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Crusades

(3,532 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
Originally applied to military and religious expeditions organized in Western Europe and intended to take back from and defend against Islam the Holy Places of Palestine and nearby Syria, the term was later extended to all wars waged against "infidels" and even to any undertaking carried out in the name of a worthy or supposedly worthy cause; naturally these extensions of meaning are not part of our present concern. The first Crusade (1096-99), following on from expeditions against the Muslims in the West, led to the establishment around Jerusalem, Tripoli, Antio…

Bahrām S̲h̲āh

(275 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, al-malik al-amd̲j̲ad , b. Farruk̲h̲ S̲h̲āh b. S̲h̲āhāns̲h̲āh b. Ayyūb, grand nephew of Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn, was appointed by the latter to succeed his father at Baʿlbak when the latter died in 578/1182 (ʿImād al-Dīn al-Iṣfahānī, al-Barḳ al-S̲h̲āmī , Bodl. MS. Marsh 425, 36r°, followed by Abū S̲h̲āma, Rawḍatayn 1, Cairo, 33-4), and kept Baʿlbak when the Ayyūbid territories were divided up after the death of Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn. From then on he seems always to have been a faithful vassal of the Ayyūbid ruling at Damascus (Ibn Wāṣil, Mufarrid̲j̲ , years 599, 603, 606, 618, 62…

K̲h̲iṭaṭ

(353 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(a.), pl. of k̲h̲iṭṭa , the various quarters of the newly-founded early Islamic towns which the Arab-Islamic chiefs laid out (root k̲h̲.ṭ.t ) for the population groups which they attracted thither or for their respective leaders. Historical-administrative concerns led fairly quickly to the appearance of a literary genre which consisted of a description of the historical topography of these k̲h̲iṭaṭ . This happened in regards to Bag̲h̲dād, and one finds chapters of this nature in the “geographical” works of Ibn al-Faḳīh al-Hamad̲h̲ān…

Āḳ Sunḳur al-Bursuḳī

(421 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
( abū saʿīd sayf al-dīn ḳasīm al-dawla ), originally a mamlūk of Bursuḳ [ q.v.], and one of the principal officers of the Sald̲j̲uḳid sultans Muḥammad and Maḥmūd. He became prominent firstly through his activities as military governor ( s̲h̲iḥna ) of al-ʿIrāḳ, and later, at the end of his life, as governor of Mosul, which office he held simultaneously with the former. Appointed s̲h̲iḥna in 498/1105. his main task was to oppose the Mazyadite Arabs of Dubays [ q.v.], who were infesting the environs of Bag̲h̲dād. In his first government of Mosul (507/1113) his chief duty was …

Ibn Muyassar

(485 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(not Mīsar) Tād̲j̲ al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Yūsuf . . . . b. D̲j̲alab Rāg̲h̲ib . 628-77/1231-78, Egyptian historian. He was descended, hence his by-name, from a Tunisian “imported” at the beginning of the 6th/12th century by an Egyptian amīr named Rāg̲h̲ib; under Saladin, the family, being excluded from the military career by the formation of the new army, had entered civilian life. Ibn Muyassar owed his name to a maternal ancestor who had apparently himself been ¶ an amīr under the Fāṭimids. His Annales d’Égypte (ed. H. Massé, Cairo 1919; cf. G. Wiet, in JA, 1921) have survived in a unique ma…

ʿAfrīn

(424 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
important right tributary of the Orontes (al-ʿĀṣī [ q.v.]), which it reaches after joining with the Nahr Yāg̲h̲rā (Murād Pas̲h̲a) in the Lake of Antioch and the Nahr al-Aswad (Ḳara-sū), in the ʿAmk. Its wide middle valley, between the Djabal Simān and the Kurd-dag̲h̲, was known in the Middle Ages as the district of the Ḏj̲ūma. The importance of the valley was due to the crossing of the road, which used it to connect Antioch with the districts of the upper Euphrates, with the roads which led from Cilicia…

Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla

(1,158 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. al-Ḥasan , born in about 341/952, third son of the Buwayhid Rukn al-Dawla [ q.v.] and of a daughter of the Daylamī chief al-Ḥasan b. Fayzurān, a cousin of Mākān b. Kākī [ q.v.], received his laḳab in 364/975 and was summoned in 365/976, with his brothers ʿAḍud al-Dawla [ q.v.], the eldest, and Muʾayyid al-Dawla, to his father’s sick-bed, in order to agree what share each would receive of their father’s possessions, under the suzerainty of ʿAḍud al-Dawla; as his portion, Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla received the provinces of Hamad̲h̲ān and…

Ibn al-D̲j̲awzī, S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Abu ’l-Muẓaffar Yūsuf b. Ḳi̊zog̲h̲lu,known as Sibṭ

(958 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, famous preacher and historian (581/1185 or 582/1186-654/1256). Son of a Turkish freedman of the vizier Ibn Hubayra and of a daughter of the famous preacher and voluminous writer, Ibn al-D̲j̲awzī of Bag̲h̲dād, from whom he derived the name by which he is known, the young Yūsuf was in fact brought up by this grandfather; after the latter’s death (597/1201), he settled at Damascus, where he joined the Ayyūbid al-Muʿaẓẓam, then his successors al-Nāṣir Dāwūd and al-As̲h̲raf. Although he abandoned t…

Bag̲h̲rās

(446 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, the ancient Pagrae, guarded the Syrian end of the Baylān pass on the road from Antioch to Alexandretta across the Amanus, and was thus a place of transit and a strategic position of importance. This region, which had been laid waste at the time of the first wars between the Arabs and the Byzantines, was furnished with colonists by Maslama; this initiated a recovery, and His̲h̲ām built a small fort there; it was naturally included in the region of the ʿawāṣim [ q.v.] organised by Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd behind the Syro-Cilician t̲h̲ug̲h̲ūr , and there existed there at …

G̲h̲āzī Čelebi

(483 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, ruler of Sinope (700/1300? circa 730/1330 ?) known especially for his piratical exploits against the Genoese, and sometimes alliance with and sometimes against the Greeks of Trebizond (it is known that there were actions in 1313-14, 1319, 1324); there are attributed to him in these raids lack of scruples ( e.g., taking guests captive), audacity (typified by an attack on Kaffa in the Crimea), and skill (he is said to have been able, by swimming under water, to pierce the hull of enemy ships), all of which testify to his reputation (see the epis…

Ḍarība

(18,908 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Hopkins, J.F.P. | İnalcık, Halil | Rivlin, Helen | Lambton, Ann K.S. | Et al.
, one of the words most generally used to denote a tax, applied in particular to the whole category of taxes which in practice were added to the basic taxes of canonical theory. These latter ( zakāt or ʿus̲h̲r , d̲j̲izya and k̲h̲arād̲j̲ , etc.) and their yield in the “classical” period, have been covered in a general survey in an earlier article, Bayt al-māl , and a detailed description of the methodes of assessment and collection will be given under their respective titles, in particular under k̲h̲arād̲j̲; along with k̲h̲arād̲j̲ and zakāt will be included associated taxes and payments…

D̲j̲ahīr

(1,201 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
( Banu ), one of the families of government contractors characteristic of their period who almost completely monopolized the caliph’s vizierate during the protectorate of the Great Sald̲j̲ūḳids, and deriving their particular importance from that fact. The founder of the political fortunes of the dynasty, Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla Abū Naṣr Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. D̲j̲ahīr, born in al-Mawṣil in 398/1007-8 of a family of rich merchants, entered the service of the S̲h̲īʿī ʿUḳaylid princes of that town; then, after one of them, Ḳirwās̲h̲, fell …

Ḥiṭṭīn or Ḥaṭṭīn

(297 words)

Author(s): Buhl, Fr. | Cahen, Cl.
, in the Talmud Kefar Ḥaṭṭiye, a village to the west of and above Tiberias on a fertile plain, the southern border of which is formed by a steep limestone ridge. At both the western and eastern ends of the ridge there is a higher summit called Ḳurūn Ḥaṭṭīn. A tradition, known in the 6th/12th century, the origin of which is uncertain, places the tomb of the prophet S̲h̲uʿayb (Jethro) here; the little chapel, which has been rebuilt in modern times and is still annually visited by the Druzes, lies …

Bābāʾī

(714 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, the name of a religio-social movement which disturbed the Turkomān centres of Asia Minor a few years before the Mongol invasion, and which seems to have been of great importance in the general history of the social and cultural development of the Turkish people. It can only be understood by reference to certain general features of the development of the Sald̲j̲ūḳid state of Rūm. By the 7th/13th century, the latter had become a state with a strong administrative and cultural framework, the prod…

Kak̲h̲tā

(708 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, a fortress, now an imposing ruin, which stands on a precipitous ridge dominating the ancient site of Arsaneia in Commagene, recently identified by F. Dörner; the name does not appear before the 6th/12th century. The region, of which Gerger, on the upper reaches of the Euphrates at the mouth of the gorges, was in reality the chief centre, played only a minimal role in the Arab-Byzantine wars during the first centuries of Islam, since the main passes lie further to the west or north, and there was ¶ no need for the fortress of Kak̲h̲tā, which commanded the outlet of a valley in the…

Ḥarb

(27,665 words)

Author(s): Khadduri, M. | Cahen, Cl. | Ayalon, D. | Parry, V.J. | Bosworth, C.E. | Et al.
, war. i.— Legal Aspect Ḥarb may mean either fighting ( ḳitāl ) in the material sense or a “state of war” between two or more groups; both meanings were implied in the legal order of pre-Islamic Arabia. Owing to lack of organized authority, war became the basis of inter-tribal relationship. Peace reigned only when agreed upon between two or more tribes. Moreover, war fulfilled such purposes as vendetta and retaliation. The desert, adapted to distant raids and without natural frontiers, rendered the Arabs habituated to warfare and fighting became a function of society. Islam, prohibiting …

al-ʿAẓīmī

(225 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(Muḥ. b. ʿAlī b. Muḥ., Abū ʿAbd Allāh al-Tanūk̲h̲ī. called~) (483/1090-post 556/1161), chronicler of Aleppo. A full but dry universal history—mainly Syrian—by him, which extends to the year 538/1143-44 (published by me—from the year 455/1063—in J A , 1938, 353-448), has come down to us, but in addition, he composed above all a great History of Aleppo which was used copiously especially by Kamāl al-Dīn b. al-ʿAdīm and Ibn Abī Ṭayyī (the latter up to 556/1161). The interest of the portions of al-ʿAẓimi’s work which have been prese…

Ibn Baḳiyya

(634 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, Abū Ṭāhir Muḥammad , vizier to the Būyid ʿIzz al-Dawla Bak̲h̲tiyār [ q.v.], whose history is perhaps difficult to relate objectively since the chroniclers, who wrote from the point of view of the military or bureaucratic aristocracy, were a priori hostile to a parvenu such as he. Coming from a peasant family of Awana (Upper ʿIrāḳ), he had taken advantage of the disturbances during the first half of the 4th/10th century to organize a force which had seized control of the tolls on the Tigris at Takrīt. At the time of the conquest of ʿ…

D̲j̲awālī

(337 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, double plural of d̲j̲ālī (through the intermediate form d̲j̲āliya which is also found, particularly in old papyri), literally “émigrés”, a term which, in administrative usage, very soon served to denote the d̲j̲izya [ q.v.]. Ancient writers believed that the word had originally been applied to the poll-tax on the d̲h̲immī s who were émigrés (driven out) from Arabia; some modern writers have thought that it could have taken on its meaning, by extension, from a term used of the tax on the Jewish community in “Exile” d̲j̲ālūt: there is no trace of any such specific use. It would se…

Aḥdāt̲h̲

(1,018 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, literally "young men", a kind of urban militia which plays a considerable role in the cities of Syria and Upper Mesopotamia from the 4th/10th to the 6th/12th centuries, and is particularly well known at Aleppo and Damascus. Officially, its role is that of a police, charged with public order, fire-fighting, etc., and also, in time of need, with military defence in reinforcement of the regular troops. For these services the aḥdāt̲h̲ receive stipends allocated from the product of certain urban taxes. The only distinction between them and any or…

K̲h̲anzīt

(207 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(Grk. Antizene, in Yāḳut Hinzīt), name of the province and of the basin enclosed between the great bend of the Euphrates to the NNW of Malaṭya and the D̲j̲abal Baharmaz, with the “little lake” Göld̲j̲ük (Ar. al-Buḥayra) of Dzovk (Ar. al-Baḥīratān) at its foot ; one of the great communication routes of history passes from here towards the Tigris sources. This region of K̲h̲anzīt was for long Armenian (in the 6th/12th century the Catholicos of the Armenian Church resided at Dzovk) ; after being co…

D̲j̲arād

(1,372 words)

Author(s): Kopf, L. | Cahen, Cl.
, locusts. The word is a collective noun, the nom. unit, being d̲j̲arāda , which is applied to the male and the female alike. No cognate synonym seems to exist in the other Semitic languages. For the different stages of the locust’s development the Arabic language possesses special names (such as sirwa , dabā , g̲h̲awghāʾ , k̲h̲ayfān , etc.) which, however, are variously defined by different authorities. Being found in abundance in the homeland of the Arabs, locusts were often mentioned and described in ancient Arabic poetry and proverbs. In the Ḳurʾān they figu…

Māʾ

(34,897 words)

Author(s): Fahd, T. | Young, M.J.L. | Hill, D.R. | Rabie, Hassanein | Cahen, Cl. | Et al.
(a.) “water”. The present article covers the religio-magical and the Islamic legal aspects of water, together with irrigation techniques, as follows: 1. Hydromancy A a vehicle for the sacred, water has been employed for various techniques of divination, and in particular, for potamonancy (sc. divination by means of the colour of the waters of a river and their ebbing and flowing; cf. FY. Cumont, Études syriennes , Paris 1917, 250 ff., notably on the purification power of the Euphrates, consulted for divinatory reasons); for pegomancy (sc…

Diyār Muḍar

(1,071 words)

Author(s): Canard, M. | Cahen, Cl.
, a name formed in the same way as Diyār Bakr [ q.v.], is the province of the Ḏj̲azīra whose territory is watered by the Euphrates and its tributary the Balīk̲h̲ as well as by the lower reaches of the K̲h̲ābūr. It extends on both banks of the Euphrates from Sumaysāṭ (Samosata) in the north to ʿAnā (ʿĀnāt) in the south. The principal town of the Diyār Muḍar was al-Raḳḳa on the left bank of the Euphrates; other major towns were Ḥarrān on the Balīk̲h̲, Edessa (al-Ruhā, Urfa), capital of Osrhoene, and Sarūd̲j̲ …

Ibn al-Muslima

(891 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, by-name first given to Aḥmad b. ʿUmar (d. 415/1024), of the family of the Āl al-Raḳil, and name by which his descendants were known until the 6th/12th century. The most important member of the family was his grandson, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn, known also by the honorific title of raʾīs al-ruʾasāʾ , vizier to the caliphate from 437 to 450/1045-58, concerning whom there have arisen a number of important questions which have not yet been satisfactorily answered. The conquest of Bag̲h̲dād by the Būyids in 334/945 had led …

Būz-Abeh

(358 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, governor of Fārs under the Sald̲j̲ūḳs. Būz-Abeh was one of the amīr s of Mengubars, the governor of Fārs, for whom he administered the province of Ḵh̲ūzistān. He was also in the army of his superior when the latter, accompanied by other amīrs, moved against the Sald̲j̲ūḳ sultan Masʿūd and was made prisoner at the battle of Kurs̲h̲anba (other sources call the scene of the encounter Pand̲j̲ Angus̲h̲t), later being put to death, in 532/1137-38. Since, after their victory, the sultan’s troops began to plunder the enemy camp, Būz-Abeh attacked and dispersed them. Several prominent amīrs of th…

Buwayhids or Būyids

(7,567 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, the most important of the dynasties which, first in the Iranian plateau then in ʿIrāḳ, side by side with the Sāmānids of Ḵh̲urāsān and of Māwarāʾ al-Nahr, marked the “Iranian intermezzo” (Minorsky) between the Arab domination of early Islam and the Turkish conquest of the 5th/11th century. Its name derives from Buwayh or Būyeh, the father of three brothers who founded it, ʿAlī, al-Ḥasan, and the youngest, Aḥmad. Condottieri of humble birth, they belonged to the population of the Daylamites [ q.v.] who, newly won over to (S̲h̲iʿī) Islam, were at that time enlisting in large …

Ibn al-Ḳalānisī

(384 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, Abū Yaʿlā Ḥamza b. Asad ... al-Tamīmī ( ca. 465-555/1073-1160), a member of an important family of Damascus, who for a time was raʾīs of that town, and above all was its historian for the period extending from the middle of the 4th/10th century to 555/1160. The History of Ibn al-Ḳalānisī, known simply by the title D̲h̲ayl tāʾrīk̲h̲ Dimas̲h̲ḳ , consists of two parts, the limits being somewhat imprecise. The first part, the opening pages of which are lost, and which goes down approximately to the time of the author’s youth, is based…

Ḳi̊li̊d̲j̲ Arslan IV

(335 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, better known by his laḳab of Rukn al-Dīn, one of the sons and successors of K̲h̲usraw II (1246). It was at the beginning of the period of the Mongol protectorate that, the three sons of the late sovereign all being minors, the senior amirs, in order to safeguard the unity of the state, sought to install, under their own executive power, a sultanate shared jointly between the three young princes; Ḳi̊li̊d̲j̲ Arslan was sent on a mission to the Mongol chief Batu to persuade him to accept this solution. This very mission alone established a…

D̲h̲imma

(4,693 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, the term used to designate the sort of indefinitely renewed contract through which the Muslim community accords hospitality and protection to members of other revealed religions, on condition of their acknowledging the domination of Islam. The beneficiaries of the d̲h̲imma are called d̲h̲immīs , and are collectively referred to as ahl al-d̲h̲imma or simply d̲h̲imma. An account of the doctrinal position of Islam vis-à-vis the religions in question, and of the polemics between the two sides, is given in the article ahl al-kitāb ; for a detailed account of …

Atsi̊̊z b. Uvak

(541 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(and not Abak), was one of the chiefs of the Turkomāns (perhaps of the tribe of the Īwāī and perhaps at the beginning of the Sald̲j̲ūḳid expansion established in Ḵh̲wārizm), who in 1070 had followed Erisgen (?), husband of a daughter of Alp-Arslan, into Asia Minor in his flight to Byzantine territory; but he refused to take service in the Christian army, and had responded to the appeal made to him by the Fāṭimid government, requesting him to come and bring some of the Palestine Bedouin to heel (…

Ḳaṭiʿ̊ʿa

(75 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, pl. ḳaṭāʾīʿ , a Muslim administrative term designating, on the one hand, those concessions made to private individuals on state lands in the first centuries of the Hid̲j̲ra (see ḍayʿa ), and, on the other hand, the fixed sum of a tax or tribute, in contradistinction to taxation by proportional method or some variable means. The verb ḳaṭaʿa is also used to mean “to impose”, normally followed by ḳaṭīʿatan . (C. Cahen)

Diyār Rabīʿa

(956 words)

Author(s): Canard, M. | Cahen, Cl.
, a name formed in the same way as Diyār Bakr [ q.v.], is the most eastern and the largest province of the D̲j̲azīra. It includes three regions: that of the K̲h̲ābūr and its tributary the Hirmās (D̲j̲ag̲h̲d̲j̲ag̲h̲) and their sources, i.e., the slopes of the Ṭūr ʿAbdīn; that which is contained between the Hirmās and the Tigris, the former Bēt̲h̲ ʿArabāyē with the D̲j̲abal Sind̲j̲ār; and that on both banks of the Tigris between Tell Fāfān and Takrīt, which marks the boundary with ʿIrāḳ. The lower reaches of the two Zābs are also include…

Ḳi̊li̊d̲j̲ Arslan II

(637 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, son and successor of Masʿūd I, and one of the most important sultans of Rūm (1155-92). Masʿūd had, in dealing with the Greeks, succeeded in restoring the position of the Sald̲j̲ūḳs in relation to the Dānis̲h̲mendids who were divided by quarrels over the succession. Ḳi̊li̊d̲j̲ Arslan at first maintained this policy, and carried it to the extent of offering the Basileus Manuel Comnenus at Constantinople in 1162 a form of allegiance which, in concrete terms, cost him nothing. He was then able to make himself mast…

Čās̲h̲na-Gīr

(135 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, in Persian, ‘taster’, title of an official, generally an amīr , at the court of the Muslim sovereigns (including the Mamlūks) from the time of the Sald̲j̲ūkids. It is not always clear in what way he is connected with the overseer of the food, k̲h̲ w ānsalār ; perhaps the two are often confused. The title does not appear to be found, even in Iran, under previous dynasties, although caliphs and princes did undoubtedly have overseers for their food, and even had it tasted before they eat, as the dishes were always suspected of being poisoned. The term čās̲h̲na-gīr is also…

Futuwwa

(9,840 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Fr. Taeschner
, a term invented in about the 2nd/8th century as the counterpart of muruwwa [ q.v.], the qualities of the mature man, to signify that which is regarded as characteristic of the fatā , pl. fityān , literally “young man”; by this term it has become customary to denote various movements and organizations which until the beginning of the modern era were wide-spread throughout all the urban communities of the Muslim East. The study of these movements is made difficult by the fact that, in the course of history, t…

ʿArrāda

(245 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, a mediaeval artillery engine. In general, from Europe to China, there were everywhere in existence two main types of engines of projection which were operated by more than one man. In the case of the one, the heavy type of engine, the projectile was hurled from a great distance by virtue of the centrifugal force produced by the rocking of a great arm: these were the mand̲j̲anīḳ or mangonels; in the case of the other, a lighter engine, the projectile was discharged by the impact of a shaft forcibly impelled by the release of a rope: these were the ʿarrāda . The principle of the ʿarrāda only differs…

Bayt al-Māl

(8,636 words)

Author(s): Coulson, N.J. | Cahen, Cl. | Lewis, B. | R. le tourneau
, in its concrete meaning “the House of wealth”, but particularly, in an abstract sense, the “fiscus” or “treasury” of the Muslim State. I. The Legal Doctrine. ‘Bilāl and his companions asked ʿUmar b. al-Ḵh̲aṭṭāb to distribute the booty acquired in Iraq and Syria. “Divide the lands among those who conquered them”, they said, “just as the spoils of the army are divided”. But ʿUmar refused their request . . . saying: “Allāh has given a share in these lands to those who shall come after you” ’ ( Kitāb al-Ḵh̲arād̲j̲ , 24. Le Livre de l’Impot Foncier , 37). In this alleged d…

Bursuḳ

(1,044 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(Eastern Turkish = “badger”), one of the chief officers of the Great Sald̲j̲ūḳs, whose descendants also played a notable rôle at the beginning of the 6th/12th century. Bursuḳ, ¶ although youthful, entered history as one of the principal amīrs in the service of Ṭug̲h̲ril-Beg, who after restoring control in Bag̲h̲dād following the tragedies of the years 450-51/1058-59, made Bursuḳ his first s̲h̲iḥna (military commander) in Bag̲h̲dād. However, under the pacified Sald̲j̲ūḳid organisation, the essential power belonged to the ʿamīd , the civil administrator…

Ḳānūn

(6,513 words)

Author(s): Linant de Bellefonds, Y. | Cahen, Cl. | İnalcık, Halil | Ed.
, pl. ḳawānīn , Arabic derivative from Greek κανών, which meant firstly “any straight rod”, later “a measure or rule”, and finally (in the papyri of the 4th and 5th centuries A.D.) “assessment for taxation”, “imperial taxes”, “tariff” (Liddell and Scott, revised ed., London 1940; for its meanings in religious literature, see G. W. H. Lampe, A Patristic Greek lexicon , Oxford 1961). The word was adopted into Arabic presumably with the continuation, after the Muslim conquest of Egypt and Syria, of the pre-Islamic tax system (C. H. Becker, Islamstudien , Leipzig 1924, 218-62; F. Løkkegaard, I…

ʿAmīd

(359 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(Ar.), title of high officials of the Sāmānid-G̲h̲aznawid administration, which the Sald̲j̲ūḳids, the inheritors of their institutions and personnel, extended throughout their empire. The word, properly speaking, does not denote a function, but the rank of the class of officials from whom the civil governors, ʿāmil (as opposed to the military governors, sallār , s̲h̲iḥna ), were recruited; thus Sibṭ Ibn al-Ḏj̲awzī, Mirʾāt al-Zamān , MS Paris 1503, 193v: "one of the ʿumadā " is appointed governor; the same author, supplemented by Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, …

Alp Takīn

(443 words)

Author(s): Barthold, W. | Cahen, Cl.
(alp tigin), the founder of the G̲h̲aznawid power. Like the majority of the praetorians of his time, he was a Turkish slave, purchased and enrolled in the Sāmānid body guard, who progressively rose to the rank of ḥād̲j̲ib al-ḥud̲j̲d̲j̲āb (commander-in-chief of the guard). In this capacity he wielded the real power during the reign of the young Sāmānid ʿAbd al-Malik I; the vizier Abū ʿAlī al-Balʿamī owed his appointment to him, and did not dare to take any action "without the knowledge and advice" of Alp Takīn. …

Ḥasan b. Ustād̲h̲-Hurmuz

(488 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, Abū ʿAlī , one of the leading figures of the Būyid régime at the end of the 4th/10th century. His father, Ustād̲h̲-Hurmuz, one of the ḥud̲j̲d̲j̲āb of ʿAḍud al-Dawla, is said to have been born in about 300/912; on entering the service of the son and successor of the great Būyid in Fārs, S̲h̲araf al-Dawla, he became governor of ʿUmān for him and then, wishing to transfer his allegiance to the other son, Ṣamṣām al-Dawla, master of ʿIrāḳ, he had to return to private life (374/984). The son, Ḥasan, who…

Dār al-Ṣināʿa

(1,908 words)

Author(s): Colin, G.S. | Cahen, Cl.
(also, but more rarely: Dār al-ṣanʿa ). Etymologically, this compound can be translated “industrial establishment, workshop”. In fact it is always applied to a State workshop: for example, under the Umayyads in Spain to establishments for gold and silver work intended for the sovereign, and for the manufacture and stock-piling of arms. But the sense most widely used is that of “establishment for the construction and equipment of warships”: dār ṣināʿa li-ins̲h̲āʾ al-sufun ; or simply dār al-ins̲h̲āʾ , which also occurs. This does not include the arsen…

K̲h̲as̲h̲ab

(1,018 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(a.), wood. In the major part of the Muslim world, wood is fairly scarce and for this reason plays a relatively minor rôle in the material life of its populations in comparison with that of societies in which it is more plentiful. However, precisely because its use is limited, it occupies an important place in artistic creation, for example in private furniture and the appurtenances of mosques. Architecturally, it is employed for doors, roofs, arches, etc. and ceilings; it is also used in the ga…

Kayk̲h̲usraw

(1,558 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, name of three-Sald̲j̲ūḳid sultans of Rum. Kayk̲h̲usraw i , son and one of the successors of Kilid̲j̲ Arslān II [ q.v.]. When the latter, at the age of about seventy, decided ca. 583/1187 to divide his territories among his ten sons, a brother and a nephew, G̲h̲iyāth al-Dīn Kayk̲h̲usraw got Sozopolis or Uluborlu, on the borders of the Byzantine territory, perhaps because he was the son of a Byzantine mother. He thus came in contact with Greek Christians on one side, with groups of Turkmen frontier warriors ( ud̲j̲ ) who were pushing forward in that direction on…

Ibn Abī Ṭayyiʾ

(360 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, Yaḥyā b. Ḥamīd al-Nad̲j̲d̲j̲ār al-Ḥalabī (575/1180- ca. 625-30/1228-33), an important S̲h̲īʿī historian of Aleppo, and in particular the author of a universal History, Maʿādin al-d̲h̲ahab fi taʾrīk̲h̲ al-mulūk wa ’l-k̲h̲ulafāʾ wa d̲h̲awi ’l-ratab , which even the Sunnī writers, whether or not they acknowledge the fact, were unable to refrain from utilizing. Important extracts from it are to be found preserved in the History of Ibn al-Furāt [ q.v.] and the Rawḍatayn of Abū S̲h̲āma [ q.v.], dealing with the first three-quarters of the 6th/12th century; it was known also …

Ibn al-Uk̲h̲uwwa

(126 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, Ḍiyāʾ al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Aḥmad al-Ḳuras̲h̲ī al-S̲h̲āfiʿī , known as Ibn al-Uk̲h̲uwwa, author of a manual of ḥisba , enlarging, from an Egyptian point of view, that of the Syrian writer of the previous century, al-S̲h̲ayzarī. It was published by R. Levy, with an analysis in English, under the doubtful title of Maʿālim al-ḳurba fī aḥkām al-ḥisba ( GMS, n.s. xii, London 1938); according to the only biographical notice so far discovered, that by Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar ( Durar , Ḥaydarābād no. 446), the author died in 729/1329, and nothing more is known of him. (Cl. Cahen) Bibliography In addit…

Īg̲h̲ār

(147 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
verbal noun of the fourth form of the root w.g̲h̲.r . (?), meaning here an exemption or a privilege with respect to taxes. The classical ʿAbbāsid administration used This term both for the privilege, and for the land which was covered by This privilege, of having to pay only one single tax payment, directly to the Treasury and not through tax-collectors. The districts of Mard̲j̲ and Karad̲j̲ in western Iran are regularly referred to as al-Ig̲h̲ārayn even after they had lost the official status which earned them This name. In the following centuries the term īg̲h̲ār d…

Ḳarasi̊

(1,724 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | X. de Planhol
(or ḳarasi̇ ). 1. The name of a Turkish chief in Asia Minor and of the dynasty arising from him; his territory has retained this name until the present time (sc. the ancient Mysia, the coastland and hinterland of the Asiatic side of the Dardanelles). Only unsubstantiated hypotheses have so far been put forward for the sense and etymology of the name. Indeed, the whole history of the dynasty, the first of those which were to be suppressed by the Ottomans, is wrapped in obscurity. The Byzantine historian Ducas, who wrote 150 years after the events in question, classes Ḳarasi̊ amon…

Kaykāʾūs

(1,701 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, name of two Sald̲j̲ūḳid sultans of Rūm (Asia Minor). Kaykāʾūs I . Succeeding his father Kayk̲h̲usraw I [ q.v.] after the battle in which the latter perished (608/1211), he at first had to rid himself of the rivalry of his brothers Kayferīdūn and Kayḳubād̲h̲ [ q.v.]. After that he had no further internal difficulties. His reign is particularly marked by the combination of a policy of peace towards the Greeks of Nicaea with interventions on the southern, northern and eastern frontiers. In the south, where Kayk̲h̲usraw had taken Anṭāliya, he…

Ḥasanwayh

(1,264 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, name of one of the Kurdish chieftains (and of the dynasty descended from him) who, in the 4th/10th century and at the beginning of the 5th/11th century, succeeded in founding and maintaining in Western Iran and Upper Mesopotamia more or less autonomous and lasting principalities. Ḥasanwayh b. Ḥusayn (Abu ’l-Fawāris) belonged to a branch of the Kurdish tribe of the Barzikānī, other groups of which were led by several of his relatives (Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, viii, 518-9). The death of two uncles (349/960 and 350/961) and the …

Ḏj̲izya

(9,149 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | İnalcık, Halil | Hardy, P.
(i)—the poll-tax which, in traditional Muslim law, is levied on non-Muslims in Muslim states. The history of the origins of the d̲j̲izya is extremely complex, for three different reasons: first, the writers who, in the ʿAbbāsid period, tried to collect the available materials relating to the operation of the d̲j̲izya and the k̲h̲arād̲j̲ found themselves confronted by texts in which these words were used with different meanings, at times in a wide sense, at others in a technical way and even then varying, so that in order to …

Ḵh̲artpert

(719 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, a stronghold of eastern Anatolia situated on a rock (Armenian, pert ) 350 m./1,100 ft. above the plain of K̲h̲anzit [ q.v.], to be identified with the Ḥiṣna Zayt of the Aramaic texts (and already in Ammianus Marcellinus, castellum Ziata , whence, through a confusion, the Arabic Ḥiṣn Ziyād, a term in use till the 16th century). The corrupted form K̲h̲arput is found in colloquial Armenian (whence already in the Byzantine author Cedrenos, ii, 419) and in modern Turkish. The Latin and French authors at the time of t…

Iḳṭāʿ

(3,859 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, term for a form of administrative grant, often (wrongly) translated by the European word “fief” (German Lehn). The nature of the iḳṭāʿ varied according to time and place, and a translation borrowed from other systems of institutions and conceptions has served only too often to mislead Western historians, and following them, even those of the East. In the article ḍayʿa it was seen how the Muslim state, in its early centuries, had distributed to its notables portions of its territory called ḳaṭāʾiʿ (pl. of ḳaṭīʿa ). These portions were made over, in fact, in…

K̲h̲afāra

(134 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(a.) “protection”, is used, often together with ḥimāya [ q.v.], to designate certain social practices. Originally, it primarily denoted the protection which Arab tribes extended to merchants, travellers and pilgrims crossing their territories, often in return for payment or as part of an agreement [see īlāf ]. Later, the word’s usage became extended to the “protection” in return for an obligatory payment exacted by various social groups from other groups or from richer individuals (e.g., by the ʿayyārūn and futuwwa [ qq.v.] in the towns). Once the military class had assumed …

Alp Arslan

(1,479 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
ʿaḍud al-dawla abū s̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿ muḥammad b. dāʾūd čag̲h̲ribeg , celebrated Sald̲j̲ūḳ sultan, the second of the dynasty (455/1063-465/1073). Born probably in 421/1030, at an early age he led the armies of his father Čag̲h̲ribeg with great success, especially against the G̲h̲aznawids, and in 450/1058 he saved his uncle, the sultan Ṭug̲h̲rilbeg, from the revolt of Ibrāhīm Inal in Persia. Two or three years later he succeeded Čag̲h̲ribeg, who had been ill for a long time, and at the end…

Ibn al-Ṭuwayr

(111 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Salām b. al-Ḥasan . . . al-Ḳaysarānī al-Miṣrī (525-617/1130-1220), high-ranking official of the later Fāṭimids, wrote in the reign of Salāḥ al-Dīn a “History of the two dynasties”, Nuzhat al-muḳlatayn fī ak̲h̲bār al-dawlatayn , an important work now unfortunately lost, to which the great compilers of the Mamlūk period, Ibn al-Furāt, al-Maḳrīzī, al-Ḳalḳas̲h̲andī, Ibn Tag̲h̲rībirdī, and even before them Ibn K̲h̲aldūn, owe the most important part of their knowledge of the history of the later Fāṭimids and of the general institutions of the régime. (Cl. Cahen) Bibl…

Armīniya

(17,607 words)

Author(s): Canard, M. | Cahen, Cl. | Deny, J.
, Armenia, a country of Hither Asia. I. Geographical Outline. Armenia is the central and most elevated part of Hither Asia. Encompassed between two mountain chains, the Pontic chain to the north and the chain of the Taurus to the south, it lies between Asia Minor to the west of the Euphrates, Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān and the region south-west of the Caspian (on a level with the confluence of the Kurr [Kura] and the Araxes) to the east, the Pontic regions to the north-west, the Caucasus (from which the line of the…

ʿArīf

(1,418 words)

Author(s): Ali, Saleh A. el- | Cahen, Cl.
, "one who knows", a term applied to the holders of certain military or civil offices, based on competence in customary matters, ʿurf , as opposed to knowledge of the law, which characterizes the ʿālim . There may have existed in some cases de facto ʿurafāʾ in Arabia already prior to and at the time of Muḥammad (al-S̲h̲āfiʿī, Umm , iv, 81) who is said to have condemned them (Ibn Ḥanbal, iv, 133; Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, Nihāya , iii, 86; al-Sarak̲h̲sī, S̲h̲arḥ al-Siyar al-Kabīr , i, 98; al-Buk̲h̲ārī, al-Taʾrīk̲h̲ al-Kabīr , ii, 341). But such traditions are obviously influenced by later conditions. Duri…

Itāwa

(64 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(from atā , apparently a doublet of ʿaṭā ) literally “gift”, a general term met with, especially in pre- and proto-Islamic times, meaning a vague tribu te or lump payment madt, for example, to or by a tribe or other group; later the words describes, sometimes in a denigrating way, a tip or bribe. (Cl. Cahen) Bibliography F. Løkkegaard, Islamic Taxation, index, s.v.

Arslan b. Sald̲j̲ūḳ

(720 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, the son, probably the elder son, of the ancestor and eponym of the Sald̲j̲ūḳid dynasties, Sald̲j̲ūḳ. His history is merged in that of the first contacts between the Og̲h̲uz led by his family and the Muslim states of Central Asia. His personal name was Isrāʾīl (cf. his brothers Mīk̲h̲āʾīl and Mūsā, fore-names in which it is possible to see Jewish Ḵh̲azar or Nestorian Central-Asian influence), with Arslan as a totemic name (cf. his famous nephews Ṭug̲h̲ril Muḥammad and Čag̲h̲rī Dāʾūd). The begin…

K̲h̲usraw Fīrūz

(249 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, name of the last Būyid ruler, better known by his laḳab of al-Malik al-Raḥīm. He succeeded his father Abū Kālīd̲j̲ār in ʿIrāḳ in 440/1048. Most of his reign was spent in disputing with his brother Fulād̲h̲ Sūtūn the possession of Fārs and K̲h̲ūzistān and in trying to maintain discipline amongst the Turkish troops of his general al-Basāsīrī [ q.v.]. There is no discernible doctrinal reason for his adoption, in defiance cf the caliph, of an epithet reserved for God. In any case, the enfeeblement of the Būyid dynasty allowed the caliph in question, al-Ḳā…

Diyār Bakr

(4,093 words)

Author(s): Canard, M. | Cahen, Cl. | Yinanç, Mükrimin H. | Sourdel-Thomine, J.
, properly “abode of (the tribe of) Bakr”, the designation of the northern province of the D̲j̲azīra. It covers the region on the left and right banks of the Tigris from its source to the region where it changes from its west-east course to flow in a south-easterly direction. It is, therefore, the upper basin of the Tigris, from the region of Siʿirt and Tell Fāfān to that of Arḳanīn to the north-west of Āmid and Ḥiṣn al-Ḥamma (Čermük) to the west of Āmid. Yāḳūt points out that Diyār Bakr does not extend beyond the plain. Diyār Bakr is so called because it became, during the 1st/7th century…

al-Mak̲h̲zūmī

(396 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. ʿUt̲h̲mān al-Ḳuras̲h̲ī , author of an important, long-forgotten fiscal treatise, al-Minhād̲j̲ fī ʿilm k̲h̲arād̲j̲ Miṣr , a large part of which was recently discovered in the acephalous ms. Add. 23,483 in the British Museum. Al-Mak̲h̲zūmī belonged to a great family dating back to the origins of Islam. He was a ḳāḍī and it was owing to this title, although he was a S̲h̲āfiʿī as were nearly all the Egyptians, that the Fāṭimids, as was their custom, entrusted him with the duties of controlling the employees of the tax office, near…

Arslan-Arg̲h̲ūn

(313 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, brother of Maliks̲h̲āh who, on the death of the latter, seized possession of Ḵh̲urāsān and the province of Balk̲h̲. defeated and put to death another brother, Buribars, who had been sent against him (488/1095), but incurred odium as a result of his punitive measures against the supporters of his defeated brother and his destruction, as a preventative measure, of the ramparts of Marw, Nīs̲h̲āpūr, Sarak̲h̲s, Sabzawār etc.; he was finally killed in 490 by one of his slaves. His young son, aged seven, was easily swept aside by Sand̲j̲ar, the brother and lieutenant of the Sulṭān Barkyāruḳ. ¶ …

Čag̲h̲ri̊-Beg

(1,519 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
Dāwūd b. Mīk̲h̲āʾīl b. Sald̲j̲ūḳ was the brother of Ṭug̲h̲ri̊l-Beg [ q.v.], and the co-founder with him of the Sald̲j̲ūḳid dynasty. The careers of both brothers were, for the most part, inextricably bound together. It is difficult to ascertain which was the elder brother. They seem to have been born about 380-385/990-995, and there is no evidence whether their family was already, or only later became, Muslim. Little is known about their life before the year 416/1025. They were orphaned at an early age, and…

Ibn al-ʿAmīd

(1,594 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, the name of two viziers of the early Būyids, the first of them known also as a man of letters: (1) Abu ’l-Faḍl Muḥammad b. al-Ḥusayn b. Muḥammad was the son of a pedlar or wheat merchant in the S̲h̲īʿī town of Ḳumm in central Iran who later became a kātib in K̲h̲urāsān, where he received the title of ʿamīd [ q.v.] which was in this region usually given to high officials. He appears at Buk̲h̲ārā ( Mat̲h̲ālib , 232-6) at an unknown date, perhaps later than his appearance in 321/933 as vizier of Was̲h̲mgīr [ q.v.] in Rayy, and in 323 as one of the chief dignitaries of Mardāwid̲j̲ just before…

Ḥimāya

(3,358 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | P. J. Vatikiotis | G. S. Colin
, term used of practices and institutions of “protection” which are almost unrecognized by fiḳh but which were in fact important in classical Islamic society. In one sense, where the synonym k̲h̲afāra [ q.v.] is usually employed, ḥimāya has meant, from the pre-Islamic period, the protection given, in return for financial compensation, by a nomadic tribe or group to the settled inhabitants or more particularly to travellers who are in the territory controlled by them; this k̲h̲afāra may be conceded in a regular manner by a head of state or may be seized by the group concerned. In a second se…

al-Bundārī

(198 words)

Author(s): Houtsma, M.Th. | Cahen, Cl.
, al-fatḥ b. ʿalī b. muḥammad al-iṣfahānī , ḳiwām al-din , a historian who wrote in Arabic and is primarily known for his revision of the History of the Sald̲j̲ūḳids written by his compatriot ʿImād al-Dīn al-Iṣfahānī. Relieving it of certain stylistic embellishments, he dedicated it in 623/1226 to the Ayyūbid al-Muʿaẓẓam (ed. M. Th. Houtsma in Recueil de Textes relatifs à l’histoire des Seldjoucides , ii). He says that he had previously similarly treated the History of Saladin, al-Barḳ al-S̲h̲āmī , by the same author. He had also written a continuation …

Ibn al-Furāt

(580 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, Nāṣir al-Dīn Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Raḥīm b. ʿAlī al-Miṣrī al-Ḥanafī (735-807/1334-1405), Egyptian historian, author of a vast universal history, Taʾrīk̲h̲ al-duwal wa ’l-mulūk , of which he finished completely only the volumes covering the years after 500/1106-7. The majority of the fragments which survive (mainly in Vienna) are autographs and the work does not seem to have been much copied, or indeed much valued in its own time (perhaps because of suspicions concerning its style and orthodoxy), a…

Fasand̲j̲us

(587 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
( Banū ), the name of one of the families which hereditarily shared among themselves the high administrative offices under the Buwayhid régime. The founder of this family’s fortune was Abu ’l-Faḍl al-ʿAbbās b. Fasand̲j̲us, a rich notable of S̲h̲īrāz who, after being fined 600,000 dirhams by ʿAlī b. Buwayh (ʿImād al-Dawla), had taken a part in the farming of taxes for that prince (322/934), and then, in 338/949, had entered the service of Muʿizz al-Dawla, for whom he administe…

Begteginids

(879 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, an important seigneurial family which, though it never completely freed itself from the overlordship of its powerful neighbours, possessed for a century extensive lands in Upper Mesopotamia, partly in the east around Irbil and partly in the west, for a shorter period, around Ḥarrān. The founder of the family, Zayn al-Dīn ʿAlī Küčük b. Begtegin, was a Turcoman officer whose fortune was linked from the beginning with that of Zenki. Probably as a result of his participation in this prince’s campa…

D̲j̲ays̲h̲

(12,975 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Cour, A. | Kedourie, E.
, one of the common Arabic terms (with d̲j̲und and ʿaskar ) for the army. ¶ i. — Classical . Except possibly in the Yaman, pre-Islamic Arabia, although living under permanent conditions of minor warfare, knew no armies in the proper meaning of the term apart from those of foreign occupation. Conflicts between tribes brought into action virtually all able-bodied men, but without any military organization, and combats were very often settled by individual feats of arms. The embryo of an army may be said to have appeared with Islam in the expeditions led or prepared by the Prophet, although the d̲…

Mengüček

(349 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
( Mangūd̲j̲ak ), a Turkmen chief who was the eponym of a minor dynasty which appears in history with his son Isḥāḳ in 512/1118 in eastern Anatolia around the town of Erzind̲j̲ān [ q.v.], but including also Diwrigi and Kog̲h̲onia/Colonia-Ḳara Ḥiṣār S̲h̲arḳī. His territory accordingly lay between that of the Dānis̲h̲mendids [ q.v.] on the west, of the Saltuḳids [ q.v.] of Erzerum on the east, of the Byzantine province of Trebizond on the north and of the Artuḳid principalities [see artuḳids ] on the south; it thus commanded the traditional highway for inva…

Atabak

(1,932 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(atabeg), title of a high dignitary under the Sald̲j̲ūḳids and their successors. The term is Turkish and first makes its appearance in Muslim history with the Sald̲j̲ūḳids; it is therefore reasonable to enquire whether any precedents exist in the Turkish societies of Central Asia. So far no occurrence of the actual word seems to have been reported and the fact that in the Ork̲h̲on civilisation there is apparently a person called ata , father, acting as a tutor to a young prince, is too vague to enable one to affirm a connexion; the same is true…

Mafṣūl

(57 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(a.), a term used to denote certain juridical categories of landed estates in Syria in the time of the Mamlūks. The word has no connection with the Arabic root f.-ṣ.-l ., but is derived, according to al-Nuwayrī, Nihāya , viii, 256, “from the Frankish” vassal . (Cl. Cahen) Bibliography Cl. Cahen, in JESHO, xviii (1975), 238.

Ild̲j̲āʾ

(89 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
or Tald̲j̲iʾa , a method of protection by a superior of his inferiors, on which see the articles ḍayʿa and ḥimāya , adding to the bibliography Y. Linant de Bellefonds, Volonté interne et volonté déclarée en droit musulman, in Revue Intern , de Droit Comparé , x (1958), 513 ( tald̲j̲iʾa occurring in law as a fictitious sale with the object of gaining protection against confiscation, taxes, etc.; but the question arises of how the property is to be regained once the danger is over). (Cl. Cahen)

Ḳabāla

(2,034 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(a.) “guarantee”, a juridical term used mainly in connection with fiscal practice, in a manner which is still very difficult to define precisely. The particular field with which this discussion is concerned is a double one—that of the levying of the land-tax, k̲h̲arād̲j̲ [ q.v.], and that of special taxes, mukūs . As was already the case before the Arab conquest both in the Byzantine Empire and under the Sasanids, local communities were held jointly responsible by the Treasury for the payment at the required time of the ful…

Dīnār

(262 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
( Malik ), name of one of the Og̲h̲uz chieftains who set themselves up at K̲h̲urāsān after the dislocation of the kingdom of the Sald̲j̲ūḳid Sand̲j̲ar; unable to maintain his position there before the pressure of the K̲h̲wārizmian state, he found a way to profit from the dissensions among the Sald̲j̲ūḳids of Kirmān to lay hands on that principality (582/1186) and to hold it, in spite of hostilities on the borders of Sistān, Fārs, and the Persian Gulf, until his death in 591/1195. After his death, however, Kirmān in its turn became absorbed within the K̲h̲wārizmian empire, on account of in…

Kasb

(3,905 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | L. Gardet
(A.), in economic life, gain. As is well known, in its main trends Islam is not a doctrine of renunciation of the world, but one of respect for the commandments of God according to the uses of the world, which He has given to man for his benefit. There is therefore no objection whatsoever to a man’s realising, as long as it is by legal means, the gain necessary to improve his life and that of his dependents. The Prophet was born into a society of merchants, to whom he often spoke in their own la…

al-Makīn b. al-ʿAmīd

(1,181 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Coquin, R.G.
, D̲j̲ird̲j̲is , (602-72/1205-73) Arabic-speaking Coptic historian whose History , covering the period from the creation of the world to the year 658/1260, was one of the very first mediaeval oriental chronicles to become known in Europe and consequently played a significant role in the early researches of modern Islamic scholars. The encyclopaedists, who since the 18th century have provided a biography of al-Makīn which is still reproduced by Brockelmann (I, 348) and Graf ( GCAL, i, 348), have omitted to indicate their sources; all that is known is that the history of…

Ayyūbids

(10,903 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
Name of the dynasty founded by Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn b. Ayyūb, which, at the end of the 6th/12th century and in the first half of the 7th/13th century, ruled Egypt, Muslim Syria-Palestine, the major part of Upper Mesopotamia, and the Yemen. The eponym of the family, Ayyūb b. S̲h̲ād̲h̲ī b. Marwān, born in the village of Ad̲j̲danaḳān near Dvin (Dabīl) in Armenia, belonged to the Rawwādī clan of the Kurdish tribe of the Had̲h̲bānī, and, at the beginning of the 6th/12th century, had been in the service of the S̲h̲addādid dynasty, likewise Kurdish,…

Kayḳubād

(812 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, name of three Sald̲j̲ūḳid sultans of Rūm. Kayḳubād i , ʿalāʾ al-dīn was the most distinguished of the Sald̲j̲ūḳid sultans of Rūm, to whom many later sovereigns would connect themselves. Removed from power by his brother and predecessor Kaykāʾūs I [ q.v.], he succeeded him in 618/1220. His foreign policy made his dynasty one of the most powerful of his time. In the south he expanded his power, from the very beginning of his reign, over a great part of the Cilician Taurus, where he settled Turkmens. He enlarged his maritime frontiers, i…

Konya

(3,077 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Goodwin, G.
(Arabic and Turkish orthography, Ḳūniya), known in antiquity as Iconium, an important town lying on the edge of the Anatolian plateau, on a diagonal line connecting the Dardanelles with the Taurus passes leading into Syria. 1. History. Konya was, during the centuries of Arab invasion, a Byzantine military base which the attackers seem for this reason to have more or less deliberately avoided and circumvented, in preference either for Tarsus [see ṭarsūs ] to the south or especially for Cappadocia by the northern routes; this would seem to explai…

Bak̲h̲tiyār

(420 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, prince, son; heir apparet (344/955) and successor (356/967) of Muʾizz al-Dawla in ʿIrāḳ, with the laḳab of ʿIzz al-Dawla. He appears to have had little talent for government, which, unlike his father, he entrusted to wazīrs (chosen without any great discernment) so as to be free to amuse himself, though he still impeded the conduct of affaire by his impetuous verbal or active intervention. At the beginning of his reign he continued his father’s policy of hostility to the Ḥamdānid Abū Tag̲h̲lib of Mawṣil and to the autonomous chieftain ¶ of the Baṭīḥa, ʿImrān b. S̲h̲āhīn. Furthermor…

Balak

(763 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, nūr al-dawla balak b. bahrām b. artuḳ , one of the first Artuḳids, known chiefly as a tough warrior. He appears in history in 489/1096 as commander of Sarud̲j̲ on the Middle Euphrates. This locality being taken from him by the Crusaders in the following year, and his uncle Ilg̲h̲āzī having been appointed governor of ʿIrāḳ by Sulṭān Muḥammad, he accompanied him, and is found in the following years struggling vainly for the little towns of ʿĀna and Ḥadīt̲h̲a, against Arabs, or prot…

Ḳalāwd̲h̲iya

(226 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, Claudias, a locality of ancient origin (the Claudiopolis of Pliny? cf. Pauly-Wissowa, s.v.), the exact site of which has not been determined but which almost certainly commanded the entrance to the Euphrates gorges below Malaṭya/Melitene, between the eastern Taurus and the K̲h̲anzit [ q.v.]. One of the fortified places on the frontier that were captured and re-captured by the Arabs and the Byzantines, it was restored by al-Mansūr, but again fell into Byzantine hands, together with the province of Melitene, in the middle of the 4th/10th …

Ḍayʿa

(982 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, plu. ḍiyāʿ , estate. The word can mean generally a rural property of a certain size, but is understood in a more precise sense in fiscal contexts. It is known that at the time of the Conquests the local people were left in possession of their lands, subject to their paying the k̲h̲arād̲j̲ ; it was later understood that the conversion of the landowner would not change the fiscal status of the land. In contradistinction to the k̲h̲arād̲j̲ lands there were the original properties of the Arabs, especially in Arabia, and the grants made in favour of notables or their depende…

Köse Dag̲h̲

(382 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, a land-corridor some 50 miles/80 km. to the north-west of Sīwās where there took place in 641/1243, probably on 6 S̲h̲awwāl/26 June, the decisive battle which opened up Asia Minor to the Mongols and sounded the knell for the Sald̲j̲ūḳ sultanate of Rūm. The first contacts of the Mongols and Sald̲j̲ūḳs went back to the last years of ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Kayḳubād I [ q.v.], but at that time Anatolia was too well-protected in relation to the conquests already effected by the Mongols for the latter really to have any plans for conquering it. It was only under Kayk̲h̲usraw II [ q.v.] that the threat took d…

Artuḳids

(4,149 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, (not urṭukids ), a Turkish dynasty which reigned over the, whole or part of Diyār Bakr, either independently or under Mongol protectorate, from the end of the 5th/11th to the beginning of the 9th/15th century. Artuḳ, son of Ekseb, belonged to the Turkoman tribe Döger [ q.v.]. In 1073 he was in Asia Minor, operating for and against the Byzantine Emperor ¶ ¶ Michael VII, but he later appears principally as an officer in the service of the Great Sald̲j̲ūḳ Maliks̲h̲āh. In 1077 he brought the Carmathians of Baḥrayn under the rule of Maliks̲h̲āh; in 1079 Maliks̲…

al-Ḳāḍī al-Fāḍil

(966 words)

Author(s): Brockelmann, C. | Cahen, Cl.
, Abū ʿAlī ʿAbd al-Raḥīm b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-Lak̲h̲mī al-Baysānī al-ʿAsḳalānī , Mūḥyī ( Mud̲j̲īr ) al-Dīn , the famous counsellor and secretary to Saladin, was born on 15 D̲j̲umādā II 529/3 April 1135 at ʿAsḳalān [ q.v.], where his father, a native of Baysān, known as al-Ḳāḍī al-As̲h̲raf, was the judge. He was put by his father into the Dīwān al-ins̲h̲āʾ at Cairo as a trainee, about 543-4/1148-9. Already before 548/1153 he entered the service of the ḳāḍī of Alexandria, Ibn Ḥadīd, as a secretary. As the elegant reports he drafted there bro…

Barkyārūḳ

(1,664 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(berkyaruk), fourth Sald̲j̲ūḳid Sulṭān, in whose time the visible decline of the regime began. Although the eldest of the sons of Maliks̲h̲āh, he was only thirteen years old on the latter’s death (S̲h̲awwāl 485/November 1092) and, unlike his father, who at a similar age had been guided by his vizier and atabeg Niẓām al-Mulk, he lacked a man of undisputed authority in his entourage. Moreover, Maliks̲h̲āh’s last wife, Turkān Ḵh̲ātūn, a woman also of the noblest birth, had dominated her husband in the lat…

Luʾluʾ

(418 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, Badr al-Dīn Abu ’l-Faḍāʾil al-Malik al-Raḥīm , a freedman, possibly black, of the last Zangids of Mosul, whose régime he prolonged. Designated by Arslān S̲h̲āh I on his death in 607/1210-1 as regent of the principality for his young son al-Ḳāhir, then by the latter (d. 615/1218) for his infant son, Arslān S̲h̲āh II, he was officially designated, with a caliphal diploma, as lord in 629/1232. The chronicles mention him especially for his interminable minor clashes with the lesser …

Buḳa

(97 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, one of the leaders of the group of the Og̲h̲uz of Ḵh̲urāsān which, after the capture and death of its leader Arslan b. Sald̲j̲ūḳ (427/1036?), was expelled from the province by G̲h̲aznawid troops on account of its depredations, and continued its pillaging across central and western Iran as far as the borders of Armenia and Upper Mesopotamia, where it was annihilated by the Bedouin and Kurds in 435/1044. See EI 1, s.v., the article sald̲j̲ūḳids , and Cl. Cahen, Le Maliknameh et l’histoire des origines seldjukides , in Oriens , 1949, 57. (Cl. Cahen)

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Yūsuf

(201 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(Abu ’l-Ḳāsim al-Ḥakkār?), the private secretary and trusted adviser of the Būyid amīr ʿAḍud al-Dawla [ q.v.] from the very beginning to the end of his reign, and then three times alternatively the vizier and in disgrace in regard to his sons Ṣamṣām al-Dawla and Bahāʾ al-Dawla [ q.v. below]. He is the author of a collection of official correspondence ( ins̲h̲āʾ ), largely preserved in ms. Petermann 406 (Ahlwardt 8625), which is however limited to the period of ʿAḍud al-Dawla’s reign (some fragments lacking here are cited in al-T̲h̲aʿālibī, Yatīma , ii, 89-90) and…

ʿImād al-Dawla

(619 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, ʿAlī b. Buwayh (or Būyeh), the eldest by many years, but the least known, of the three Daylamī [ q.v.] brothers who became the founders of the dynasty of the Buwayhids or Būyids [ q.v.]. At first in the service, together with a group of his compatriots, of the Sāmānid Naṣr b. Aḥmad (321-9 [ q.v.]), then of his lieutenant in Iran, Mākān b. Kākī [ q.v.], he betrayed the latter in favour of his rival Mardāwīd̲j̲ [ q.v.], from whom he obtained, in equivocal circumstances (and thanks to his relations with the secretary of the governor of Rayy, the father of the future vizier …

Eretna

(1,238 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
(Ärätnä, Ärdäni ?), name of a chief of Uyg̲h̲ur origin, who made his fortune in Asia Minor as an heir of the Ilk̲h̲ānid régime. The name is perhaps to be explained by Sanskrit ratna ‘jewel’, ¶ common among the Oyg̲h̲ur after the spread of Buddhism (communication from L. Bazin); this was of course no bar to the family becoming Muslim, like all the Mongols and Turks in the Ilk̲h̲ānid state. Eretna, who was probably an officer in the service of Čūbān/Čoban [see čūbānids ], settled in Asia Minor as a follower of the latter’s son, Tīmūrtās̲h̲, was appointed go…

Ibn ʿAbbād

(2,565 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl. | Pellat, Ch.
, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Ismāʿīl b. ʿAbbād b. al-ʿAbbās b. ʿAbbād b. Aḥmad b. Idrīs , vizier and man of letters of the Būyid period, known as Kāfī ’l-kufāt or more frequently al-Şāḥib , an honorific title which he may have owed to his relations with Abu ’l-Faḍl Ibn al-ʿAmīd [see ibn al-ʿamīd, i], but more probably to his loyalty to the amīr Muʾayyid al-Dawla [ q.v.]. Born probably at Iṣṭak̲h̲r on 16 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 326/14 September 938 (but the sources disagree on his date and place of birth), of a family of high officials (his father at least, known as al-S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-amīn, had been a kātib

Mad̲j̲d al-Mulk, Abu ’l-Faḍl Asʿad b. Muḥammad al-Ḳummī al-Balāsānī

(113 words)

Author(s): Cahen, Cl.
, mustawfī or director of finances under the Sald̲j̲ūḳ sultan Berk-yaruḳ [see barkyārūḳ ] in the early years of his reign and then vizier (490-2/1097-9), but whose death was brought about by the great military commanders in S̲h̲awwāl 492/September 1099 on an accusation of S̲h̲īʿi sympathies, and even of Ismāʿīlī ones, which he was said to have displayed during the struggle against the rival sultan Muḥammad b. Malik-S̲h̲āh [ q.v.]. ¶ (Cl. Cahen) Bibliography Cambr. hist. of Iran, index C. L. Klausner, The Seljuk vezirate, a study of civil administration 1055-1194, Cambridge, Mass. 197…
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