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Yeñi Ḳalʿe

(114 words)

Author(s): Ed,
, in Turkish, “the New Fortress”, a fortress in the southeastern Crimea. It was founded by the Ottoman sultan Muṣṭafā II [ q.v.] in 1114/1702 to protect the nearby port of Kerč [ q.v.] and provide a counterweight to Azov, which had been conquered by Peter the Great in 1696 (and held by Russia for 17 years) [see azaḳ ]. When Catherine the Great’s armies marched into the Crimea in 1771, Yeñi Ḳalʿe and Kerč fell into Russian hands without resistance and in the Treaty of Küčük Ḳaynard̲j̲a [ q.v.] of 1774, the Porte ceded its rights to them, thus giving Russia control of the northern Black Sea shores. (Ed.)…

G̲h̲anīmat Kund̲j̲āhī

(298 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Muḥammad Akram , poet of Mug̲h̲al India and exponent of the “Indian style” ( sabk- i hindī [ q.v.]) in the Persian poetry of the subcontinent. He was born at an unknown date in the first half of the 11th/17th century at Kund̲j̲āh, a small village in the Gud̲j̲rāt district of the northern Pand̲j̲āb (now in Pakistan). He was an adherent of the Ṣūfī order of the Ḳādiriyya [ q.v.], but apart from stays in Kas̲h̲mīr, Dihlī and Lahore, did not go very far from his native village, where he died in ca. 1106/1695. His works comprise a Dīwān , mainly of g̲h̲azal s, and a mat̲h̲nawī poem…


(220 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the name of a town in the Bundelkhand region of Central India, administratively in the southwards-protruding tongue of the former United Provinces, Uttar Pradesh of the Indian Union. It is situated in lat. 24° 42′ N. and long. 78° 28′ E. on the Great Indian Peninsula Railway and on the Kānpūr (Cawnpore)—Saugor road. Tradition ascribes its foundation to Lalitā, wife of a Deccani Rād̲j̲ā, and till the early 16th century it was held by the Gonds. In the…


(161 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a town of southern modem ʿIrāḳ and the chef-lieu of the governorate of D̲h̲ū Ḳār. It is situated on the left bank of the Euphrates, above the Hawr al-Ḥammār of the marshlands [see al-baṭīḥa ], some 177 km/110 miles to the northwest of Baṣra (lat. 31°04′ N., long. 46°17′ E.). The town was founded ca. 1870 by the paramount chief of the Muntafiḳ [ q.v.] confederation, Nāṣir Saʿdān Pas̲h̲a, who aided the administration of Midḥat Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.] in extending Ottoman Turkish influence over this largely S̲h̲īʿī region against local tribal interests. In July 1915 it was capture…


(164 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Nawūsiyya , the name of an extremist S̲h̲īʿī sect ( rawāfiḍ ) attached to a certain Ibn Nāwūs or Ibn Nawus (sometimes changed into Ibn Mānūs), whose personal name varies according to the sources (ʿAd̲j̲lān, ʿAbd Allāh, Ḥamlān, etc.), or else attached to a place in the vicinity of Hīt called Nāwūsa (see Ibn K̲h̲urradād̲h̲bih, 72, 217; al-Balād̲h̲urī, Futūḥ , 179: Yāḳūt, s.v.; al-Idrīsī, index; Le Strange, Lands , 64-5). The Nāwūsiyya were characterised by the idea (sometimes attributed to the caliph Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar al-Manṣūr, 138-58/754-75 [ q.v.]) that the imām


(109 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, name given by the Arabs to the daughter of Adam, the twin sister of Seth, wife of Cain and mother of ʿŪd̲j̲ [ q.v.]; see Ḏj̲āḥiẓ, Tarbīʿ (Pellat) index.—In zoology, ʿanāḳ denotes a kind of lynx, the caracal (from the Turkish ḳara ḳulaḳ "black-ear", Persian siyāh gūs̲h̲ ) found in much of Asia and Africa, which is thought to walk in front of the lion and, by its cry, to announce the latter’s approach.—In astronomy, ʿAnāḳ al-Banāt is the ζ of the Great Bear, and ʿAnāḳ al-Arḍ , ϒ Andromedae; see A. Benhamouda, Les Noms arabes des étoiles , in AIEO, Algiers, ix, 1951, 84, 97. (Ed.)

Ibn Ḥayyūs

(253 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abu ’l-Fityān Muḥammad b. Sulṭan b. Muḥammad b. Ḥayyūs al-G̲h̲anawī , Syrian poet of the 5th/11th century. Born at Damascus in Ṣafar 394/December 1003, he seems to have been at first attached to the Banū ʿAmmār [see ʿammār ] of Tripoli in Syria, although he is referred to as being in Aleppo in 429/1037-8; his sympathy with the Fāṭimids of Egypt caused him to fall out of favour with the Banū ʿAmmār, who had become independent, and in 464/1072 he was summoned to Aleppo by the Mirdāsid [ q.v.] Maḥmūd b. Naṣr (457-67/1065-75), in whose praise he began to write. On the death of his patron, he wrote a mart̲…


(92 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abu ’l-Faḍl Aḥmad b. Muḥammad al-Sukkarī , Arabic poet of Marw, floruit later 4th/10th or early 5th/11th century. Al-T̲h̲aʿālibī quotes specimens of his light-hearted and witty poetry, and also of an interesting muzdawad̲j̲a in which he turned Persian proverbs into Arabic rad̲j̲az couplets, a conceit said to be one of his favourite activities. (Ed.) Bibliography T̲h̲aʿālibī, Yatīma, Damascus 1304/1886-7, iv, 22-5, Cairo 1375-7/1956-8, iv, 87-90 C. Barbier de Meynard, Tableau littéraire du Khorassan et de la Transoxiane au IV e siècle de l’hégire, in JA, Ser. 5, i (1853), 205-7.


(83 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Saʿd b. ʿĀlī Bā Mad̲h̲ḥid̲j̲ (d. 857/1453), ʿAlawī sayyid of Ḥaḍramawt. He was the student of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Bā ʿAlawī of Tarīm, from the Saḳḳāf branch of the sayyids [see bā ʿalawī ], and in turn the s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ of Abū Bakr b. ʿAbd Allāh al-ʿAydarūs, the patron saint of Aden [see ʿadan ], d. 914/1508 [see ʿaydarūs ]. It was this last who was to compose the manāḳib of al-Suwaynī. (Ed.) Bibliography See R.B. Serjeant, The Saiyids of Hadramawt, London 1957.


(91 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a small town in the province of Ḳum in modern Iran (lat. 33° 38′ N., long. 50° 03′ E.) some 70 km/42 miles to the south-southeast of Arāk/Sulṭānābād [ q.v.]. It is unmentioned in the mediaeval Islamic geographers, but now has fame as the birthplace of the Āyatallāh Rūḥ Allāh K̲h̲umaynī (1902-89 [ q.v. in Suppl.]). It is at present administratively in the s̲h̲ahrastān of Maḥallāt. In ca. 1950 it had a population of 7,038, which in 2003 had risen to 59,300. ¶ (Ed.) Bibliography Razmārā (ed.), Farhang-i d̲j̲ug̲h̲rāfiyā-yi Īrānzamīn, i, 81-2.


(313 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, an ancient fortified settlement situated some 60 km. to the south-east of Aleppo and 100 km. to the north-east of Ḥamāt, on a route through the desert—on the fringes of which it lies—connecting Aleppo with Bag̲h̲dād. The foundation of the place is attributed to K̲h̲unāsir(a) b. ʿAmr of the Banū Kināna (Ibn al-Kalbī-Caskel, Tab. 290 and ii, 349), but it is probably older than this. Yāḳūt (s.v.), who cites also al-K̲h̲unāṣir b. ʿAmr, the representative of Abraha al-As̲h̲ram, may be echoing a later legend. In the Umayyad period, this chef-lieu of the kūra of al-Aḥaṣ…


(401 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Mustafa Fevzi , also called Kavak̲lı, marshal in the Turkish army. Born in Istanbul in 1876, he was the son of an artillery colonel. He entered the war academy (Harbiye, [ q.v.]) where he became a lieutenant in 1895, joined the staff course, and was gazetted as a staff captain in 1898. After spending some time on the general staff, he was posted to Rumelia where he became successively a Colonel, divisional commander, and Army Corps Chief of Staff. He served on the staff of the army of the Vardar during the Balkan War, and du…


(678 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Ḳurʾānic term (CVI, 1-2) which probably refers to economic relations entered into by the Ḳurays̲h̲īs well before the advent of Islam, but which presents problems of reading and interpretation which are not easily solved. In the first place, this Sūra CVI, which is very short and certainly very early (no. 3 in the classification by R. Blachère), begins abruptly, after the basmala , with the words li-īlāfi Ḳurays̲h̲in īlāfihim riḥlata ’l-s̲h̲itāʾi wa ’l-ṣayfi , which may be translated as: “because of the īlāf of the Ḳurays̲h̲īs, [of] their īlāf of the journey of winter and of summer…


(380 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. al-Mahdī al-G̲h̲azzāl al-Andalusī al-Malaḳī , the secretary of the sultan of Morocco Sīdī Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh (1171-1204/1757-89), who entrusted to him various diplomatic missions. In 1179/1766 he was the head of a delegation sent to negotiate an exchange of captives with Charles III of Spain; he was received with great honour in Madrid, and was able to return to Morocco with a Spanish mission which made a peace treaty with the sultan and an agreement abo…

Ibrāhīm b. Sayāba

(242 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, minor poet of the second half of the 2nd/8th century who died circa 193/809. Of obscure origin and a mawlā of the ʿAbbāsids, he held, according to Ibn al-Muʿtazz, the office of secretary to al-Mahdī but, having once been suspected of zandaḳa , he was dismissed and obliged to beg for a living. Like so many of his contemporaries, he led a disorganized and even dissolute life, but he was not lacking in wit, to judge by the anecdotes of which he is the hero. Ibn al-Muʿtazz described him as a born ( maṭbūʿ ) poet, while the author of the Ag̲h̲ānī has a different opinion of him…

Rustam b. Farruk̲h̲ Hurmuzd

(214 words)

Author(s): ed.
(thus in al-Ṭabarī; in al-Masʿūdī, b. Farruk̲h̲-zād), Persian general and commander of the Sāsanid army at the battle of al-Ḳādisiyya [ q.v.] fought against the Arabs in Muḥarram 15/February-March 536 or Muḥarram 16/February 637, the battle in which he was killed. His father is described as the ispabad̲h̲ [ q.v.] of K̲h̲urāsān, for which province Rustam was deputy. In the lengthy account by al-Ṭabarī of the battle of al-Ḳādisiyya, derived mainly from Sayf b. ʿUmar, there is much folkloric material, doubdess derived from materials used by the ḳuṣṣāṣ [see ḳāṣṣ ], …

Ibn Ḥamādu

(357 words)

Author(s): Ed.
( Ibn Ḥammād ), Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. Ḥammād b. ʿĪsā b. ʿAbī Bakr al-Ṣanhād̲j̲ī , a Berber ḳāḍī and historian related to the Banū Ḥammād [ q.v.] and a native of a village near their Ḳalʿa [ q.v.]. After studying at the Ḳalʿa and in Bougie, he was ḳāḍī of Algeciras and Salé (unless there is some confusion on the part of the writer of the Mafāk̲h̲ir al-Barbar (65), who gives him the kunya of Abu ’l-Ḥasan, he was also ḳāḍī of Azammūr in 616/1219), and he died in 628/1231. His Kitāb al-Nubad̲h̲ al-muḥtād̲j̲a fī ak̲h̲bār mulūk Ṣanhād̲j̲a bi-Ifrīḳiya wa-Bid̲j̲āya , whi…

Mad̲j̲maʿ ʿIlmī

(12,288 words)

Author(s): Waardenburg, J.D.J. | Jazayery, M.A. | J. M. Landau | Ed.
(i) Arab countries. Mad̲j̲maʿ , pl. mad̲j̲āmiʿ , lit. “a place of collecting, a place in which people collect, assemble, congregate” (Lane i/2, 459), became in the second half of the 19th century, as mad̲j̲maʿ ʿilmī , a technical term for Academy of Science, mad̲j̲maʿ al-lug̲h̲a being an Academy of [Arabic] language. There is thus a close relationship between both kinds of mad̲j̲maʿ , since the striving for science takes place in an Arabic language made capable of it. Whereas mad̲j̲lis [ q.v.] had been the current term in earlier Arab civilisation for [the place of] an inform…


(130 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, ʿi̊ti̊ḳnāme , also ʿi̊tāḳnāme , an Ottoman term for a certificate of manumission, given to a liberated slave [see ʿabd ]. The document normally gives the name and physical description, often also the religion and ethnie origin of the slave, together with the date and circumstances of his manumission, and is dated, signed, witnessed, and registered. The issue of such certificates goes back to early Islamic times (for examples see A. Grohmann, Arabic papyri in the Egyptian library, i, Cairo 1934, 61-4; idem, Arabische Papyri aus den Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin , in Isl


(1,143 words)

Author(s): Ed. | R. Le Tourneau
, the night patrol or watch in Muslim cities. According to Maḳrīzī the first to carry out this duty was ʿAbdallah b. Masʿūd, who was ordered by Abu Bakr to patrol the streets of Medina by night. ʿUmar is said to have gone on patrol in person, accompanied by his mawlā Aslam and by ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAwf. ( Ḵh̲iṭaṭ . ii, 223, cf. Ṭabarī, i, 5, 2742; R. Levy, (ed.) Maʿālim al-Ḳurba , 216; al-G̲h̲azzālī, Naṣīḥat al-Mulūk (ed. Humāʾī, 13, 58). Later the ʿasas was commanded by a police officer, known as the ṣāḥib al-ʿasas (Maḳrīzī, loc. cit.; Ibn Tag̲h̲rībirdī, ii, 73; Nuw…

Mās̲h̲āʾ Allāh

(416 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), a phrase occurring in the Ḳurʾān (VI, 128; VII, 188; X, 50; XVIII, 37; LXXXVII, 7; cf. XI, 109-10, LXXII, 8) and widely used in the Islamic lands of the Middle East with the general meaning of “what God does, is well done”. The formula denotes that things happen according to God’s will and should therefore be accepted with humility and resignation. In a cognate signification, the phrase is often used to indicate a vague, generally a great or considerable, but some times a small, number or quantity of time (Lane, Lexicon , s.v., who refers to S. de Sacy, Relation de l’Egypte, 246, 394). One …


(77 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Kambō , S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ D̲j̲amālī , Suhrawardī Ṣūfī saint of early 10th/16th century Muslim India, who died in 941/1534-5 during the reign of the Mug̲h̲al ruler Humāyūn [ q.v.] and was buried at Mihrawlī. His son Gadāʾī [see gadāʾī kambō, in Suppl.], whom D̲j̲amālī had in his lifetime made his k̲h̲alīfa or spiritual successor within the Suhrawardī order, achieved equal religious influence at the courts of Humāyūn and then Akbar. (Ed.) Bibliography See that to gadāʾī kambō.


(331 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, an Arabic verbal noun, from the tenth form of the root ḳ-l-l . In Classical and Middle Arabic this form is used with a variety of meanings (see Dozy and other dictionaries), and especially to convey the notion of separate, detached, unrestricted, not shared, or sometimes even arbitrary. It occurs occasionally in a political context— e.g., of a dynasty, a region, a people or a city quarter not effectively subject to some higher authority. Such occurrences are, however, rare, and the word was in no sense a political technical term. In Ottoman officia…

Ḥarb b. Umayya b. ʿAbd S̲h̲ams

(137 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the father of Abū Sufyān and father-in-law of Abū Lahb [ qq.v.], one of the leading figures of Mecca in his day. He is said to have been the first to use Arabic writing, and one of the first to renounce wine. A companion of ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib, he succeeded him ¶ as war-leader, and led the clan of ʿAbd S̲h̲ams and, according to some traditions, all Ḳurays̲h̲ in the so-called sacrilegious war [see fid̲j̲ār ]. After his death the leadership is said to have passed to the Banū Hās̲h̲im. The story of his contest of merits and subsequent quarrel with ʿAb…


(112 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Sunḳur (t.), one of the many words in Turkish denoting birds of prey. In the modern Turkic languages, and probably always, it means the gerfalcon, falco gyrfalco (Sir Gerard Clauson, An etymological dict. of pre-thirteenth century Turkish, Oxford 1972, 838a). Maḥmūd al-Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī says that it was a raptor smaller than the ṭog̲h̲ri̊l ( Dīwān lug̲h̲āt al-turk , tr. Atalay, iii, 381). The term became frequently used as a personal name in mediaeval Islamic times, both alone and in such combinations as Aḳ/Ḳara Sonḳor “White/Black Gerfalcon”, cf. J. Sauvaget, Noms et surnoms de Mamelouk


(96 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the Amīr, lord of Hamad̲h̲ān, played an important rôle in the struggles for the throne between the rival Sald̲j̲ūḳ princes Barkiyāruḳ and Muḥammad I. After having first taken the side of the latter, in 494/1100 he went over to the side of Barkiyāruḳ, ¶ and, after the latter’s death, became the Atabeg of his son Maliks̲h̲āh, who was a minor. He could not, however, hold his own against Muḥammad, and was treacherously murdered by him in 499/1105. (Ed.) Bibliography Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, x, 199 ff. Houtsma, Receuil, ii, 90 see also barkiyāruḳ and muḥammad b. maliks̲h̲āh.


(2,024 words)

Author(s): Vignet-Zunz, J. | Ed.
(a.), “countryside”. I. As a geographical and territorial term. One sense of this term early emerged from the Egyptian context, where an arid country is traversed by a river with food-producing fringes: the image is that of the fertile (and cultivated) banks of the Nile [see nīl ]. It includes two ideas, that of “fringe” (bank, littoral and, by extension, flank, limit) and that of “fertile countryside”, “abundance” (as opposed to the desert; and, by extension, “countryside” as opposed to the town) (see the lexicon of Lane and Kazimirski). In Morocco, where the natural environment is…

Ahl al-Ḥall wa’l-ʿAḳd

(213 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(this, though illogical, is the normal order of the words), “those who are qualified to unbind and to bind”, the representatives of the community of the Muslims who act on their behalf in appointing and deposing a caliph or ¶ another ruler [see bayʿa]. They must be Muslims, male, of age, free, ʿadl [ q.v.], and capable of judging who is best qualified to hold the office. No fixed number of “electors” is required; according to the prevailing opinion, even the appointment made by one “elector” in the presence of two qualified witnesses is valid. This…


(104 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, pl. d̲j̲usūr (Ar., cf. Fränkel, Aram. Fremdwörter im Arab historians asArabischen , 285), “bridge”, is more particularly, though by no means exclusively, a bridge of boats in opposition to ḳanṭara [ q.v.], an arched bridge of stone. An incident in the history of the conquest of Babylonia has become celebrated among the Arab historians as yawm al-d̲j̲isr “the day of [the fight at] the bridge”: in 13/634 Abū ʿUbayd al-T̲h̲aḳafī was defeated and slain in battle against the Persians at a bridge across the Euphrates near Ḥīra; cf. Wellhausen, Skizzen und Vorarbeiten ,…


(108 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(t.), the common Turkish word for “water”, originally suv (which explains the form suy before vowel-initial possessive suffixes, e.g. suyu “his water”), the form still found in South-West Turkmen, in Ottoman orthography ṣū . The word is found frequently in the Ork̲h̲on inscriptions, often in the phrase yer suv = “territory”, i.e. an area containing both land and water in the form of rivers, lakes, etc. (see Sir Gerald Clauson, An etymological dictionary of prethirteenth century Turkish, Oxford 1972, 783-4). In Central Asia and in the Turkicised northern tier of the Midd…

Muḥammad b. ʿUmar b. Muḥammad, Andalusian mathematician and astronomer (d. 447/1056) known by his surname of Ibn Burg̲h̲ūt̲h̲

(344 words)

Author(s): Ed.
He is cited among the “famous ¶ pupils” of Ibn al-Ṣaffār [ q.v.] by Ṣāʿid al-Andalusī, who presents him moreover as very knowledgeable in grammar, Ḳurʾān, theoretical and practical law, and appreciates highly his character and conduct. He mentions as his principal pupils Ibn al-Layt̲h̲, Ibn al-D̲j̲allal and Ibn al-Ḥayy. The first, Muḥammad b. Aḥmad, was an expert in the field of arithmetic and geometry and devoted himself to astronomical observations, at the same time as performing the functions of ḳāḍī of S̲h̲urriyūn (Surio), in the region of Játiva. …


(316 words)

Author(s): Ed,
, the Ottoman Turkish name for the Vardar , Grk. Axios, a river of the southern Balkans. It rises in the Šar Mountains near where Macedonia, Albania and the region of Kosovo meet, and flows northeastwards and then in a southeastern and south-south-eastern direction through the present (Slavic) Macedonian Republic [see maḳadūnyā ], past Skopje or Üsküb [ q.v.] and through Greek Macedonia to the Gulf of Salonica. Its length is 420 km/260 miles. The lower valley of the Vardar probably passed into Ottoman Turkish hands around the time of the first Turkish capture of Salonica in 1387 [see selānīk …


(259 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.) or ʿāriya , also iʿāra , the loan of non-fungible objects ( prêt à usage, commodatum ). It is distinguished as a separate contract from the ḳarḍ or loan of money or other fungible objects ( prêt de consommation, mutuum ). It is defined as putting some one temporarily and gratuitously in possession of the use of a thing, the substance of which is not consumed by its use. The intended use must be lawful. It is a charitable contract and therefore "recommended" ( mandūb ), and the beneficiary or borrower enjoys the privileged position of a trustee ( amīn ); he is not, in …


(177 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a Persian word meaning the song of the nightingale, and hence by extension fame, repute, and loud cries of various kinds. In Turkish usage it is applied more particularly to the call of the muezzin [see ad̲h̲ān ] and to the Muslim war-cry ( Allāhu Akbar and Allāh Allāh ). In the Ottoman Empire it was used of certain ceremonial and public prayers and acclamations, more specifically those of the corps of Janissaries [see yeñi Čeri ]. Such prayers were recited at pay parades and similar occasions, at the beginning of a campaign, when they were accomp…


(108 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, literally “will”, a term adopted in Ottoman official usage from 1832 to designate decrees and orders issued in the name of the Sultan. The formal procedure was for draft decrees prepared by ministers and officials to be addressed to the Sultan’s chief secretary ( Serkātib-i s̲h̲ahriyārī ), who read them to the Sultan and received and noted his comments. If he approved, the chief secretary then communicated the text to the Grand Vizier, as the Sultan’s will. Under the constitution, the Sultan’s function was limited to giving his assent to the decisions of the government. The term Irāde


(132 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a small town and fortress, formerly in the native state of Ḥaydarābād, now in the S̲h̲olapur District of Maharas̲h̲tra State of the Indian Union (lat. 18° 16′ N., long 75° 27′ E.) The fortress is attributed, like many of those in the Deccan, to the Bahmanī minister Maḥmūd Gāwān [ q.v.], i.e. to the third quarter of the 9th/15th century, but may well be earlier [see burd̲j̲. III. at vol. I, 1323b]. Parendā was for a short time the capital of the Niẓām S̲h̲āhīs [ q.v.] after the capture of Aḥmadnagar [ q.v.] by Akbar’s forces in 1014/1605, but was conquered by Awrangzīb when he was gove…


(331 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, an ethnic designation stemming from Lamaṭa, a quarter of the Moroccan town of Sid̲j̲ilmāssa, borne in particular by two mystics: 1. Aḥmad al-Ḥabīb b. Muḥammad al-G̲h̲umārī b. Ṣālīḥ al-Ṣiddīḳī (since he traced his genealogy back to ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Abī Bakr) al-Ṣid̲j̲ilmāssī , who belonged to the S̲h̲ād̲h̲iliyya order [ q.v.]; he had numerous pupils, including Abu ’l-ʿAbbās al-Hilālī [see al-Hilālī in Suppl.] and his cousin through his female relatives, Aḥmad b. al-Mubārak (see below). He died in the odour of sanctity at Sid̲j̲ilmāssa on 4 Muḥarram 1165/23 November 1751. Bibliograph…


(74 words)

Author(s): Ed,
, a small settlement on the Ḵh̲awr al-ʿUdayd, a creek on the southeastern coast of the Ḳaṭar [ q.v.] peninsula on the southern Gulf shores (iat 24° 33′ N., long. 51° 30′ E.). It lies in the area of the undefined frontier between Ḳaṭar and Abū Ẓaby [ q.v.], one of the constituent shaykhdoms of the United Arab Emirates [see al-imārāt al-ʿarabiyya al-muttaḥida , in Suppl.]. (Ed.) Bibliography See those to abū Ẓaby and Ḳaṭar.

Ṭorg̲h̲ud Eli

(104 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the name of three districts of Anatolia in early Ottoman times. 1. In 699/1299-1300, ʿOt̲h̲mān I b. Ertog̲h̲rul gave his commander Ṭorg̲h̲ud Alp [ q.v.] the district of Inegöl just to the east of Bursa. The name Ṭorg̲h̲ud Eli appears in the early historians ʿĀs̲h̲i̊k-pas̲h̲a-zāde and Nes̲h̲rī, but disappears by the 10th/16th century. 2. A place in the Tas̲h̲li̊ḳ Silifke area on the southern coast of Anatolia in Ḳaramānid times. 3. A place in the steppe lands of Aḳ S̲h̲ehir and Aḳ Sarāy in the hands of the Ṭorg̲h̲ud Bey family during the 9th-10th/15th-16th centuries. (Ed.) Bibliography İA, …


(94 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, patriarch, the form found in Ottoman Turkish (see Redhouse, Turkish and English lexicon, s.v.) for the Patriarchs of the Greek Orthodox and Eastern Christian Churches in the empire, of whom by the 19th century there were seven. It stems from the Arabic form biṭrīḳ/baṭrīḳ [ q.v.] “patricius”, confused with baṭriyark/baṭraḳ “patriarch”, also not infrequently found in mediaeval Arabic usage as faṭrak . See G. Graf, Verzeichnis arabischer kirchliche Termini 2, Louvain 1954, 84; C.E. Bosworth, Christian and Jewish religious dignitaries in Mamlûk Egypt and Syria ..., in IJMES, iii (197…


(239 words)

Author(s): Ed.
or menangkabau, the most numerous of the peoples of the island of Sumatra [ q.v.] in the Indonesian Republic (1980 population estimate, 6 million). They inhabit the Padang highlands of west-central Sumatra, but there are also appreciable numbers of Minangkabau emigrants, including to Negro Sembilan in the Malay peninsula [ q.v.]. Originally under Indonesian cultural and religious influence, as the centre of the Hindu-Malayan empire of Malayu, by the early 17th century much of their land had become Muslim through the influence of the Sultanate of Atjèh [ q.v.] at the northern tip of…


(105 words)

Author(s): Ed.
or Banū Nīsān, the name of a family of ruʾasāʾ (pl. of raʾīs [ q.v.]), of a fabulous richness, who held power at Āmid [see diyār bakr ] in the 6th/12th century under the nominal suzerainty of the Inālid [ q.v.] Turcomans. They even placed their name on coins. Their rule came to an end with the conquest of the town by Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn [ q.v.], who accused them of having cultivated the friendship of, and even to have provided assistance for, the Assassins [see Ḥas̲h̲īs̲h̲iyya ]. (Ed.) Bibliography Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, xi, 103, 297 Abū S̲h̲āma, ii, 39 Cl. Cahen, Mouvements populaires, in Arabica, v/3 (1958),…


(90 words)

Author(s): Ed.
means both the sacrifices of a victim and the victim itself. In addition to the religious sacrifices studied in the art. d̲h̲abīḥā , there exist a host of others, meant for special occasions ( dbīḥa in Mag̲h̲ribī Arabic; Berber taməg̲h̲rust ; etc.), which have been treated at length in the art. dam above. On the blood sacrifices practised before the advent of Islam, see in particular ʿatīra and nad̲h̲r , and also J. Chelhod, Le sacrifice chez les Arabes , Paris 1955, and the bibliography cited there. (Ed.)


(3,976 words)

Author(s): Ed. | D. Sourdel | P. Minganti
, colloquially also Falasṭīn, an Arabic adaptation of the classical Palestine (Greek Παλαιστίνη Latin Palaestina), the land of the Philistines. The name was used by Herodotus (i, 105; ii, 106; iii, 91; iv, 39) and other Greek and Latin authors to designate the Philistine coastlands and sometimes also the territory east of it as far as the Arabian desert. After the suppression of the Jewish revolts in 70 and 132-5 A.D. and the consequent reduction in the Jewish population the name Syria Palaestin…


(923 words)

Author(s): Ed. | Kaye, A.S.
(etymology of this name obscure), a group of Arabs, of nomadic origin, found by early modern times (the 19th century) in the central Sudan belt of Africa, now coming within the countries bordering on Lake Chad, sc. western Chad, northeastern Nigeria, northern Cameroons and the southeastern tip of Niger. 1. History. Their origin was in Dārfūr and Wādāy [ q.vv.], and they migrated westwards at an unknown date, perhaps as early as the 14th century; in the 17th century they were present in Bagirmi [ q.v.] to the southeast of Lake Chad as that nation took shape. The earliest arrivals…


(146 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(Ar.), pl. d̲j̲azāʾir , a term which signifies essentially an island and secondarily a peninsula (for example D̲j̲azīrat al-Andalus , Spain; Ḏj̲azīrat al-ʿArab [see al-ʿarab , d̲j̲azīrat-]). By extension, This same word is applied also to territories situated between great rivers (see following article) or separated from the rest of a continent by an expanse of desert; it also designates a maritime country (see Asín Palacios, Abenházam de Cordoba , Madrid 1927-32, i, 291 n. 347) and, with or without a following al-nak̲h̲l , an oasis (see Dozy, Suppl ., s.v.). Finally, with the Ismāʿīlīs d…

al-Muṭahhar b. Ṭāhir (or al-Muṭahhar) al-Maḳdisī

(504 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū Naṣr, the otherwise unknown author of an “historical” encyclopaedia called Kitāb al-Badʾ wa ’l-taʾrīk̲h̲ composed at Bust [ q.v.] around 355/966 at the prompting of an anonymous Sāmānid minister. Cl. Huart had the merit of bringing out of oblivion an eloquent piece of work which witnesses to the interest shown in the history of humanity, probably less in regard to actual events than in regard to culture, by mediaeval Muslims. Huart published, on the basis of an Istanbul ms., the Arabic text of this and a Fren…

Bahrām S̲h̲āh

(93 words)

Author(s): Ed.
b. tug̲h̲rul s̲h̲āh , the Sald̲j̲ūḳid, was raised to the throne of Kirmān by the Atabeg Muʾayyad al-Dīn Rayḥān in succession to his father on the latter’s death in 565/1170 but soon afterwards had to make way for his elder brother Arslān S̲h̲āh [ q.v.]. The two brothers there upon fought with one another with varying success till the death of Bahrām S̲h̲āh in 570/1174-5. (Ed.) Bibliography Afḍal al-Dīn Kirmānī, Badāʾiʿ al-Azmān fī waḳāʾiʿ Kirmān, ed. Muḥammad Mahdī Balzānī, Tehran 1947, 50 ff. Houtsma, Receuil, i, 35 ff. ZDMG, xxxix, 378 ff.


(179 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. D̲j̲aʿfar b. Muḥammad b. Sahl al-Sāmarrī , traditionist and man of letters, originally from Surra man raʾā (Sāmarrā; Ziriklī, Aʿlām , vi, 297, makes him a native of Samaria/Sāmira), who was, in particular, the pupil of ʿUmar b. S̲h̲abba [ q.v.]. In 325/937 he went to Damascus and taught there ḥadīt̲h̲ , dying at ʿAsḳalān (at Jaffa, according to Ziriklī) in 327/939 aged ca. 90 years. He left behind several works on ethics and on belles-lettres, one of which has been printed at Cairo in 1350/1931-2, the Kitāb Makārim al-ak̲h̲lāḳ wa-maʿālihā . Othe…


(3,688 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Burton-Page, J. | Andrews, P.A. | Ed.
(a.), the measurement of plane surfaces, also in modern usage, survey, the technique ofsurv eying. In this article, measures of length and area will be considered, those of capacity, volume and weight having been dealt with under makāyīl wamawāzīn . For the technique of surveying, see misāḥa, ʿilm al- . 1. In the central Islamic lands. In pre-modern times, there were a bewildering array of measures for length and superficial area, often with the same name but differing locally in size and extent. As Lane despairingly noted, “of the measures and…


(270 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(Ḥas̲h̲awiyya, Ḥus̲h̲wiyya, or Ahl al-Ḥas̲h̲w), a contemptuous term derived from ḥas̲h̲w (“farce” and hence “prolix and useless discourse”) and with the general meaning of “scholars” of little worth, particularly traditionists; this term is sometimes associated with g̲h̲ut̲h̲āʾ and g̲h̲ut̲h̲ar , and even with raʿāʿ , “the scum of the populace” (Ibn Ḳutayba, Muk̲h̲talif , 96; tr. Lecomte, 90), and used by some Sunnis of extremist traditionists or those whose researches are of very little value. Fairly close to Nābita [ q.v.] and to Mud̲j̲bira [ q.v.], it is used, in a narrower se…


(701 words)

Author(s): M. Glünz | Ed.
, the narcissus, in Turkish nergis , in Persian nargis and also ʿabhar (cf. F. Meier, Die schöne Mahsatī , Wiesbaden 1963, i, 251). In classical Arabic, Persian and Turkish poetry the narcissus appears both in descriptions of nature and in erotic poetry. Instances of the narcissus as one of the items of the garden can be found in the exordia of panegyric ḳaṣīdas , in wine and love poetry ( k̲h̲amriyyāt , g̲h̲azaliyyāt ) and, of course, in the specialised genres of garden, flower and spring poetry ( rawḍiyyāt , zahriyyāt , rabīʿiyyāt ). A number of Arab poets, e.g. Ibn al-Muʿtazz and Ibn al-Rūmī [ q.v…

Raʾs al-ʿĀm

(113 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.) means New Year’s Day, lit. “beginning of the year”, i.e. 1 al-Ṃuharram. For the difference with Raʾs al-sana, see Lane, Lexicon , s.v. ʿām . Sunnī Muslim law does not prescribe any particular celebration for the first month of the year, except that a voluntary fast-day is recommended on the tenth [see ʿās̲h̲ūrāʾ ]. However, the first ten days of the month are considered as particularly blessed (Lane, Manners and customs, chs. ix, xxiv). The S̲h̲īʿa know several celebrations during this month [see muḥarram ; taʿziya ]. In most Islamic countries, New Year’…


(62 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, said to mean “uplands”, a district of mediaeval northern K̲h̲urāsān, comprising the fertile plain, famed for its grain production, through whose western part the Atrek river [ q.v.] flows. The plain lies between the modern Kūh-i Hazār Masd̲j̲id and Kūh-i Bmālūd/Kūh-i S̲h̲āh D̲j̲ahān mountain chains. Its urban centre was K̲h̲abūs̲h̲ān, the later Kūčān [ q.v.]. See kūčān for further details. (Ed.)


(199 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(French form, saїda ), a town of Algeria, the chef-lieu of the department ( wilāya ) of the same name, situated 175 km/108 miles from Oran (Wahrān [ q.v.]) and 95 km/59 miles from Mascara (al-Muʿaskar [ q.v.]), at an altitude of 900 m/2,950 feet. It is on the wādī Saʿīda, in touch with the Causse of Oran (hills of Saïda) and the High Plains, limestone plateaux which form part of the Atlas of the Tells, to ¶ the east of the hills of Ouarsenis (Wans̲h̲arīs). The town had about 30,000 inhabitants and the department about 200,000 in 1987. The region is suitable for raising c…


(3,946 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), sodomy. There does exist in Arabic a verb lāṭa meaning “to attach oneself, to join oneself to”, but liwāṭ appears to be rather a maṣdar of

al-Muddat̲h̲t̲h̲ir and al-Muzzammil

(204 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the titles respectively of the 74th and 73rd sūras of the Ḳurʾān, derived from the first verse of each one of them which may be translated “O you covered in a cloak!” The first term is the active participle of a form V, tadat̲h̲t̲h̲ara , denominative verb from dit̲h̲ār “over garment”, and the second, also an active participle, from form V, tazammala “to wrap oneself [in a garment]”, the infix t of mutadat̲h̲t̲h̲ir and mutazammil being simply assimilated to the first radical. The two sūras are Meccan, and the opening verses of the first sūra may …


(694 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the nickname given to a person who rebelled in Transoxania during the caliphate of al-Mahdī (158-69/775-85 [ q.v.]) and who hid his face beneath a ḳināʿ

Kitāb Mafāk̲h̲ir al-Barbar

(599 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the title of an anonymous work written to the greater glory of the Berbers of Morocco and al-Andalus, existing in a ms. of the Bibliothèque Générale of Rabat (cote 1020 D). E. Lévi-Provençal published from this, as Fragments historiques sur les Berbères au moyen âgeNubad̲h̲ taʾrīk̲h̲iyya fī ak̲h̲bār al-Barbar fi ’l-ḳurūn al-wusṭā (Collection de textes arabes publiée par l’Institut des Hautes Études Marocaines, i, Rabat 1934), the following extracts: a chapter from Ibn Ḥayyān’s


(3,134 words)

Author(s): Ed. | Sublet, Jacqueline
1. In Arabic morphology In general, the formation of these adjectives is a simple matter, the suffixation taking place directly without modification of the vocalisation or consonantal structure of the nouns to which it is applied: s̲h̲ams “sun”, s̲h̲amsī “solar”; ḳamar “moon”, ḳamarī “lunar”; Miṣr “Egypt”, Miṣrī


(179 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), “my lord”, an honorific title borne by the Moroccan sultans of the S̲h̲arīfian dynasties (Saʿdids and ʿAlawids) who were descended from al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī [see ḥasanī ], with the exception of those who were called Muḥammad and whose title was therefore Sayyidī/Sīdī (but the form Maḥammad freely altered does not exclude the usage of Mawlāy in ¶ front of the monarch’s name). The articles devoted to the two dynasties considered [see ʿalawīs and saʿdids ] contain or will contain in gene…


(47,838 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E. | Kramers, J.H. | Zachariadou, E.A. | Faroqhi, Suraiya | Alpay Tekin, Gönül | Et al.
, the name of a Turkish dynasty, ultimately of Og̲h̲uz origin [see g̲h̲uzz ], whose name appears in European sources as ottomans (Eng.), ottomanes (Fr.), osmanen (Ger.), etc. I. political and dynastic history 1. General survey and chronology of the dynasty The Ottoman empire was the territorially most extensive and most enduring Islamic state since the break-up of the ʿAbbāsid caliphate and the greatest one to be founded by Turkish-speaking peoples. It arose in the Islamic world after the devastations over much of the eastern and central lands of the Dār al-Islām by the Mongols and survived the further onslaught at the opening of the 15th century of Tīmūr. Also,…


(106 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(Ital. posta ), borrowed into Ottoman Turkish and Arabic in the 19th century in the forms p/ bōsta , p/ bōsṭa


(79 words)

Author(s): Ed.

Aytāk̲h̲ al-Turkī

(229 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(d. 235/849), a K̲h̲azar military slave or g̲h̲ulām [ q.v.] who had been bought in 199/815 by the future caliph al-Muʿtaṣim, and who played an important role in the reigns of his master, of al-Wāt̲h̲iḳ and of al-Mutawakkil. At the opening of al-Wāt̲h̲iḳ’s caliphate, he was, with As̲h̲nās, the “mainstay of die caliphate”. After being commander of die guard in Sāmarrā, in 233/847 he was made governor of Egypt, but delegated his powers there to Hart̲h̲ama b. Naṣr (Ibn Tag̲h̲rībardī, Nud̲j̲ūm , ii, 265; al-Maḳrīzī, K̲h̲iṭaṭ , ed. Wiet, v, 136). It was he who, in…


(71 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Mullā ʿAbd al-Raḥīm Tayd̲j̲awzī , a Kurdish poet who composed an ʿAḳīda-nāma and a celebrated dīwān in the Hawrāmī dialect of Gūrānī. He was born ca. 1222/1807 at Tāwagōz in D̲j̲awānrūd and died at Sars̲h̲āta, on the river Sīrwān near Ḥalabd̲j̲a, ca. 1300/1883. (Ed.) Bibliography V. Minorsky, The Gūrān, in BSOAS, xi (1943-5), 94 Pīramērd, Dīwān-i Mawlawī, 2 vols., Sulaymānīya, 1938-40 ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Sad̲j̲d̲j̲ādī, Mēz̲h̲ū-y adab-ī kurdī, Bag̲h̲dād 1952.


(127 words)

Author(s): Ed.


(845 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(modern spelling Debdou; usual pron.: Dǝbdu, ethn. dəbdūbī , pl. dbādba ), a small town in eastern Morocco, at an altitude of 1,100 m., “at the foot of the right flank of the valley” of the Oued Dubdū “which rises in a perpendicular cliff to a height of 80 m. above the valley”; on a plateau nearby stands the fortress ( ḳaṣba [ ḳaṣaba ]) protected by a fosse on the side facing the mountain; on the left side of the valley lies a suburb named Mṣəllā. A dependency of the ʿamāla (under the administration of the French Protectorate in the region) of Oujda, it is the ce…


(75 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), verbal noun of the verb kaffa in the sense of “to abstain, desist [from],” and “to repel [s.o. from]” (see WbKAS , i, Letter Kāf , 236-9), in a religio-political context refers …


(120 words)

Author(s): Ed.

Yūsuf K̲h̲ān Riḍwī

(131 words)

Author(s): Ed,
, Mīrzā, Mug̲h̲al commander and governor, d. 1010/1601-2. The son of Mīrzā Aḥmad Riḍwī, he was appointed by the Emperor Akbar


(114 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a., lit. “separated”, “hived off”), in Indo-Muslim pronunciation mufaṣṣil , whence the British Indian conventional form Mofussil , an informal term of British Indian administrative usage, attested in British usage from the later 18th century but probably going back to Mug̲h̲al official usage. It denoted the provinces, the rural districts and stations, as opposed to the administrative headquarters of a Presidency, District or region, the ṣadr (in the Anglo-Indian usage of the Bengal Presidency, the Sudder ); hence going into the Mofussil could mean something like going into …


(120 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(t.), the Ottoman Turkish form of the pl. of the Arabic verbal noun taklīf “the act of imposing something [on someone]”, in this case, taxation. In Ottoman Turkish usage, tekālīf was used in the general sense of taxes, more or less synonymously with other terms like resm [ q.v.]. Writings on fiscal topics distinguished tekālīf-i s̲h̲erʿiyye , canonical taxes in accordance with the S̲h̲arīʿa (e.g. the zakāt , ʿus̲h̲r , k̲h̲arād̲j̲ . and d̲j̲izya ) from tekālīf-i fewḳalʿāde “extraordinary ones”, which could include ʿörfī ones, those imposed by the sultan an…


(229 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(local Kurdish d̲j̲wānrō ), a district of Persian Kurdistān lying to the west of Mt. S̲h̲āhō, between Avroman (Hawermān [ q.v.]) in the north, S̲h̲ahrizūr in the west, and Zuhāb and Rawānsar in the south and east. The country is generally mountainous and thickly wooded. The valleys are well watered and very fertile, being in effect the granary of the Avroman area. There is no river now known by this name, but Minorsky derives it from * Ḏj̲āwān-rūd , influenced by Persian d̲j̲awān ‘young’. A Kurdish tribe D̲j̲āwānī, listed by Masʿūdī ( Murūd̲j̲ , iii, 253; Tanbīh , 88),…

Naw Bahār

(129 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a pre-Islamic sacred site and monastery at Balk̲h̲ [ q.v.] in what is now northern Afg̲h̲ānistān, destroyed by the Arab invaders, but famed in early Islamic history as the place of origin of the Barmakī family of officials and viziers in early ʿAbbāsid times, the eponym Barmak having been the head or abbot ( pramuk̲h̲a ) of Naw Bahār. See on the shrine, almost certainly a Buddhist one, al-barāmika . 1. Origins; to the Bibl . there should be added Le Strange, Lands , 421-2; Barthold, An historical geography of Iran , Princeton 1984, 14-15; R.W. Bulliet, Naw Bahār and the survival of Iranian Buddh…


(117 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, name of two districts ( ṭassūd̲j̲ ) of ʿIrāḳ, Upper and Lower Fallūd̲j̲a, which occupied the angle formed by the two arms of the lower Euphrates which flow finally into the Baṭīḥa [ q.v.], the Euphrates proper to the west (this arm is given various names by the geographers and is now called S̲h̲aṭṭ al-Hindiyya) and the nahr Sūrā (now S̲h̲aṭṭ al-Ḥilla) to the east. (Ed.) Bibliography Suhrāb, K. ʿAd̲j̲āʾib al-aḳālīm al-sabʿa, ed. H. von Mžik, Leipzig 1930, 124-5 Ṭabarī, index Balād̲h̲urī, Futūḥ, 245, 254, 265, 457 Bakrī, index Yāḳūt, s.v. Yaʿḳūbī-Wiet, 140 Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲, v, 337 A. Musil, T…

Ibn al-Ṣayrafī

(224 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū Bakr Yaḥyā b. Muḥammad b. Yūsuf al-Anṣārī , Andalusian poet, historian and traditionist, born at Granada in 467/1074. He had a profound knowledge of Arabic language and literature, and was a prolific poet, particularly of muwas̲h̲s̲h̲aḥāt . He was kātib of the amīr Abu Muḥammad Tās̲h̲fīn at Granada; but his fame rests on a history of the Almoravid dynasty entitled Taʾrik̲h̲ al-dawla al-lamtūniyya or al-Anwār al-d̲j̲aliyya fī ak̲h̲bār al-dawla al-murābiṭiyya ; at first ending at the year 530/1135 6, then continued by the author until short…


(4,475 words)

Author(s): Kindermann, H. | Bosworth, C.E. | Ed. | G. Oman
(a. pls. sufun , safāʾin , safīn ), a word used in Arabic from pre-Islamic times onwards for ship. Seamanship and navigation are in general dealt with in milāḥa , and the present article, after dealing with the question of knowledge of the sea and ships in Arabia at the time of the birth of Islam, not covered in milāḥa, will be confined to a consideration of sea and river craft. 1. In the pre-modern period. (a) Pre-Islamic and early Islamic aspects. The most general word for “ship” in early Arabic usage was markab “conveyance”, used, however, …


(1,031 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Iranian dynasty, for the most part mythical, which owes its name to the title of kavi (see Gr. I. Ph., ii, index s.v.) > Pahlavi kay (pl. kayān , or in Arabic, akyān ) born by several persons cited, with some variants, in both the religious and the national tradition. A. Christensen has devoted to the dynasty a monograph, Les Kayanides , Copenhagen 1931, to which reference should be made for all the problems raised in regard to ancient Iran. The main source for all the Islamic historians and writers concerned with the dynasty is the Kitāb Siyar mulūk al-ʿAd̲j̲am , the Ar…


(209 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abu ’l-Faḍl D̲j̲aʿfar b. Maḥmūd , official in the ʿAbbāsid administration and the first vizier of al-Muʿtazz (251/866); he held this post for only a short time, but the Caliph was obliged to give in to Turkish pressure and reinstate him in 255/869. He kept the post at the beginning of al-Muhtadī’s caliphate but real power was in the hands of Ṣāʿid b. Mak̲h̲lad [ q.v.]. Though al-Ḥuṣrī ( Zahr , 873) lets it be understood that al-Iskāfī was friendly with al-Muʿ-tazz before the latter acceded to the caliphate, G̲h̲ars al-Niʿma ( Hafawāt , 273) maintains that he was i…

Ibn al-Sikkīt

(621 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū Yūsuf Yaʿḳūb b. Isḥāḳ , a celebrated Arabic philologian and lexicographer, came from a family who were natives of Dawraḳ, in K̲h̲ūzistān, but apparently he was born in Bag̲h̲dād in about 186/802. His father, nicknamed al-Sikkit (the Taciturn), is reputed to have been an expert in poetry and lexicography; it was he who started his son’s education, which was later continued under the direction of Abū ʿAmr al-S̲h̲aybānī, al-Farrāʾ, Ibn al-Aʿrābī and other famous teachers; like…

K̲h̲alīfa b. Abi ’l-Maḥāsin

(178 words)

Author(s): Ed.
al-ḥalabī , Arab physician who came originally from Aleppo, and was possibly related to the family of Ibn Abī Uṣaybiʿa [ q.v.]. The biographical details concerning him are fairly sparse, but it is known that he wrote, probably between 654 and 674/1256-75, a work on ophthalmology called al-Kāfī fi ’l-kuḥl (or fi ’l-ṭibb ). In this he gives a concise sketch of the history of ophthalmology among the Arabs and deals with the anatomy, physiology and hygiene of the eyes, citing the medicaments used for treating eye disorders, and d…


(369 words)

Author(s): Ed.
( Nefza ), the name of a Berber tribe (ethnic: Nafzī) belonging to the group which the mediaeval genealogists and historians mention under the name of Butr [ q.v.]. It had spread out over a large part of Barbary, between Ifrīḳiya [ q.v.] and Fās, passing through the region of Constantine, Oran, Tlemcen and the Rīf. In contemporary Tunisia, to the east of the massif of Kroumirie [see k̲h̲umayr ], there extends the country of the Nafzas, a fertile region fringed with woodlands abounding in game. Near the D̲j̲abal al-Abyaḍ, at ca 150 km/96 miles to the west of Tunis by road and 140 km/90…

Abu ’l-Asad al-Ḥimmānī

(385 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, nubāta b. ʿabd allāh , minor poet of the ʿAbbāsid period, originally from Dīnawar. His talent was only moderate, and it was ʿAllawayh/ʿAllūya who rescued him from oblivion, since this singer, the poet’s friend, introduced him to the great men of the age and, above all, set some of his verses to music, so that they enjoyed a great success. His career seems to have been quite a lengthy one. He is found, first of all, satirising as early as 153/770 two of al-Manṣūr’s mawālī , Ṣāʿid and Maṭar (al-D̲j̲ahs̲h̲iyārī, Wuzarāʾ , 124), and then frequenting Abū Dulaf al-ʿId̲j̲lī [see al-ḳāsim b. ʿīsā …

Mūsā b. ʿUḳba

(168 words)

Author(s): Ed.
al-Asadī (after 55-141/675-758), early Medinan scholar and historian, especially interested in the Prophet’s expeditions or mag̲h̲āzī [ q.v.]. A mawlā of al-Zubayr b. al-ʿAwwām’s and a pupil of al-Zuhrī [ q.vv.], he taught in the Prophet’s mosque in Medina, showing in his work the characteristic, increasing emphasis of the Medinan school on isnāds and also displaying a concern in giving dates for the events which he describes. His Kitāb al-Mag̲h̲āzī , transmitted by his nephew Ismāʿīl b. Ibrāhīm b. ʿUḳba, has not survived as a complete work, …

al-Niẓāmiyya, al-Madrasa

(38 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the designation given to the colleges of Sunnī instruction founded in ʿIrāḳ, al-D̲j̲azīra and Persia by the great Sald̲j̲ūḳ vizier Niẓām al-Mulk [ q-v.]. See for these, madrasa, I. 4, and niẓām al-mulk . (Ed.)


(69 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Manōhargárh , a fortress on a lofty rock, some 2,500 feet/770 m. high, in lat. 16° N. and long. 74° 1′ E., in the Western Ghats range of peninsular India. Formerly in the southernmost part of the British Indian province of Bombay, it is now just within the southwestern corner of the Maharashtra state of the Indian Union. (Ed.) Bibliography Imperial gazetteer of India 2, xvii, 200.


(71 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, ‘the Arab country’, a term much in use until recently to denote the Persian province of Ḵh̲ūzistān; the latter name was revived during the reign of Riḍā S̲h̲āh Pahlawī. Fur further particulars see k̲h̲ūzistān . Following Persian usage, ʿArabistān denotes occasionally the Arabian peninsula. In Ottoman administrative documents from the 16th century it is occasionally applied to the Arabic-speaking provinces of the Empire, more especially to Syria. (Ed.)


(208 words)

Author(s): Ed.
Meḥmed Ḏj̲elāl bey (1254-1300/1838-82), Turkish writer and poet, and elder brother of Red̲j̲āʾī-zāde Maḥmūd Ekrem Bey [see ekrem bey ]. He had a moderately successful administrative career, entering the Translation Office ( Terd̲j̲üme Odasi̊ ) of the Sublime Porte in 1270/1853-4, being appointed in 1279/1862-3 chief clerk to the embassy in St. Petersburg, becoming assistant secretary ( mektūbī muʿāwini ) under Aḥmed D̲j̲ewdet Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.] in 1282-1865-6, when the latter became wālī of Aleppo, and finally chief secretary of the provinces of K…


(187 words)

Author(s): Ed. | D. Ayalon
The word d̲j̲amdār is a contraction of Pers. d̲j̲āma-dār , “clothes-keeper”, cf. Dozy, Suppl . This word is not, as stated by Sobernheim in EI 1, a “title of one of the higher ranks in the army in Hindustān …”, although d̲j̲amʿdār , popularly d̲j̲amādār , Anglo-Indian Jemadar, “leader of a number ( d̲j̲amʿ ) of men”, is applied in the Indian Army to the lowest commissioned rank, platoon commander, but may be applied also to junior officials in the police, customs, etc., or to the foreman of a group of guides, sweepers, etc. (Ed.) In Mamlūk Egypt the d̲j̲amdāriyya (sing. d̲j̲amdār), “keepers of …


(302 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(also kanbāniya , with kanfāniya once attested in the Calendrier de Cordoue ), from Spanish campaña , in general denotes in Spanish Arabic usage, the countryside, but in particular the Campiña, sc. the vast, gently-undulating plain which forms the southern part of the kūra of Cordova; al-Idrīsī, Description de lAfrique et de lEspagne , ed. and tr. Dozy-De Goeje, 174, 209, makes it an iḳlim whose capital was Cordova and its main towns al-Zahrāʾ, Ecija, Baena, Cabra and Lucena. After leaving the capital, the approach to it was first thr…


(34,897 words)

Author(s): Fahd, T. | Young, M.J.L. | Hill, D.R. | Rabie, Hassanein | Cahen, Cl. | Et al.
(a.) “water”. The present article covers the religio-magical and the Islamic legal aspects of water, together with irrigation techniques, as follows: 1. Hydromancy A a vehicle for the sacred, water has been employed for various techniques of divination, and in particular, for potamonancy (sc. divination by means of the colour of the waters of a river and their ebbing and flowing; cf. FY. Cumont, Études syriennes , Paris 1917, 250 ff., notably on the purification power of the Euphrates, consulted for divinatory reasons); for pegomancy (sc…


(429 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), noun of unity ḳaṣaba , any plant with a long and hollow stem like the reed ( Arundo donax ), to which the term is especially applied (see Muk̲h̲aṣṣaṣ , xi, 46). The bamboo is called k̲h̲ayzurān , but ḳaṣab is a component of certain expressions denoting in particular the sugar cane ( ḳaṣab al-sukkar, etc.) [see following article] and the sweet flag (or fragrant rush, ḳaṣab al-d̲h̲arīra ; see H. P. J. Renaud and G. S. Colin, Tuḥfat al-aḥbāb , Paris 1934, 152; M. Levey, The medical formulary . . . of al-Kindī , Madison-London 1966, 316), or even the papyrus reed ( ḳaṣab al-bardī or just al-bardī

Niẓām al-Mulk

(145 words)

Author(s): Ed.
Čīn Ḳilič K̲h̲ān , Ḳamar al-dīn , founder of the Indian Muslim state of Ḥaydarābād in the early 12th/18th century and a dominant figure in the military affairs of the decaying Mug̲h̲al empire from his appointment as governor of the Deccan by the Emperor Farruk̲h̲-siyar [ q.v.] till his death in 1161/1748. In the early years of his governorship he was the deadly foe of his rivals for influence in the empire, the Bārha Sayyids [ q.v. in Suppl.], and after his victory over them at S̲h̲akarkheldā in 1137/1724, virtually independent ruler in Ḥaydarābād with the additional ti…


(107 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Sandān , a port on the western coast of peninsular India, mentioned by the early Islamic geographers (Ibn K̲h̲urradād̲h̲bih, Ibn Ḥawḳal, the Ḥudūd al-ʿālam ) as a flourishing mercantile town with a mixed population of Hindus and Muslims. It has been identified with the Sanjam of Portuguese maps and the St. John of English ones and as lying south of Daman and north of Thāna, hence in the modern Bombay state of the Indian Union. (Ed.) Bibliography Ḥudūd al-ʿālam, tr. Minorsky, 57, comm. 244-5 S. Maqbul Ahmad, India and the neighbouring territories in the Kitāb Nuzḥat al-Mus̲h̲tāq ... of al-S̲…


(73 words)

Author(s): Ed.
b. alp arslān , the Sald̲j̲ūḳ, was sent by Barkiyārūk against Arslan Arg̲h̲ūn, another son of Alp Arslan, who was trying to make himself independent in Ḵh̲urāsān. In the struggle between the two brothers, Būrī-Bars was at first successful, but in the second encounter, in 488/1095, his troops were scattered and he himself was taken prisoner and strangled by his brother’s orders. (Ed.) Bibliography Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, x, 179 Houtsma, Recueil, ii, 257. ¶


(356 words)

Author(s): Ed. | A. Huici Miranda
(Ar.), lake, is probably the diminmunitive, not of baḥr “sea”, as one would expect, but of baḥra , which is applied to a depression in which water can collect. Thus, in North Africa, bḥẹ̄ra , pl. bḥāyr denotes a low-lying plain, in eastern Algeria, northern Tunisia and part of southern Morocco; its most common meaning, however, is that of “vegetable garden, field for market gardening” or “field for the cultivation of cucurbitaceous plants (melons in particular)” (see W. Marçais, Textes arabes de Tanger , Paris 1911, 227). (Ed.) The word buḥayra (lake) underlies a t…


(189 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Mīrzā ʿAlī Akbar (b. 1862 in S̲h̲emākha, d. 1911 in Bākū), Azerbaijani satirical poet and journalist. After the First Russian Revolution of 1905, a humorous and satirical literature grew up in Russian Ād̲h̲arbayd̲j̲ān, seen especially in the weekly journal Mollā Naṣreddīn founded at Tiflis in 1906 by Ḏj̲elāl Meḥmed Ḳulī-zāde [see d̲j̲arīda. iv], which attacked the old literary forms, backwardness in education and religious fanaticism, achieving a circulation also in Turkey and Persian Ād̲h̲arbayd̲j̲ān. One of the writers in it was Ṣābir (who als…


(2,054 words)

Author(s): B. Farès | Ed.
(a.), Muruwwa , a term used especially in pre-Islamic and early Islamic usage. In the Arabic language there are a number of terms the meaning of which is imprecise (cf. Ibn Fāris, al-Ṣāḥibī , Cairo 1910, 34-8). The word murūʾa is one of these. Indeed, we are assailed on all sides by a host of differing post-Islamic definitions and contradictory pronouncements ( aḳwāl ) regarding it. These definitions and pronouncements will be found in the various dictionaries and in Abū Manṣūr al-T̲h̲aʿālibī, Mirʾāt al-murūʾāt , Cairo 1898, 32 pp.; al-D̲j̲āḥiẓ, al-Bayān wa ’l-tabyīn


(221 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, pl. fityān , strictly “young man”, has assumed a certain number of meanings in Arabic [see futuwwa ]: here we confine ourselves to one exclusively Andalusian usage. In Muslim Spain the slaves, whether eunuchs or not, employed in the service of the prince and his household, and then of the ḥād̲j̲ib [ q.v.] at the time when the latter was in practice taking over the reins of power, were in fact called g̲h̲ilmān (sing, g̲h̲ulām [ q.v.]), whilst those who held an elevated rank in the palace hierarchy bore the title fatā , the entire management of the household being …
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