 21974, 309 A. Vives, La moneda hispánica 2, 1924, 52.

Carmo

(107 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Hispania, Iberia | Phoenicians, Poeni | Pyrenean peninsula Settlement of the  Turdetani, modern Carmona (province of Sevilla in Spain). C. rose to importance during the conflicts between Rome and Carthage (3rd/2nd cents. BC; App. Ib. 25; Liv. 33,21,6ff.). Caes. B Civ. 2,19,4 and Str. 3,2,2 refer to C. as one of the most important towns of Baetica. The names of some of the officials of this   municipium civium Romanorum or Latinorum are known from coins [1. 199] and from inscriptions (CIL II 1378ff.; 5120). Barceló, Pedro …

Lancia

(300 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] Town near modern Mansilla de las Mulas, northern Spain Town of the Astures near modern Mansilla de las Mulas, northern Spain, approximately 20 km from León (on the Celtic place name [1; 2], also [3; 4]). Conquered in 25 BC by P. Carisius, but spared (Cass. Dio 53,25,8; Flor. Epit. 2,33,37f.; Oros. 6,21,10; cf. also Plin. HN 3,28; Ptol. 2,6,28; It. Ant. 395,3; [5]). Substantial, almost exclusively Roman remains; Roman coins. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder, s.v. L. 2 A. Schulten, Los Cántabros y Astures ..., 1943, 107, 151 3 F. Abbad Rios, F. Jordá Cerdá, Informe sobre las excavaciones ... en la antigua ciudad de L. (León), in: Boletín del Instituto de estudios Asturianos 12, 1958, 35-49 4 F. Jordá Cerdá, L. Servicio nacional de excavationes arqueologicas (Excavaciones arquelogicas en España 1), 1962 …

Bergistani, Bargusii

(68 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian tribe in Hispania Tarraconensis (now Cataluña); the place name Berga (province of Barcelona) commemorates it. On his march to Italy Hannibal passed through the tribe's territory (Pol. 3,35; Liv. 21,19; 23). In the first phase of the Roman conquest of Spain the B. put up resistance, but were subdued by Cato in 195 BC (Liv. 34,16ff.). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 39f.

Grac(c)urris

(125 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Town in the upper Ebro valley; precise location unknown. In 179 BC founded as a Gracchuris by Tib. Sempronius Gracchus in place of the Iberian town of Ilurcis (Liv. Epitome 41; Festus p. 86,5). G. is mentioned later in the war against Sertorius in 76 BC (Liv. Epitome 41). Pliny (HN 3,24) names G. among the oppida Latii veteris of the conventus of Caesaraugusta. There are no inscriptions, but G. appears on several coins from the time of Tiberius as a municipium [1. 113f.]. Later G. is no longer mentioned. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 A. Vives, La moneda hispánic…

Cempsi

(70 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Only mentioned by Avien. 182ff. and by Dionys. Per. 338. They were probably a Celtic tribe (different in [1. 978]), who originally lived on the island of Cartare (probably in the  Baetis delta), later south of the Tagus and in the Anas valley. Possibly identical with the Celtici (cf. Str. 3,1,6). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 1. A. Schulten, Fontes Hi…

Callaici

(149 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Celtic tribe in north-western Hispania, giving its name to the modern region of Galicia. First mentioned in connection with the Celtiberian Wars (181-133 BC) (App. Ib. 300). The Roman governor Iunius Brutus, who crushed them between 138 and 136 BC, was given the cognomen Callaicus. Caesar, too, had dealings with them during his propraetorship in 60 BC. For a time, the C. appeared alongside the  Astures and  Cantabri, when Augustus was at war with these and subjugated them finally …

Cauca

(85 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Celtiberian town, modern Coca (province of Segovia). First mentioned in the context of the brutal war conducted by  Lucullus in 151 BC (App. Ib. 51f.). Scipio, too, laid the town to ruins in the course of his battle against Numantia (App. Ib. 89). In the imperial age, the town belonged to the conventus of  Clunia (Plin. HN 3,26), and gained fame as the birthplace of emperor  Theodosius I (Zos. 4,24,4). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 334 F. Wattemberg, La región vaccea, 1959. …

Bilbilis

(131 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Celtiberian settlement on the Cerro de Bámbola near Calatayd (province of Zaragoza); its name is possibly derived from the river Birbilis (Just. Epit. 44,38), an alternative name for the Salo, or the name of one of its tributaries. In Roman times, the road from Augusta [2] Emerita to Caesaraugusta passed through B. It is a matter of debate whether B. was a   colonia or a   municipium . It is the birthplace of Martial, who extolled the wealth of his homeland. The town fell into ruin in…

Baecula

(73 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Punic Wars Settlement in the mining area on the upper  Baetis (modern Bailen). In 208 BC, it was the location of one of the decisive battles of the Second Punic War, in which Hasdrubal was defeated by P.C. Scipio Africanus. Hasdrubal subsequently departed from Spain (Pol. 10,38,7; 11,20,5; Liv. 27,18,1; 28,13,5; App. Ib. 24).…

Pyrene

(485 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] City in the easternmost Pyrenees near Rhode (Πυρήνη; Pyrḗnē). City of Iberian or Phocaean origin in the region between the Sordi and th…

Cerretani

(69 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian tribe of the southern Pyrenees, province of Cerona (Str. 3,4,11). Earliest mention in Avien. Or. mar. 550 ( Ceretes). Steph. Byz. knows of a city called Brachyle in the land of the C. They were famous for the quality of their ham (Mart. 13,54). In the imperial age, the tribe divided into Iuliani and Augustani (Plin. HN 3,23). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 44f., 447.

Maesesses

(63 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Tribe of the Bastetani (Liv. 28,3,3) in eastern Andalusia in a fertile region with silver mines. In 207 BC their region was conquered by P. Cornelius [I 71] Scipio [1]. Orongis (probably identical with Aurgi, modern Jaén [2]) was situated here. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 A. Schulten (ed.), Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 3, 1935, 131 2 Schulten, Landeskunde 1, 84.

Calagurris

(168 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] Fibularia This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity A settlement of the  Vascones, probably the modern Loarre in the Spanish province of Huesca in Spain. Bishop Ianuarius, one of the participants in the Council of Iliberis, may have come from C. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 381-382. [German version] [2] Nasica This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity Iberian town on the Iberus in the Spanish province of Zaragoza, modern Calahorra. It played a part in the Celtiberian Wars (181-133 BC) and in the revolt of Sertorius (80-72 BC). Under Augustus -- who for a while had a bodyguard of Calagurritani -- C. became a municipium. Numerous Roman remains (circus, amphitheatre) and inscriptions attest to the importance of C. in the imperial age. It was the birthplace of the rhetor  Quintilianus. Prudentius (Peristephanon 1) mentions the Christian martyrs Emeritus and Celedonius. Under the Visigoths, C. developed into an important episcopal see. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 380-381.

Sicoris

(49 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Left-hand tributary of the Iberus [2] (Ebro) in Hispania Tarraconensis (Caes. Civ. 1,40,1; 48,3; 61,1; 63,1; Plin.  HN 3,24), modern Segre. It rises in the territory of the Cerretani and in its course passes through Ilerda (Lérida). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography TIR K/J 31 Tarraco 146 f.

Ilurcavones

(54 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] (Ilercavones). An Iberian tribe around Dertosa, on the lower Ebro. They submitted to the Romans in 218 BC (Liv. 21,60,3; for later times cf. also Liv. 22,21,6; Caes. B Civ. 1,60,2; Ptol. 2,6,16; Plin. HN 3,21). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography A. Schulten (ed.), Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 4-8, 1925ff. (Index) Tovar 3, 34f.

Murgis

(82 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: City in southern Spain, since the Augustan provincial reform on the border between Hispania Baetica and Hispania Tarraconensis. The city's name, according to [2], is Iberian. Its location on the Campo de Dalias, 31 km to the west of Almería, is documented in inscriptions (CIL II Suppl. 5489f.; cf. Plin. HN 3,8; 17, Baeticae finis; Itin. Anton. 405,2; Ptol. 2,4,9; [2. 84f.]). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Tovar 2, 1974 2 Holder, s.v. M.

Ercavica

(165 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)

Centobriga

(68 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Town mentioned only in the context of the anecdote about  Metellus' mild treatment of the besieged population of C. (142 BC; Val. Max. 5,1,5; Liv. POxy. 161-163). C. -- the name is Celtic [1. 989] -- was probably situated in the valley of the Jalón [3. 354]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 1 2 A. Schulten, Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 4, 1937, 33f. 3 Id., Numantia 1, 1914 4 Tovar 3, 369-370.

Lusitani, Lusitania

(554 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Name Iberian [1], similarly the people with a marked Celtic element which is evaluated in various ways [2]. Originally the L. settled between the Durius and the Tagus (cf. [3]) and advanced to the Anas (App. Hisp. 239). The later Roman province of L. set up by Augustus corresponds approximately to modern Portugal and therefore comprises a much bigger region than the original settlement area.…

Accis

(177 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae Town of the  Bastetani (Ptol. 2,6,60), on the crossing of the road from  Tarraco via  Carthago Nova to  Castulo and  Malaca. The ancient settlement was built along the slopes of the western Guadix (province of Granada). Its Roman name of Colonia Iulia Gemella or Gemellensis (CIL II 3391; 3393 f.) points to its origins as a military colony, founded either by Caesar in 45 BC or later by Augustus. A. was under the jurisdiction of the conventus Carthaginiensis. Its inhabitants had the ius Italiae (Plin. HN 3,25); CIL II…

Lyco

(60 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] City of the Bastetani, name probably Iberian. A more precise location cannot be determined and identification with Ilugo, Ilucia, Ἴλουνον/ Ílounon remains problematical [1]. At L. the Lusitani inflicted heavy losses on L. Aemilius [I 32] Paullus in 190 (Liv. 37,46,7). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 A. Schulten (ed.), Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 3, 1935, 199ff. Tovar 3, 157.

Saguntia

(31 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Town in western Hispania Baetica (Liv. 34,19,10; Plin. HN 3,15) on the Guadalete; modern Baños de Gigonza (Paterna de Rivera). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 1, 54 f.

Ilipa

(146 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Punic Wars Modern Alcalá del Río (from the Arabic for ‘river fortification’) on the right bank of the  Baetis. The name and town are Iberian [1. 1221]. I. was important for navigation (Str. 3,2,3; CIL II 1085), but also because of nearby silver mines (Str. l.c.), agriculture and fishing (coins), which earned it the epithet Magna (Ptol. 2,4,10; Plin. HN 3,11?). P. Cornelius Scip…

Ilici

(182 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae | Punic Wars | Pyrenean peninsula Ancient Iberian town, in late antiquity Elece, modern Elche. It is assumed that Hamilcar [3] Barka died here in 228 BC; however, this must be corrected in favour of Helice (Elche de la Sierra) [2. 11f.]. In the Roman era, I. was colonia immunis (Plin. HN 3,19). In its harbour the fleet of Maiorianus was destroyed by Vandali in AD 460 [3. 81f.]. In the Visigothic period, I. is often mentioned as a diocese [3. 449]. The ancient site lay somewhat close…

M(a)enaca

(288 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)

Carthago Nova

(350 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | | Coloniae | Commerce | Hispania, Iberia | Phoenicians, Poeni | Punic Wars | Punic Wars | Pyrenean peninsula | Rome | Rome Carthago Nova (CN) was founded by  Hasdrubal in c. 225 BC as his new centre of power in the location of Mastia (with the best harbour of the entire Spanish Mediterranean coast; modern Cartagena). The Carthaginian town was adorned with many representative buildings: a temple to the Punic deities  Baal and  Eshmun, palaces, docks, as well as a massi…

Iuliobriga

(109 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Hispania, Iberia …

Arx Gerontis

(130 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Place name, originating from Geron/Theron, a king of  Tartessus ( fani est prominens et ... Gerontis arx est eminens: Avien. Ora maritima 261; 263; 304). The sanctuary was supposedly located within the delta area of the  Baetis [1. 237], the Arx Gerontis to the south of it, possibly on the Salmedina peninsula, of which these days on…

Laeetani

(134 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian tribe ( laiescon [1. 19]) on the Spanish east coast between Barcelona and Blanes; regarding the various spellings and misspellings of the name ( Laietani, Leetani, Lacetani, Laletani, Lasetani) cf. [2. vol. 6, 235; 3; 4]; Plin. HN 3,21; Str. 3,4,8; Ptol. 2,6,18; 72; ILS 2714a; CIL II Suppl. 6171. Wine of inferior quality was cultivated there in large amounts (Plin. HN 14,71; Mart. 1,26; [2. vol. 1, 136, vol. 3, 51, vol. 6, 235f.; 5. vol. 8, 184, 195, 292]). Viticulture Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 A. Hübner, Monumenta Linguae Ibericae, 1893 2 A. Schulten (ed.), Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 1-8, 1922ff. 3 Id., s.v. L., RE 12, 399 …

Nertobriga

(148 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] City in northern Spain City in northern Spain (Celtic place name: narto, ‘strength’, briga, ‘fortress’ [1]), modern Calatorao in the Jalón valley, 30 km to the northeast of Bilbilis. The consul M. Claudius [I 13] Marcellus conquered N. in 152 BC. The city was finally subjugated in 143 BC (App. Ib. 48; 50; Flor. Epit. 1,33,10). Itin. Anton. 437,4; 439,2; coins. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 1, 533; 2, 723. Tovar 2, 414  TIR K 30 Madrid, 1993, 158f. [German version] [2] City in central Spain City in central Spain, as a Roman colony N. Concordia Iulia (Plin. HN 3,14; Ptol. 2,4,10), conquered by M. Claudius [I 13] Marcellus in 152 BC (Νερκόβρικα/ Nerkóbrika, Pol. 35,2,2). Site in the province of Badajoz near Frejenal de la Sierra confirmed by inscriptions (CIL II p. 125f.). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography H. Simon, Roms Kriege in Spanien, 1962, 202 …

Iliberis

(242 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] I., Iliberri This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Pyrenean peninsula Iberian town, probably near Granada in the Sierra de Elvira. Mentioned in Plin. HN 3,10 and Ptol. 2,4,9. Diocese in the Christian era, site of the

Lacetani

(88 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian tribe (not to be confused with the Iaccetani; e.g. Ptol. 2,6,71; [1]), who settled the southern foothills of the eastern Pyrenees, west of Llobregat, east of Segre, south of Noya and Cervera (Liv. 21,61,8; 28,24,4; 34,20,1; Plin. HN 3,21). They were one of the earliest tribes to be subjugated by the Romans (Plut. Cato Maior 11,2; cf. Cass. Dio 45,10; Sall. Hist. 2,98,5; [2. 50f.]). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder, s.v. iaccos 2 A. Schulten, Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 3, 1935. Tovar 3, 35ff.

Asturia

(108 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Region on the Atlantic coast of northern Spain. It corresponds with the modern provinces of Asturias, Leon and Valladolid. The Astures split up into tribal groups ( populi), first reported by Posidonius (in Str. 3,3,7). Like the  Cantabri, they were subjugated by Augustus. The gold reserves of the country were legendary. In the town of Astorga, there was a military unit under the command of the procurator metallorum (Flor. Epit. 2,33,60; ILS 9125ff.). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography F. J. Lomas Salmonte, Asturias preromana y altoimperial, 1989 N. Santos Yanguas, Astures y Cántabros: Estudio etnogeográfico, in: M. Almagro-Gorbea, G. Ruiz Zapatero (ed.), Paleoetnologia de la Península Ibérica, 1992, 431-447 Tovar 3,1989,103-109.

Ebora

(236 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
Whether the name E. is Iberian, Ligurian or Celtic, remains unclear [1. vol. 1, 1394; vol. 2, 205; 2. 68; 3. 150]. [German version] [1] Town of the Carpetani, modern Montalba Town of the Carpetani, today Montalba on the Tajo. The town Aebura referred to in Livy (40,30; 32f.) is probably identical with Libora (Ptol. 2,6,56; Geogr. Rav. 4,44, Lebura; but cf. CIL II p. 111 s. Caesarobriga). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) [German version] [2] Modern Évora in Portugal Today Évora in Portugal (Alentejo); its identity is confirmed by inscriptions and archaeological remains (fort, aqued…

Minius

(119 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Spanish river (Str. 3,3,4: also Βαῖνις/ Baínis; App. Hisp. 301: also Βαίτις/ Baítis), modern Miño; Name according to [1] perhaps Iberian, according to [2] Etruscan, though this is unlikely [1. 595, 2354ff.; 3. 361]. The ancient derivation from minium (‘cinnabar’, Just. Epit. 44,3,4; Isid. Orig. 19,17,7) is unfounded. M. and its tributaries had the same course as they do now [4. 276], but contained more water. According to Str. l.c. it was navigable for 800 stages (i.e. 160 km), but today this is only about 100 km. On its banks was the Mons Medullius. Barceló, Pedro (P…

Carpetani

(180 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] The C. are mentioned by Pol. 3,14,2 in the context of  Hannibal's expansion into central Spain as the most powerful tribal group of that region. Hannibal clashed with them when he went to war against the Olcades in 221 BC, and against the Vaccaei a year later. When he wanted to cross the Tagus, he faced opposition from the C. (Pol. 3,1…

Sexi

(162 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Colonization | Phoenicians, Poeni | Punic Wars Phoenician settlement (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 43: Σίξος/ Síxos; Str. 3,4,2; 3,5,5: Ἐξιτανοί/ Exitanoí; Mela 2,94; Plin. HN 3,8: Sexi Firmum Iulium; Ptol. 2,4,7: Σέξ/ Séx; It. Ant. 405,3: Saxetanum) on the southern coast of the Iberian peninsula, probably at modern Almuñécar, to date not excavated. It is scarcely recognisable today owing to considerable sedimentation that the Phoenician settlement was originally on a peninsula or island, surrounded by hills which now frame the bay. Only the necropoleis of Cerro de San Cristóbal and Puente de Noy permit any statements about the chronology of S.; the typically Phoenician burial inventories found there date from the 8th cent. BC.…

Acra Leuce

(225 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Hispania, Iberia (Ἀκρα Λευκή; Ákra Leukḗ) Because of its Greek name, García y Bellido [2. 5925,10,3] took the town's foundation by  Hamilcar, as reported in Diod. Sic. 25,10,3 f.; 25,10,12, as evidence for the existence of a preceding Greek settlement at A. Generally, based on a rather questionable interpretation …

Massieni

(105 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] (Mastieni). Iberian tribe on the southeast coast of Spain (Avien. 422; 425; 450), with dwelling places from the Chrysus (modern Guadiaro) River to Carthago Nova [1. 52, 197, 186f.]. The principal town was Mastia (cf. Pol. 3,24,2; 4, here called Ταρσήιον/ Tarsḗion, indicating that it probably belonged to Tartessus' sphere of influence). Hasdrubal [2] may have founded Carthago Nova on the site of Mastia around 221 BC. The Bastetani, which may possibly be identified with the M., later appeared in their place [2]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 A. Schulten (ed.), Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 12, 1955 2 Tovar 2, 26 Tovar 2, 27f.

Bebryces

(52 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] The Spanish B. are mentioned by Scymn. 201 (prior to 202 BC). Avien. 485 describes the ‘Berybrakes’ as a rough, wild people, whose areas of settlement are not clearly known. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography F. J. Fernández Nieto, Beribraces, edetanos e ilercaones, in: Zephyrus 19/20, 1968/69, 115-142 Tovar 3, 64.

Mons Medullius

(113 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Mountain in north-eastern Spain; the name is Celtic [1]. Here, in 25 BC, the Cantabri put up the last resistance against the army of Augustus (Flor. 2,33,50; Oros. 6,21,7). Schulten [2. 170] identified the MM, probably wrongly, with the Monte S. Julián at Tuy on the Miño; it is much more likely to have been (cf. [3. 153ff.]) on the Sil near  Las Médulas (Prov. León). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 2, 528 2 Schulten, Landeskunde 1 3 F.J. Lomas Salmonte, Asturia prerromana y altoimperial, 1989. P. Barceló, Das Kantabrische Gebirge im Altertum, in: E. Olshausen, H. Sonnabend (ed.), Gebirgsland als Lebensraum (Geographica Historica 8), 1996, 53-61  TIR K 29 Porto, 1991, 72.

Belli

(58 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Celtiberian tribe on the Jalón, a tributary of the Duero, with the main city of Segeda. The B. played a pre-eminent role in the Celtiberian Wars (154-133 BC); after that, they are no longer mentioned (Pol. 35,2,3; 11; App. Ib. 44ff.). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography H. Simon, Roms Kriege in Spanien, 1962, 200 Tovar 3, 92.

Mellaria

(153 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
(Μελλαρία; Mellaría). The name of two cities. According to [3], it is uncertain whether it is Iberian, Celtic or Latin; according to [1; 2. vol. 8, 352] it is Latin for ‘City of Honey’). [German version] [1] City in the western part of the Strait of Gibraltar In the western part of the Strait of Gibraltar, between Traducta (near modern Tarifa) and Baelo, known from Sertorius' landing near M. in 80 BC (Plut. Sertorius 12; [2. vol. 4, 169]; cf. Strab. 3,1,8; Mela 2,96; Plin. HN 3,7; Ptol. 2,4,6; It. Ant. 407,2).…

Mirobriga

(169 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
(Merobriga). Name of three towns in Spain (celtic ‘fort of Miro’ [1. 599]). [German version] [1] Town near modern Capilla This item can be found on the following maps: Town near modern Capilla east of Mérida near Almadén (cf. CIL II 2365f.), located by Plin. HN 3,14 in Baeturia Turdolorum and mentioned among the oppida non ignobilia (cf. Ptol. 2,4,10; 6,58; Itin. Anton. 444,6) [2; 3] Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) [German version] [2] Town in the area of Salmantica Town in the area of Salmantica (modern Salamanca) and Bletisa (modern Ledesma): CIL II 858f. Barce…

Astigi(s)

(127 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae The modern Ecija on the Genil river (province of Seville), capital of one of the four conventus of the Baetica (Plin. HN 3,12); after 27 BC, it became an Augustan colony with the epithet Firma (CIL II 1471; 1630), part of the tribus Papiria. A. was probably the most important exporter of oil in Hispania, as demonstrated by the numerous broken amphorae found on Monte Testaccio in Rome. In late antiquity, A. was an important diocese, whose bishops attended most of the Hispanic councils. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliograph…

Baetulo

(37 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] River (modern Besos) and municipium (modern Badalona) of the  Lacetani on the eastern coast of Spain (Mela 2,90; Plin. HN 3,22; Ptol. 2,6,19; CIL II 4606-4608; 4611). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Schulten 1, 1974, 305.

Salpensa

(72 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] (Salpesa). Iberian city, in the Roman era municipium Flavium Salpensanum, modern Cortijo de la Coria (Utrera, province of Sevilla). An inscription with the municipal charter of S. (AD 82/84) was found near Malaca (ILS 6089; [1. 259 ff.]). Lex Salpensana Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 J. L. López Castro, Hispania Poena, 1995. Tovar 1, 145 f.  A. Caballos, W. Eck, F. Fernández, Das Senatus consultum de Cn. Pisone patre, 1996, 245.

Carteia

(127 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Located close to the mouth of the Guadarranque near Algeciras in Spain (near Cieza, province of Murcia), C. played an important role because of its Phoenician acculturation. During the Second Punic War, the Romans defeated the fleet of the Carthaginian  Adherbal [3] near C. in 206 BC. From the base of C., the Roman general  Laelius began the negotiations which were to lead to the surrender of  Gades (Liv. 28,30,3). In 171 BC, C. became a colonia Latina libertorum, the first outside Italy. The town remained loyal to Rome throughout, e.g. in the war against V…

Contrebia

(204 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] (Celtic for ‘communal dwelling’ [1. 1109]). Fortress retreat of the Celtiberian  Lusones [1. 136]. Its location cannot be accurately established; probably not identical with today's Daroca, C. was nevertheless nearby, in the Hiloca valley south-west of Zaragoza ([1. 136; 2. 212]; see also the conjectures in [4. 247]). Epigraphical evidence is almost entirely lacking (only CIL II 4935?), but, on the other hand, coins have been found with Iberian legends [5. 93]. C. is mentioned fairly often in the context of the Celtiberian wars (181 BC: Liv. 40,33; App. Ib. 42 [ Co…

Baetis

(113 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Modern river Guadalquivir. Its ancient course was the same as today, but originally, its delta had four branches (Avien. 288ff.), and two in the Augustan period (Str. 3,1,9; 2,11); nowadays, it discharges into the Atlantic from a single course; the silted branches of the delta can still be detected. Its high water levels seem to have remained unchanged: large seagoing vessels sailed upriver to Hispalis, small ones to Ilipa, and river barges to Corduba (Str. 3,2,3). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography A. Casal, El Guadalquivir, 1975 A. Ruiz Rodriguez, M. Molinos…

Osca

(214 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Town of the Ilergetes (Itin. Anton. 391,5; 451,5; Ptol. 2,6,68: in the lands of the Ilergetes, Plin. HN 3,24: of the Suessetani; [1]) on the southern slopes of the Pyrenees, today's Huesca. First mentioned in the ovatio celebrated by Helvius [I 2] in 195 BC after the victory over the Celtiberi near Illiturgis on the Baetis; on that occasion, he brought 119439 coins made of argentum Oscense ('silver from O.') to Aerarium (Liv. 34,10,4). In 180 BC, Fulvius [I 12], too, triumphed over the Celtiberi and brought home 173200 coins from O. in his triu…

Cessetani

(97 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian tribe [2. 1032]. Within its territory was the town of Cissa, which is mentioned for 218 BC (Pol. 3,76,5; Liv. 21,60,7 [1. 57, 60]; appearing as Ces(s)e on many Iberian coins [3. 83f. cf. 65-78]). Its most likely site was north of the Iberus near Tarraco. Undoubtedly, the C. gave their name to the regio Cessetania (Plin. HN 3,21; for comment on the variation of Kossetanio: Ptol. 2,6,17); [4. 1995]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 A. Schulten, Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 3, 1935 2 Holder 1 3 A. Vives, La Moneda Hispánica 2, 1924 4 E. Hübner, s.v. C., R…

Contestani(a)

(74 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Area and tribe between Cartagena and Júcar in the province of Murcia and Valencia; the name appears to be Celtic [1. 1107]. C. is mentioned in the context of the Sertorius war (Liv. fr. bk. 91), also in Plin. HN 3,19f.; Ptol. 2,6,14,61; see also [2. 131; 3. 222]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 1 2 A. Schulten, Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 1, 21955 3 Id.., Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 6, 1952. L. Conesa, Contestania ibérica, 1972 Tovar 3, 31.

Palantia

(125 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Principal town of the Vaccaei (ILS 6096; Plin. HN 3,26; Mela 2,88; It. Ant. 449; Παλλαντία/ Pallantía: Str. 3,4,13; App. Ill. 231 ( et al.); Ptol. 2,6,50; Orus. 7,40,8), modern Palencia on the Carrión river in Castilla la Vieja. P. was repeatedly besieged in vain by the Romans in the Celtiberian Wars (153-134 BC). After being subjugated, P. was one of the peregrine communities of the conventus Cluniensis (Plin. l.c.). In AD 409 the Vandals, Suebi and West Goths (Goti) advanced across of the territory of P., plundering as they went (Orus. l.c.): The city was destroyed by …

Celtiberi

(325 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] It used to be the accepted view that C. were ‘Iberian Celts’, i.e. Celts who had migrated into Iberian lands (first in Str. 3,4,5). A. Schulten, by contrast, postulated that they were ‘Celtic Iberians’, i.e. Iberians who had advanced from the east coast into Celtic areas. The C. inhabited a large part of the central Spanish plateau (Meseta). They never formed a political unit; of significance in this context is the fact that they had no collective name for referring to themselves.…

Termes

(146 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] (Τέρμες/ Térmes). City in the territory of the Celtiberic Arevaci (Plin. HN 3,27; Flor. Epit. 2,19,9; Ptol. 2,6,56), at modern Tiermes (Montejo de Liceras). With Numantia a focus of the Celtiberic Wars in 154-133 BC. T. also asserted itself after the fall of Numantia in 133 BC and was not occupied until 98 BC by T. Didius [I 4] (App. Ib. 431). The latter caused the inhabitants of T. to resettle in the Sobre valley. Remains of a Celtiberic settlement on sandstone rocks survive: rock habitations, rock walls, necropolis in Carratiermes (6th cent. BC to 1st cent. AD…

Pyrenaei Portus

(65 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Port on the northeast coast of Spain, to the north of Rhode (modern Ciutadella de Roses), where Cato [1] broke his voyage to his province of Hispania Citerior in 195 BC (Liv. 34,8,5). PP probably corresponds to Portus Veneris (modern Port-Vendres on Cape Béar). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography J. Jannoray, s. v. Portus Veneris (1), RE 22, 411-418, bes. 415 f.

Lyco

(56 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[English version] Stadt der Bastetani, Name wohl iberisch. Die genauere Lage ist nicht festzustellen, die Identifikation mit Ilugo, Ilucia, Ἴλουνον/ Ílunon bleibt problematisch [1]. Bei L. fügten die Lusitani L. Aemilius [I 32] Paullus 190 v.Chr. schwere Verluste zu (Liv. 37,46,7). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 A. Schulten (Hrsg.), Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 3, 1935, 199ff. Tovar 3, 157.

Oretani

(127 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[English version] Keltiberischer Stamm im Gebiet des mittleren und oberen Guadiana und am Nordhang der Sierra Morena ( Oretana iuga, Plin. nat. 3,6) mit Zentrum in Oretum, 33 km westl. von Valdepeñas am Jabalón [1; 2], erstmals erwähnt unter den Truppen, die Hannibal [4] 219 v.Chr. zur Sicherung der Metagonia und Karthagos nach Afrika schickte (Ὀρῆτες Ἴβηρες, Pol. 3,33,9, evtl. zur Unterscheidung von den im selben Gebiet ansässigen Ωρητανοί, Ptol. 2,6,58, bzw. O. Germani, Plin. nat. 3,25 [3. 29721]). In westgot. Zeit (6./7. Jh.n.Chr.) erscheint das Bistum Oretum und die Oretana ec…

Gigurri

(147 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[English version] (Georres, Giorres). In Valdeorras am oberen Sil (Prov. Orense) hat man die Inschr. ILS I 2079 gefunden, auf der ein röm. Soldat mit dem kelt. Beinamen (nach [2. 1089]) Reburrus als Gigurrus Calubrigensis gen. wird. Calubriga ist der (nach [1. 705]) kelt. Name einer unbekannten Stadt (Vermutungen darüber bei [3. 95]). Der asturische Stamm der G. wird mehrfach erwähnt (Plin. nat. 3,28; Ptol. 2,6,37; Geogr. Rav. 4,45). Da Valdeorras im MA Val de Geurrez oder Jurrez hieß (s. [3] und ILS a.O.), ist nicht zu bezweif…

Arx Gerontis

(113 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[English version] Ortsname, geht zurück auf Geron/ Theron, einen König von Tartessos ( fani est prominens et ... Gerontis arx est eminens: Avien. ora maritima 261; 263; 304). Das Heiligtum soll im Mündungsgebiet des Baetis gelegen haben [1. 237], die A. südl. davon, möglicherweise auf der Halbinsel Salmedina, von der h. nur noch einige vom Meer überflutete Klippen übrig sind [2. 39, 41, Karte 1; 1. 236f.]. Sie wurde nach einer späteren Quelle (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 2,767) ἄκρα Γλαύκου genannt, König Geron also mit dem…
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