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al-Haddād

(557 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, al-Ṭāhir, écrivain tunisien nainaliste et réformiste, qui est considéré comme le ¶ pionnier du mouvement de libération de la femme dans son pays. Né à Tunis vers 1899, dans une modeste famille originaire de la Ḥāma de Gabès, il fit ses études à la Zaytūna [ q.v.] de 1911 à 1920 et obtint le taṭwīʿ (correspondant au diplôme de fin d’études secondaires). Il participa ensuite à l’activité syndicale et fut chargé de la propagande dans une organisation fondée en 1924, la Ḏj̲āmiʿat ʿumūm al-ʿamala al-tūnisiyya, dont les principaux promoteurs furent poursuivis et bannis en 1925. Ses …

Tubu

(2,868 words)

Author(s): , G. Yver-[Ed.] | Zaborski, A.
, écrit en lettres arabes Tūbū, peuple du Sahara oriental. Il se trouve dispersé sur un immense territoire, entre, à l’est le désert Libyen, sur les franges de l’Égypte et de la Libye; à l’ouest, le massif du Hoggar/Ahaggar [ q.v.], en Algérie mériodionale; au nord, le Fezzan [voir Fazzān], région de Libye méridionale; et au sud, la moitié septentrionale du Tchad [voir Čad, dans Suppl.] et les franges du Soudan. Au Fezzan, ils forment la majeure part de la population dans le district de Gatrūn, et un petit nombre d’entre eux se trouvent dans l’oasis de Kufra [ q.v.]. Le plateau de Djado [voir Ḏj̲ād…

Takfīr

(809 words)

Author(s): Ed, | Hunwick, J.O.
(a.), nom verbal de la deuxième forme du verbe kaffara «déclarer quelqu’un kāfir ou incroyant». Depuis les débuts de l’époque islamique, ce fut une accusation lancée violemment aux opposants par des sectaires et des zélotes, tels les Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ites [ q.v.]. Pourtant, un théologien comme al-G̲h̲azālī [ q.v.] affirmait que, puisque l’adoption du kufr était équivalente à l’apostasie, encourant la peine de mort [voir Murtad], on ne pouvait porter cette accusation à la légère ( Fayṣal al-tafriḳa bayn al-Islām wa l-zandaḳa, cité dans B. Lewis, The political language of Islam, Chicago-Lon…

Abū l-Ḥasan al-Mag̲h̲ribī

(215 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. Muḥammad, poète et lettré du IVe/Xe siècle dont l’origine est inconnue. Il semble s’être beaucoup déplacé puisqu’on le trouve au service de Sayf al-dawla, d’al-Ṣāḥib Ibn ʿAbbād et du maître du Ḵh̲urāsān, qu’il rencontra Abū l-Farad̲j̲ al-Iṣfahānī et séjourna aussi en Égypte, au Ḏj̲abal, en Transoxiane, au S̲h̲ās̲h̲. Les poèmes que l’on possède de ce grand voyageur sont des pièces de circonstance ¶ sans grande originalité, mais il serait l’auteur de plusieurs épîtres et livres, notamment d’une Tuḥfat al-kuttāb fī l-rasāʾil et d’une Tad̲h̲kirat/Mud̲h̲ākarat al-…

Philistines

(1,866 words)

Author(s): Niemann, Hermann Michael | Noort, Ed
[German Version] I. Old Testament Philistines (Heb. פְּלִשְׁתִים/ pelištîm; LXX ϕυλιστιείμ/ phylistieím [12 occurrences] and ἀλλόϕυλος/ allóphylos [269 occurrences]; Egyp. pl/rst) are represented in the Bible as living in the “Land of the Philistines” (Gen 21:32; Exod 13:17; 1 Sam 30:16 etc.); for Jewish narrators most specifically the area extending from Ashdod through Gath and Ekron to the boundary of Judea itself (1 Sam 5:1–12; 6:1). Their leaders are a group of five cooperating “princes” (Josh 13:3; Judg 3:3; …

Vriezen, Theodore Christiaan

(316 words)

Author(s): Noort, Ed
[German Version] (Jul 29, 1899, Dinxperlo – Jan 29, 1981, Amersfoort), professor of Old Testament and Semitic languages at Groningen from 1941 to 1956 and at Utrecht for 1956 to 1969 (1965–1966 in Beirut). For decades Vriezen was the preeminent Old Testament scholar of the Netherlands; he received an honorary doctorate from Bern in 1964. As a pastor, along with O. Eißfeldt, Aage Betzen, W. Eichrodt, and others he took part in the 1924 training course of the Deutsches Evangelisches Institut für Alt…

Dor

(328 words)

Author(s): Noort, Ed
[German Version] The ancient port of Dor ( Dw/'r; Dū'ru; Δῶρος/ Dṓros; Δῶρα/ Dṓra) is identical with Ḥel-Burğ (1425/2247). Dor is attested from Ramses II on and is mentioned as the dwelling place of the Tkr, a group of sea-peoples, in the travel report of Wenamun (1075). From Solomon on, it was claimed to be within Israelite territory (1 Kgs 4:11). The book of Joshua has another opinion (Josh 11:2, etc.). A seal (8th cent.) mentions a …

Sarāparda

(88 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(p., lit. “palace-curtain”), the term applied in the sources for the Great Sald̲j̲ūḳs and the Rūm Sald̲j̲ūḳs to the great tent carried round by the sultans, regarded, with the čatr or miẓalla [ q.v.], as one of the emblems of sovereignty. It is described in such sources as Rāwandī, Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn and Ibn Bībī as being red, the royal colour, and as having internal curtained compartments forming rooms. (Ed.) Bibliography İ.H. Uzunçarşılı, Osmanlı devleti teşkilâtina medhal, Istanbul 1941, 31, 37, 121 Sukumar Ray, Bairam Khan, Karachi 1992, 232.

Ḳubbe Wezīri

(130 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(t.) “vizier of the dome” was the name given, under the Ottomans, to the members of the imperial Dīwān ( dīwān-i hümāyūn [ q.v.]) who came together on several mornings each week around the Grand Vizier in the chamber of the Topkapi Palace called Ḳubbe alti̊ because it was crowned by a dome. The ḳubbe wezīrleri were the ḳāḍī-ʿaskers [ q.v.] of Rumelia and Anatolia, the ḳāḍī of Istanbul, the defterdār [see daftardār ], the nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲l [ q.v.], the ag̲h̲as of the Janissaries, the commander of the cavalry and, when he happened to be in the capital, the ḳapudan pas̲h̲a [ q.v.]. This institution wa…

D̲j̲āndār

(266 words)

Author(s): Ed.
or D̲j̲andār, the name given to certain guards regiments serving the great Sald̲j̲ūḳs and subsequent dynasties. Attached to the royal household, they provided the sovereign’s bodyguard, and carried out his orders of execution. Their commander, ¶ the amīr d̲j̲āndār , was a high-ranking officer; some of them are reported as becoming atābaks [ q.v.]. Under the Sald̲j̲ūḳs of Rūm, they formed an élite cavalry guard, and wore their swords on a gold-embroidered baldric. At the accession of ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Kayḳobād I in 616/1219 he is said to have had a bodyguard of 120 d̲j̲āndārs (Ibn Bībī, El-Evāmi…

al-Ḳaʿḳāʿ

(469 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Arabic term for a man whose foot-joints can be heard cracking when he walks, but often found as a proper name in the first days of Islam and particularly among the Tamīmīs; the last to bear this name seems to have been al-Ḳaʿḳāʿ b. Ḍirār al-Tamīmī, chief of police for ʿĪsā b. Mūsā [ q.v.], governor of Kūfa from 132/750 to 147/764 (Ibn al-Kalbī-Caskel, ii, 465; al-Ṭabarī, iii, 131, 347). Among those who bore this name, apart from al-Ḳaʿḳāʿ b. ʿAmr [see the following article] and the poets cited by al-Marzubānī ( Muʿd̲j̲am , 329-30), especially noteworthy was the Co…

Idrīs b. al-Ḥusayn

(185 words)

Author(s): Ed.
b. Abī Numayy , Abū ʿAwn , S̲h̲arīf of Mecca in the early 11th/17th century. He was born in 974/1566, and became S̲h̲arīf and governor of the Ḥid̲j̲āz in 1011/1602-3 after his brother Abū Ṭālib and in conjunction with his nephew Muḥsin. This division of power ended, however, in a fierce internal family dispute, apparently over Idrīs’s retinue and followers ( Ḵh̲uddām ), and in 1034/1624-5 the family deposed Idrīs from the governship of the Ḥid̲j̲āz in favour of Muhsin. The conflict was resolved by a truce, during the time of which Idr…

al-ʿAbbās b. Aḥmad b. Ṭūlūn

(452 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, eldest son of Aḥmad b. Ṭūlūn [ q.v.]. When the latter set off for the conquest of Syria, he entrusted the government of Egypt to al-ʿAbbās, his designated heir, but al-ʿAbbās was very soon persuaded to take advantage of his father’s absence to supplant him. Warned by the vizier al-Wāsiṭī, Ibn Ṭūlūn got ready to return to Egypt, and his son, after having emptied the treasury and got together considerable sums of money, went off with his partisans to Alexandria, and then to Barḳa. As soon as he got back…

Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-Umarāʾ

(211 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the name of a celebrated Persian collection of biographies of Muslim Indian commanders from the reign of the Mug̲h̲al Emperor Akbar (963-1014/1556-1605) till the time of its author, Ṣamṣām al-Dawla Mīr ʿAbd al-Razzāḳ S̲h̲āh-Nawāz K̲h̲ān Awrangābādī (1111-71/1700-58). Born at Lahore, he soon settled in the Deccan in the service of the first Niẓām of Ḥaydarābād [ q.v.], Niẓām al-Mulk Āṣaf-Ḏj̲āh. and filled offices in Berār [ q.v.] and then as Dīwān or chief minister of the Deccan. His policy in the latter post aimed at checking the growing influences in that state …

Rayda

(311 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(Rīda, Rēda) is the name of a number of places in ʿAsīr, in the Yemen and in Ḥaḍramawt. The word rayd (pl. aryād/ruyūd ) means a ledge of a mountain, resembling a wall, or a resting upon ledges of mountains (Lane, Lexicon , s.v.). At least in Ḥaḍramawt, it is the term for the centre of the territory of a Bedouin tribe, which is generally a depression in the rocky plateau (D. van der Meulen and H. von Wissmann, Hadramaut , some of its mysteries unveiled, Leiden 1932, 22, n. 1). There are several places of this name ( Rēda) in Hadramawt: Raydat al-Ṣayʿar, Raydat Arḍayn, Raydat al-ʿIbād, Raydat …

Ḥarīm

(623 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(also ḥaramgāh , zanāna , etc.), a term applied to those parts of a house to which access is forbidden, and hence more particularly to the women’s quarters. In ancient Arabia women seem to have enjoyed some measure of personal freedom, though the use of the veil was not unknown, especially in towns. It became commoner after the advent of Islam, with the adoption, on the one hand of a stricter code of sexual morality, on the other of a more urban way of life. The provisions of t…

al-T̲h̲ag̲h̲rī

(77 words)

Author(s): Ed.
Abū Saʿīd Yūsuf b. Muḥammad al-Ṭāʾī, ʿAbbāsid commander of the middle decades of the 3rd/9th century, who presumably derived his professional nisba from service along the Byzantine frontiers ( t̲h̲ug̲h̲ūr [ q.v.], sing, t̲h̲ag̲h̲r ; al-Samʿānī, Ansāb , ed. Ḥaydarābād, iii, 136-7, gives two scholars with this same nisba, connected respectively with Tarsus and Adana). Nothing is known of him beyond the fact that he was the patron of his fellow-Ṭāʾī, the poet al-Buḥturī [ q.v.]. (Ed.)

Sīdī Ballā

(261 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh Ibn ʿAzzūz al-ḳuras̲h̲ī al-S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilī al-Marrākus̲h̲ī , a cobbler of Marrakesh to whom thaumaturgic gifts were attributed and who died in an odour of sanctity in 1204/1789. His tomb, situated in his own residence at Bāb Aylān, has been continuously visited because of its reputation of curing the sick. Although he had not received a very advanced education, Ibn ʿAzzūz nevertheless succeeded in leaving behind an abundant body of works, dealing mainly with my…

al-Musabbiḥāt

(70 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.) “those which give praise”, the name given to the group of Ḳurʾānic sūras from the middle Medinan peirod, LVII, LIX, LXI, LXII, LXIV, so-called because they begin with the phrase sabbaḥa or yusabbiḥu li ’llāh . The designation seems to be old; cf. Muslim, Zakāt , trad. 119. See further, Nöldeke-Schwally, G des Q, i, 186, 245, ii, 45; and ḳurʾān , 7, towards the end. (Ed.)

K̲h̲afḍ

(1,305 words)

Author(s): Ed.
or k̲h̲ifāḍ (a.), female excision, corresponding to the circumcision of boys ( k̲h̲atn or k̲h̲itān [ q.v.], terms which may be applied equally to both sexes). There is no mention of it in the Ḳurʾān, but more or less authentic ḥadīt̲h̲ s attest to the practice in pre-Islamic Arabia and in a certain measure justify it. Tradition attributes to the Prophet the expression muḳaṭṭiʿat al-buẓūr “cutter of clitorises”, and the following words addressed to Umm ʿAṭiyya, id̲h̲ā k̲h̲afaḍti ( k̲h̲afatti ) fa-ʾas̲h̲immī wa-lā tanhakī (i.e., do not excise everything), fa- ʾinnahu adwaʾ li’l-wad̲j̲…

al-K̲h̲aṭṭābī

(430 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Ḥamd (> Aḥmad ) b. Muḥammad b. Ibrāhīm b. al-K̲h̲aṭṭāb Abū Sulaymān al-K̲h̲aṭṭābī al-Bustī , traditionist of S̲h̲āfiʿī tendencies and poet, who is said to have been a descendant of Zayd b. al-K̲h̲aṭṭāb, brother of ʿUmar, but this genealogy has been questioned. Born at Bust in 319/931, he travelled throughout the Muslim world, from K̲h̲urāsān and Transoxania to ʿIrāḳ and the Ḥid̲j̲āz, “in search of learning” and also engaged in trade; he studied, particularly in Bag̲h̲dād, with famous teach…

Göksun

(78 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, also Göksün , a small town in south-eastern Turkey, the ancient Kokussos, W. Armenian Gogi̊son, now the chef-lieu of an ilçe of the vilâyet of Maraş, pop. (1960) 3697. It is the ‘Cocson’, ‘Coxon’, where the army of the First Crusade rested for three days in the autumn of 1097 (see A History of the Crusades , ed. K. M. Setton, i, Philadelphia 1955, 297-8). (Ed.) Bibliography İA, s.v. Göksun (by Besim Darkot), with full bibliography.

Malang

(280 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(etymology uncertain: not Pand̲j̲ābī, possibly Persian; in Urdu, malangi , masc. = “salt worker”, fem. = “loose, wanton woman”), a term used in Muslim India, including in the Pand̲j̲āb but also in the Deccan, to denote wandering dervishes of the Ḳalandarī, bī-s̲h̲arʿ or antinomian type [see ḳalandar , ḳalandariyya ]. D̲j̲aʿfar S̲h̲arīf [ q.v.] at one place of his Ḳānūn-i Islām puzzlingly names their founder as D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn Buk̲h̲ārī, Mak̲h̲dūm-i D̲j̲ahāniyān-i D̲j̲ahāngas̲h̲t [ q.v.], and at another, as D̲j̲amand̲j̲atī, a disciple of Zinda S̲h̲āh Madār ( Islam in India, ed. W. C…

Fad̲h̲laka

(101 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, sum, total, from the Arabic fad̲h̲ālika , “and that [is]”, placed at the bottom of an addition to introduce the result. Besides its arithmetical use, the term was also employed for the summing up of a petition, report, or other document, as for example for the summarized statements of complaints presented at the Dīwān-i humāyūn [ q.v.]. By extension it acquired the meaning of compendium and is used, in this sense, in the titles of two well-known works on Ottoman history, written in the 17th century by Kātib Čelebi and in the 19th by Aḥmad Wefīḳ Pas̲h̲a [ qq.v.]. (Ed.)

Marḥala

(155 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), pl. marāḥil , in mediaeval Islamic usage, a stage of travel, normally the distance which a traveller can cover in one day; it was, therefore, ¶ obviously a variable measurement of length, dependent on the ease or difficulty of the terrain to be crossed. The classical Arabic geographers frequently use the term. Al-Muḳaddasī [ q.v.] in one place (206) gives as his norm 6 to 7 farsak̲h̲s or parasangs (the farsak̲h̲ [ q.v.] being roughly 6 km.), and has an ingenious orthographical notation for marāḥil of less than 6 or more than 7 farsak̲h̲s (cf. A. Miquel, La géographie humaine du monde m…

Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Lālā

(31 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Melek-Nihād (II), Ottoman Grand Vizier, who served Sultān Meḥemmed III [ q.v.] for ten days only and then died on 19 Rabīʿ I 1004/22 November 1595. (Ed.)

Bisāṭ

(14,774 words)

Author(s): Ed. | Spuhler, F. | Golvin, L. | Allgrove, J.
(a.), pls. busṭ/busuṭ , absiṭa , which implies the general meaning of extensiveness (thus in Ḳurʾān, LXXI, 18), is a generic term for carpet, more specifically, one of fairly large dimensions. Any kind of carpet with a pile is called a ṭinfisa if it is decorated with multicoloured bands, a zarbiyya ( zirbiyya , zurbiyya , pl. zarābī cf. Ḳurʾān, LXXXVIII, 16); if it is decorated with a relief design, a maḥfūra whilst a prayer carpet is called a sad̲j̲d̲j̲āda (modern Turkish seccade ), and the collective sad̲j̲d̲j̲ād is sometimes used as a generic term (on the …

Ibn ʿAmr al-Ribāṭī

(218 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. ʿAmr al-Anṣārī , Moroccan poet and faḳīh , of Andalusian origin, who was born at Rabat, fulfilled the office of ḳāḍī for some time, and from 1224/1809 taught at Marrākus̲h̲. Whilst making the Pilgrimage, he stopped at Tunis, and received there some id̲j̲āza s; he died in the Ḥid̲j̲āz on 10 Rabīʿ I 1243/1 October 1827. Ibn ʿAmr was neither a great faḳīh nor a great poet. His works, which include in particular a dīwān , a fahrasa and a riḥla , have not been preserved in toto, and his fame rests essentially on an imita-tion of the S̲h̲amaḳmaḳiyya of Ibn al-Wannān [ q…

Ibn (al)-Zabīr

(326 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū Kat̲h̲īr ʿAbd Allāh b. (al-) Zabīr b. al-As̲h̲yam al-Asadī , Arabic poet of the 1st/7th century. He became a writer of panegyrics of the local Umayyads and wrote particularly, in an entirely classical manner, in praise of Asmāʾ b. K̲h̲ārid̲j̲a: but he did not hesitate to address praises to the Zubayrids after Muṣʿa b. al-Zubayr, who had seized Kūfa, had treated him leniently when his supporters had arrested him; it was, so to speak, as a private person that he wrote a hid̲j̲āʾ against ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Zubayr, who had treated badly his own brother ʿAmr, a friend of the poet. According to the Ag…

al-Mug̲h̲ayyabāt al-K̲h̲ams

(165 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.) “the five mysteries, things concealed in the unseen”, a technical term of Islamic theology. These are regarded as known to God alone as part of His prescience ¶ and foreknowledge of all aspects of nature and human acitivity (cf. H. Ringgren, Studies in Arabian fatalism, Uppsala 1955, 86 ff.; and al-ḳaḍāʾ wa ’l-ḳadar ). These are usually identified with the five things known to God as expounded in the Ḳurʾān, XXXI, 34: the hour of the Last Judgment [see al-sāʿa ]; when rain will be sent down; what is in the womb (i.e. the sex and number of children); what a man will gain…

Demi̇rbas̲h̲

(108 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, literally iron-head, a Turkish term for the movable stock and equipment, belonging to an office, shop, farm, etc. In Ottoman usage it was commonly applied to articles belonging to the state and, more especially, to the furniture, equipment, and fittings in government offices, forming part of their permanent establishment. The word Demirbas̲h̲ also means stubborn or persistent, and it is usually assumed that this was the sense in which it was ¶ applied by the Turks to King Charles XII of Sweden. It is, however, also possible that the nickname is an ironic comment o…

Müstet̲h̲na Eyāletler

(125 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(t.), literally, “excepted, separated”, denoting those provinces of the Ottoman empire separated from the “normallyadministered” ones of the Anatolian and Rumelian heartland. In the heyday of the empire (10th-12th/16th-18th centuries) these usually comprised such provinces as Ṣaydā, Aleppo, Bag̲h̲dād. Baṣra, Mawṣil, Ṭarābulus al-G̲h̲arb, Beng̲h̲azi, Ḥid̲j̲āz and Yemen, i.e., essentially those of the more recentlyconquered Arab lands. Since the feudal system of tīmārs and ziʿāmets hardly existed there, taxation from these regions was collected by a local office, müfred ül…

Mungīr

(220 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, conventional form Monghyr, a town of Bihar in the Indian Union, situated on the south bank of the Ganges in lat. 25° 25’ N. and 86° 27’ E, and at an important communications point between Bengal and the middle Ganges valley. It is also the administrative centre of a District in the province of Bihar of the same name. Said to have been founded in Gupta times, Muḥammad Bak̲h̲tiyār K̲h̲ald̲j̲ī [ q.v.] was its first Muslim conqueror when he raided into Bihar in 589/1193. It subsequently became a place of military and administrative importance, with a fortress built in…

Sumatra

(175 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, after Borneo [ q.v.] the second largest island of the Malay Archipelago and the westernmost island (area 473,606 km2/182,859 sq. miles). In pre-Islamic times, the kingdoms in Sumatra were strongly Hinduised in culture and religion (Buddhism and Śivaist Brahmanism). Islam had appeared in Sumatra by the end of the 14th century, since Marco Polo in 1292 mentions the northern Sumatran ports of Perlak (as Ferlec), Samudra (from which the name Sumatra probably derives; Marco calls the island “Java the Lesser”) and Lambri…

Big̲hʾ̲āʾ

(1,763 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the Ḳurʾānic term (XXIV, 33) for prostitution. “Prostitute” is rendered by bag̲h̲iyy (pl. bag̲h̲āyā ), mūmis (pl. -āt , mayāmis/mayāmīs , mawāmis/ mawāmīs ), ʿāhira (pl. ʿawāhir ), zāniya (pl. zawānīs ). etc.; a more vulgar term, although we have here a euphemism, is ḳaḥba (pl. ḳiḥāb ), which the lexicographers attach to the verb ḳaḥaba “to cough”, explaining that professional prostitutes used to cough in order to attract clients. Although M. Gaudefroy-Demombynes ( Mahomet 2, Paris 1969, 48) saw in the legend of Isāf and Nāʾila [ q.v.] the “reminiscence of sacred prostitution”, no…

Miskawayh

(1,667 words)

Author(s): Ed. | M. Arkoun | ed.
, philosopher and historian who wrote in Arabic, born in Rayy around 320/932. His full name was Abū ʿAlī Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Yaʿḳūb, which seems to refute Yāḳūt, who describes him as “Mazdaean converted to Islam”, whereas it was probably one of his ancestors who was converted. Miskawayh (Miskōye/Mus̲h̲kōye), and not Ibn Miskawayh as he is commonly designated, performed the tasks of secretary and librarian under the viziers al-Muhallabī (340-52/950-63) [ q.v.], Abu ’l-Faḍl (353-60/951-70) and Abu ’l-Fatḥ (360-6/970-6) [see ibn al-ʿamīd ] and finally under the Būyid …

Taḳdīr

(2,637 words)

Author(s): Levin, A. | Ed,
(a.), verbal noun of the form II verb ḳaddara , used variously as a technical term. 1. Grammatical usages. (a) The predominant meaning of taḳdīr is “the imaginary utterance which the speaker intends as if he were saying it, when expressing a given literal utterance”. This definition needs some elucidation. In this meaning, taḳdīr is a grammatical technical term belonging to the terminology of one of the main theories of Arabic grammar, which we may call here “the theory of taḳdīr”. Since Arabic texts on grammar do not include any systematic discussion of this theory, its pr…

K̲h̲alīfa b. ʿAskar

(317 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Libyan nationalist who, after having sought refuge in Tunisia, hastened from November 1914 onwards to assume leadership of the revolt fomented by the Sanūsīs [ q.v.] against Italian domination. The rebels soon achieved some spectacular successes against the Italians [see lībiyā ], and K̲h̲alīfa speedily attempted to raise the Tunisians against France. On 16 August 1915, in a letter to the head of the postal service in Dehibat (southern Tunisia), he called upon the latter to send back to him his family, which had …

Tōlā

(107 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a weight used in India (Skr. tulā , Hindi tōlā “balance, scales”) for both gold and silver. In earlier times, 1 tōlā = 96 rattīs , the rattī being the old Indian unit of weight, according to E. Thomas = 1.75 ¶ grains. In British India, by a regulation of 1833, the tōlā of 180 grains, being also the weight of the rupee [see rūpiyya ], was established as the unit of the system of weights, with 3,200 tōlās = 1 man or maund. (Ed.) Bibliography Yule-Burnell, Hobson-Jobson, a glossary of Anglo-Indian colloquial words and phrases, 2London 1903, 928. See also makāyil. 2. and its Bibl.

Kāwah

(535 words)

Author(s): Ed.
transliteration according to the EI rules of the name of a person who is supposed to have played an important rôle in the Iranian epic, in Persian Kāveh< Kāvag̲h̲, in Arabic Kāwah, Kāwī, Kābī. This person was a blacksmith who, after having had his son put to death by the tyrant Zohak (in Arabic, al-Ḍaḥḥāk; see zuhāk ), raised the population of Iṣfahān against the usurper, taking as a banner his leather apron, which as the drafs̲h̲-i Kāwiyān became the Iranian national flag. Having thus brought about the fall of Zohak, he set up Farīdūn [ q.v.] on the throne and was himself nominated comman…

Niẓām

(128 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), the honorific title which became characteristic of the rulers of the Indo-Muslim state of Ḥaydarābād [ q.v.], derived in the first place from the fuller title Niẓām al-Mulk borne by the Mug̲h̲al noble Ḳamar al-Dīn Čīn Ḳilič K̲h̲ān [see niẓām al-mulk ], who became governor of the Deccan in 1132/1720 and ¶ who also bore the title of Āṣaf D̲j̲āh. The process of the identification of the title Niẓām with the rulership of Ḥaydarābād was strengthened by the long reign there (1175-1217/1762-1802) of Āṣaf D̲j̲āh’s fourth son Niẓām ʿAlī K̲h̲ān, and …

al-T̲h̲aʿālibī

(147 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Muḥammad b. Mak̲h̲lūf al-D̲j̲azāʾirī, Abū Zayd, Mālikī theologian and Ḳurʾānic scholar of North Africa (786-873/1384-1468). Born in Algiers, he studied in the eastern Mag̲h̲rib and Cairo, and made the Pilgrimage, before returning to teach in Tunis, where he died. His main work is a Ḳurʾānic commentary, al-Ḏj̲awāhir al-ḥisān fī tafsīr al-Ḳurʾān (printed Algiers 1323-8/1905-10), but he wrote several other works on aspects of the Ḳurʾān, on the Prophet’s dreams, on eschatology, etc., most of them still in manuscript. (Ed.) Bibliography Aḥmad Bābā al-Tinbuktī, Nayl…

Ḥumayd b. ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd

(148 words)

Author(s): Ed.
al-Ṭūsī , ʿAbbāsid general who was chiefly responsible for the victory of al-Maʾmūn over Ibrāhīm b. al-Mahdī; he died, poisoned, in 210/825. His generosity and his magnificence were celebrated by several poets, in particular by ʿAlī b. D̲j̲abala [see al-ʿakawwak ]. His sons, themselves poets though producing little (see Fihrist , Cairo ed. 235), became in their turn patrons, eulogized in particular by Abū Tammām and al-Buḥturī. Muḥammad b. Ḥumayd, sent against Bābak [ q.v.] and killed in 214/829, was lamented by Abū Tammām, over whose tomb his brother Abū Nahs̲h̲al er…

Ibn Ẓāfir

(307 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, D̲j̲amāl al-Dīn Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Abī Manṣūr Ẓāfir b. al-Ḥusayn al-Azdī , Egyptian chancery secretary and man of letters, born in Cairo in 567/1171. He was the pupil of his father, who was a teacher at the Mālikī madrasa al-Ḳumḥiyya, and eventually succeeded him. He was next employed in the chancery of al-ʿAzīz (589-95/1193-8), then in that of al-ʿĀdil (596-615/1200-18), and finally in that of the latter’s son, al-As̲h̲raf (d. 635/1237), at Damascus. In 612/1215, he gave up his office a…

Maslama b. Muk̲h̲allad

(407 words)

Author(s): Ed.
b. al-Ṣāmit al-Anṣārī , Abū Maʿn or Saʿīd or ʿUmar ), Companion of the Prophet who took part in the conquest of Egypt and remained in the country with the Muslim occupying forces. Subsequently, loyal to the memory of ʿUt̲h̲mān b. ʿAffān and hostile to ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib, whose accession to the caliphate he had not recognised (see al-Ṭabarī, i, 3070), he opposed, with Muʿāwiya b. Ḥudayd̲j̲ [ q.v.], the arrival of Muḥammad b. Abī Bakr [ q.v.] who, having had a hand in the murder of the third caliph, had been appointed governor of Egypt, and it is probable that he was involve…

Umm al-Samīm

(96 words)

Author(s): Ed,
, an extensive, low-lying area of quicksands and salt-flats ( sabk̲h̲a [ q.v.]) in the interior of ʿUmān and on the fringes of the "Empty Quarter" [see al-rubʿ al-k̲h̲ālī ], centred on lat. 21° 50′ N. and long. 56° E. It spans the undefined border beween the Sultanate of Oman and the easternmost part of Saudi Arabia. To the north and east of Umm al-Samīm lie the territories of the mainly Ibāḍī G̲h̲āfirī tribe of al-Durūʿ or al-Dirʿī and the Sunnī tribe of ʿIfār [ q.vv.]. (Ed.) Bibliography See those to al-durūʿ, al-ʿifār and al-rubʿ al-k̲h̲ālī.

Tunisia

(25,019 words)

Author(s): Brunschwig, R. | Hafedh Sethom | Ammar, Mahjoubi | Chapoutot-Remadi, Mounira | Daghfous, Radhi | Et al.
, a region of the northeastern part of the Mag̲h̲rib. In mediaeval Islamic times it comprised essentially the province of Ifrīḳiya [ q.v.]. Under the Ottomans, the Regency of Tunis was formed in the late 10th/16th century, continuing under local Beys with substantial independence from Istanbul until the establishment of the French Protectorate in 1881, which in turn gave way in 1957 to the present fully independent Tunisian Republic. I. Geography, Demography and Economy . (a) Geography. Tunisia, situated between 6° and 9° degrees of longitude east, and between 32° and 37…

Bā Ḥmād

(363 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Moroccan grand vizier whose real name was Aḥmad b. Mūsā b. Aḥmad al-Buk̲h̲ārī. His grandfather was a black slave belonging to the sultan Mawlāy Sulaymān (1206-38/1792-1823), whose ḥād̲j̲ib he had become [see Ḥād̲j̲ib in Suppl.]. His father likewise became Ḥād̲j̲ib to Sayyidī Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (1276-90/1859-73), and then became grand vizier during the reign of Mawlāy al-Ḥasan (1290-1311/1873-94); he enjoyed a miserable reputation, but his immense fortune allowed him to connect his name with the Bāhiya palace in Marrākus̲h̲, …

Iṣbaʿ

(652 words)

Author(s): Ed. | G. R. Tibbetts
(a.), also aṣbaʿ , “finger”, as a measurement of length the breadth of the middle joint of the middle finger, conventionally one twenty-fourth of the cubit, d̲h̲irāʿ . See d̲h̲irāʿ, penultimate paragraph and bibliography. (Ed.) In Arab navigational texts iṣbaʿ is unit of measurement of star altitude ( ʿilm al-ḳiyās ). Latitude on the Ocean was indicated by the altitude of certain stars, usually the Pole Star or one of the Bears, above the horizon at certain times. Complete tables of Pole Star, Little Bear and Great Bear altit…

Abu ’l-Ḥasan al-Anṣārī

(228 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, ʿalī b. mūsā b. ʿalī b. arfaʿ (Rāfiʿ) rāsuh al-andalusī al-ḏj̲ayyānī (515-93/1121-97), a preacher of Fez, and member of a family of whom one person (Ibn Arfaʿ Rāsuh) is mentioned in the 5th/11th century at Toledo as a composer of muwas̲h̲s̲h̲aḥāt (Ibn al-K̲h̲aṭīb has preserved ten examples in his D̲j̲ays̲h̲ al-taws̲h̲īḥ , Nos. 49-58; cf. S.M. Stern, Les chansons mozarabes, Palermo 1953, 43-4; E. García Gómez, Métrica de la moaxaja y métrica española , in al-And ., xxxix (1974), 25). ʿAlī b. Mūsā’s fame rests on a poem in 1,414 verses (rhyme -ṭā , metre ṭawīl ) on the…

Pūst-Nes̲h̲īn

(51 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(p.), lit. “the one sitting on the [sheep’s] skin”, the title given to the baba or head of a dervish tekke in Persian and Ottoman Turkish Ṣūfī practice, e.g. amongst the Bektās̲h̲īs [see bektās̲h̲iyya ]. (Ed.) Bibliography J.K. Birge, The Bektas̲h̲i order of dervishes, London 1937, 57 n. 2, 269.

Müfettis̲h̲

(134 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(t.), the Ottoman Turkish form of Ar. mufattis̲h̲ , lit. “one who searches out, enquires into something”. In the Ottoman legal system of the 12th/18th century, below the Great Mollās [see mollā ] there was a layer of five judges called müfettis̲h̲ , whose duties were to oversee and enquire into the conducting of the Imperial ewkāf or pious foundations [see waḳf ], three of them being resident in Istanbul and one each in Edirne and Bursa (see Gibb and Bowen, ii, 92). In the 19th century, and with the coming of the Tanẓīmāt [ q.v.] reforms, müfettis̲h̲ was the designation for the overseers an…

al-K̲h̲āzir

(221 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a right-bank affluent of the Greater Zāb river [see Zāb ], which drains the kūra of Nak̲h̲la, to the east of Mawṣil; locally, it is called Barrīs̲h̲ū. It was on the banks of this river that there took place, on 10 Muḥarram 67/6 August 686, a decisive battle between Ibrāhīm b. Mālik al-As̲h̲tar [ q.v.] and ʿUbayd Allāh b. Ziyād [ q.v.]. After having suffered a defeat at ʿAyn Warda [ q.v.], ʿUbayd Allāh made for ʿIrāḳ with his army, but was intercepted by the forces of Ibn al-As̲h̲tar, who was fighting in the name of al-Mūk̲h̲tār [ q.v.]. According to tradition, ʿUmayr b. al-Ḥubāb al-Sulamī, …

Muʾnis Dede Derwīs̲h̲

(125 words)

Author(s): Ed.
Ottoman Ṣūfī poet of Edirne in the early 12th/18th century. His birth date is unknown, but he was a Mewlewī murīd at that order’s Murādiyya convent in Edirne, where he received his instruction from the famous s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Enīs Red̲j̲eb Dede (d. 1147/1734-5). He himself died of plague in Edirne in 1145/1732-3 and was buried in the convent. His dīwān of poetry was praised by early authorities as being good, but has not survived. (Ed.) Bibliography Fatīn, Ted̲h̲kere, Istanbul 1271/1855-6, 385 Esrār Dede, Ted̲h̲kere, Istanbul Univ. Libr. ms. T. 89, p. 281 S̲h̲ekīb Dede, Sefīne-yi Mewlewiyān, C…

Ibn Muḥriz

(261 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abu ’l-K̲h̲aṭṭāb muslim (or Salm, or ʿAbd Allāh) b. Muḥriz , famous musician and singer of Mecca, who lived in the 1st-2nd/7th-8th centuries. A mawlā of Persian origin of the ʿAbd al-Dār b. Kusayy and the son of a sādin of the Kaʿba, he was first the pupil of Ibn Misd̲j̲aḥ [ q.v.], and then of ʿAzzat al-Maylāʾ [ q.v.], going to Medina to receive lessons from her; he then completed his musical education in Persia and Syria, where he studied Greek music. He is said to have later chosen what seemed best to him from these different musical traditions and i…

Raʾs

(115 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a. pl. ruʾūs / arʾus ), “head”, in geography the common word for “cape” (cf. Latin caput → cape), but it is also used with the meaning of “headland, promontory”. The Musandam Peninsula in ʿUmān is sometimes called Raʾs Musandam, while the small territory occupying the northern tip of the Peninsula is called Ruʾūs al-D̲j̲ibāl “the Mountain tops”. Raʾs Tannūra [ q.v.], the terminal of pipelines in eastern Saudi Arabia, derives its name from the tip of a small peninsula, at which the modern port is situated. In the name Raʾs al-K̲h̲ayma [ q.v.] “Tent Point”, the word raʾs

(al-)Murtaḍā b. al-ʿAfīf

(242 words)

Author(s): Ed.
( = ʿAfīf al-Dīn?) b. Ḥātim b. Muslim al-Maḳdisī al-S̲h̲āfīʿī. the author of a work in Arabic on ancient Egypt of which the Bibliothèque Mazarine in Paris once possessed a ms. of the 10th/16th century, now lost, but of which there exists a French translation by the translator of al-Makīn [ q.v.], Pierre Vattier (d. 1667), and published at Paris in 1666 under the title L’Égypte de Murtadifils du Gaphiphe , il est traité des Pyramides , du débordement du Nil et des autres merveilles de cette Province , selon les opinions et traditions des Arabes . This version, in its…

Sidhpūr

(94 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a place in the northeastern part of the mediaeval Indian province of Gud̲j̲arāt [ q.v.], lying to the east of modern Pat́an. It is mentioned in the history of the Muslim sultans of Gud̲j̲arāt as a pilgrimage centre much revered by the local Hindus but sacked in ca. 816/1414 by Sultan ¶ Aḥmad I b. Tātār K̲h̲ān, who destroyed the temples there and imposed the d̲j̲izya or poll-tax on the inhabitants. (Ed.) Bibliography M. Habib and K.A. Nizami (eds.), A comprehensive history of India. V. The Delhi Sultanate ( A.D. 1206-1526), Delhi etc. 1970, 853-4.

Ibrāhīm b. al-As̲h̲tar

(399 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, son of the famous Mālik b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ al-Nak̲h̲aʿī [see al-as̲h̲tar ] and himself a soldier attached to the ʿAlid party. It is said that he had already fought at Ṣiffīn [ q.v.] in the ranks of ʿAlī, but his historical importance is based on his action in support of al-Muk̲h̲tār b. Abī ʿUbayd [ q.v.]. In fact he seems to have hesitated before joining the agitator, and the chroniclers themselves consider that it was necessary for the latter to forge a letter which purported to be written by Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥanafiyya to Ibrāhīm before the latter agr…

al-Hilālī

(300 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Ras̲h̲īd al-Sid̲j̲ilmāssī , Moroccan scholar who owned his nisba to Ibrāhīm b. Hilāl (d. 903/1497; see Brockelmann, S II, 348), the ancestor of a family of intellectuals in Sid̲j̲ilmāssa. He was born in that town in 1113/1701, and began his studies there, going on to Fās for them, and then returning to the Tāfilālt, where he gathered round himself numerous pupils. He also obtained id̲j̲āzas from various eastem scholars on the occasions of two pilgrimages. He died at Madag̲h̲ra (Tāfilālt) on 21 Rabīʿ I 1175/20 October 1761. Al-Hilālī owed his fame …

ʿArabiyya

(46,769 words)

Author(s): Rabin, C. | Khalafallah, M. | Fück, J.W. | Wehr, H. | Ed. | Et al.
arabic language and literature. Al-ʿarabiyya , sc. lug̲h̲a , also lisān al-ʿarab , is: The Arabic language in all its forms. This use is pre-Islamic, as is shown by the appearance of lās̲h̲ōn ʿărāb̲h̲ī in third-century Hebrew sources, arabica lingua in St. Jerome’s Praefatio in Danielem this probably is also the sense of lisān ʿarabī ( mubīn ) in Ḳurʾān, xvi, 103 (105); xxvi, 195; xlvi, 12 (11). (2) Technically, the Classical Arabic language (Cl. Ar.) of early poetry, Ḳurʾān, etc., and the Literary Arabic of Islamic literature. This may be distinguished from ʿarabiyya in the wider sense as al…

Fraxinetum

(342 words)

Author(s): Ed.
was in the middle ages the name of the village now called La-Garde-Freinet, lying in a gap in the Mt. des Maures (département of Var, France). This locality only finds a place in this Encyclopaedia because it was occupied for 80 years by Muslim pirates who had come from Spain between 278-81/891-4. Having gained a footing in the gulf of Saint-Tropez, they occupied a natural fortress (Fraxinet, Freinet) near the modern village of La-Garde-Freinet; “soon reinforced by new groups from the Iberian peninsula, the invaders visited the county of Fréjus with fire and the sword, ¶ and sacked the ch…

Īl

(1,154 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Arabic orthography of the Turkish word il, more correctly él , which has undergone a wide semantic development (see Radloff, Versuch ..., i, 803-5, 1471). (1) It is defined by V. Thomsen as signifying, in its numerous occurrences in the Orkhon inscriptions: “un peuple ou une réunion de peuples considerés comme formant un tout indépendant et organisé et ayant à sa tête un kagan” ( Inscriptions de l ’Orkhon déchiffrées , Helsingfors 1896, 135), and thus approximately “empire”. In this sense it often appears in conjunction with the word budun (? read boδ un), “confederation of tribes”, or…

al-Iskāfī

(572 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū D̲j̲aʿfar Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh , a Muʿtazilī of the Bag̲h̲dād branch and a native of Samarḳand. The date of his birth is unknown, but he is known to have reached a great age and to have died in 240/854. He began life as a tailor, and his parents prevented him from continuing his studies, but Ḏj̲aʿfar b. Ḥarb [ q.v.] took him under his care and initiated him in the Iʿtizāl . Possessing a lively intelligence, knowledge of many subjects, and a lofty moral sense, he enjoyed the esteem and respect of al-Muʿtaṣim, who seems to have used him as …

Ḥāzim

(930 words)

Author(s): Ed.
b. Muḥammad b. (al-) Ḥasan b. K̲h̲alaf b. Ḥāzim al-Anṣārī al-Ḳarṭād̲j̲annī abu ’l-Ḥasan , poet, grammarian and theorist of rhetoric, born in 608/1211 in Cartagena, in a family of Awsī ancestry. From his father, who was ḳāḍī of the town, he received an education oriented towards grammar, the Arabic language, tradition and Mālikī fiḳh ; he continued his studies in Murcia, ¶ and then in Seville and Granada and came under the influence of al-S̲h̲alawbīn [ q.v.], who inspired him to study Greek philosophy through the medium of the works of the philosophers writing in Arabic,…

Ibn al-Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲

(387 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Ḥamdūn b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Sulamī al-Mirdāsī al-Fāsī (1174-1232/1760-1817), “one of the most outstanding scholars of the reign of Mawlay Sulaymān” (1206-38/1792-1823), according to E. Lévi-Provençal, Les historiens des Chorfa , Paris 1922, 342, n. 5). As the faḳīḥ appointed to the Moroccan sultan, he filled the office of muḥtasib of Fās, then of ḳāʾid of the G̲h̲arb, before devoting a great part of his activites to literature. He is the author of several commentaries and glosses, of epistles of a religious character and of an account of the pilg…

Baḥr al-Rūm

(2,147 words)

Author(s): D. M. dunlop | [Ed.]
, ‘the Sea of the Greeks’, or al-baḥr al-rūmī , ‘the Greek Sea’, i.e. the Mediterranean, both names being in use from an early date to denote especially the E. Mediterranean, where Byzantine fleets were liable to be encountered. As ¶ the Muslim conquests extended, these names were applied to the whole Mediterranean, for which Baḥr al-Rūm is still in use. The Mediterranean was also called al-Baḥr al-S̲h̲āmī, or Baḥr al-S̲h̲ām, ‘the Sea of Syria’, and Baḥr al-Mag̲h̲rib, ‘the Sea of the West’. The sea thus variously named began, according to Arabic geographers, considerably to th…

al-Muḥillūn

(147 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a., from the form IV verb aḥalla ), literally, “those who make lawful [what is unlawful]”, an expression used in early Islamic historical texts to denote those who had shed the blood of al-Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī [ q.v.]; it was accordingly especially used by those seeking vengeance against the Umayyads for the clash at Karbalāʾ [ q.v.] and by the partisans of the Ahl al-Bayt , the proto-S̲h̲īʿa. Above all, it was used by al-Muk̲h̲tār b. Abī ʿUbayd [ q.v.] at the time of his revolt in Kūfa (66-7/685-7), including by al-Muk̲h̲tār himself when he extracted allegiance ( bayʿa ) fro…

Ibn al-K̲h̲ayyāṭ

(264 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. Manṣūr , known as Ibn al-K̲h̲ayyāṭ , ¶ grammarian, a native of Samarḳand who lived in Baṣra and Bag̲h̲dād. In Bag̲h̲dād he is said to have quarrelled over grammatical matters with al-Zad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ (d. 316/928 [ q.v.]). Among his pupils are mentioned Abu ’l-Ḳāsim al-Zad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ī and Abū ʿAlī al-Fārisī. The latter, in a reply to Sayf al-Dawla, denied having tried to denigrate Ibn al-K̲h̲ayyāṭ (see Yāḳūt); and from this we learn also that at a certain period of his life the grammarian became afflicted …

Rad̲j̲ʿiyya

(56 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), also irtid̲j̲āʿ , the term coined in modern Arabic for reaction in the political sense (from r-d̲j̲-ʿ “to return”). Towards the same end of the political spectrum appear also the terms muḥāfiẓ “conservative” and muḥāfaẓa “conservatism”; cf. A. Ayalon, Language and change in the Arab Middle East , New York-Oxford 1987, 125. (Ed.)

Muk̲h̲attam

(66 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), a term frequently applied to mediaeval Islamic textiles, from silks to woollen materials, and denoting a pattern of lines in the cloth forming quadrangular compartments, i.e. checks (Dozy, Supplément, i, 352). Such cloths seem to have been woven almost everywhere in the Islamic lands; see R.B. Serjeant, Islamic textiles, material for a history up to the Mongol conquest, Beirut 1972, index s.v. (Ed.)

Ḏj̲arīda

(16,453 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B. | Pellat, Ch. | Ed. | P. M. Holt | K. Hitti, Philip | Et al.
, literally “leaf”, which has become the usual term in modern Arabic for a newspaper, its adoption being attributed to Fāris al-S̲h̲idyāḳ [ q.v.]. Its synonym ṣaḥīfa is less used in the sing., but the plural ṣuḥuf is more common than d̲j̲arāʾid . Some interest in the European press was shown by the Ottomans as early as the 18th century and, it would seem, excerpts from European newspapers were translated for the information of the dīwān (Prussian despatch from Constantinople, of 1780, cited by J. W. Zinkeisen, Geschichte des osmanischen Reiches , vi, Gotha 1859, …

al-Mayurḳī

(193 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the nisba of several persons originally from Majorca (Mayurḳa [ q.v.]) or residents of the island. In his Muʿd̲j̲am al-buldān , iv, 720-3, s.v. Mayurḳa, Yāḳūt mentions a certain number. In addition to al-Ḥumaydī [ q.v.], the best-known person with this last nisba, one should mention the name of Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Aḥmad b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Ṭunayz, who seems to have led quite a lively existence. According to Yāḳūt, iv, 722-3, he was a good grammarian (cf. al-Suyūṭī, Bug̲h̲ya , 327) who was also concerned with the Ḳurʾān readings; he naturally collected ḥadīt̲h̲ s at…

Kalb b. Wabara

(2,841 words)

Author(s): Fück, J.W. | Dixon, A.A. | Ed.
, the ancestor of the Banū Kalb, the strongest group of the Ḳuḍāʿa [ q.v.]. His mother, Umm al-Asbuʿ, was so called because all her sons were named after wild animals (T. Nöldeke, Neue Beiträge , 75 ff.). The Kalb were, according to the genealogical system (Ibn al-Kalbī, Ḏj̲amharat al-nasab etc.), of Yemenite descent, but sometimes they claimed for political reasons to belong to the Northern Arabs or even to Ḳurays̲h̲. I.—Pre-Islamic period Their greatest chieftain was Zuhayr b. Ḏj̲anāb. who had great authority among the northern tribes; so he was sent by Abraha [ q.v.] to control the Bak…

Nouakchott

(617 words)

Author(s): J.-F Staszak and Ed.
, the capital of Mauritania [see mūrītāniyā ]. It was created ex nihilo near a site occupied by a small village and a ksar [see Ḳaṣr ]. The choice of its situation was made the object of serious studies, since it was necessary that it should be accessible, easily supplied with drinking water and distant ¶ enough from the Senegal River to escape inundations like that of 1950. Several plans of urban design were put forward even before independence was conceded to Mauritania (1960), and construction work, begun in 1958, has not ceased since that date i…

Ḥasab wa-Nasab

(873 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a muzāwad̲j̲a [ q.v.] in the Arabic manner used of two aspects of the single idea of nobility. The second term denotes kinship, the relationship, particularly ancestral, i.e. the genealogy of an individual or a tribe, the record of which, in the time of the D̲j̲āhiliyya, was carefully maintained by the nassāba and which, under Islam, formed a branch of history [see nasab ]. The nasab , which was an element of honour, was based not only on consanguinity but also on maternal descent, although the relationship on the paternal side, which wa…

Abū S̲h̲abaka

(770 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, ilyās (usual orthography, Elias Abou Chabakeh), Maronite poet, journalist and translator (1903-47). He was born in Providence, R.I., whilst his parents were travelling in the United States, but he spent all his life in Lebanon, dividing his time between his home in the village of Zūḳ Mīk̲h̲āʾīl (in Kisrawān), from which his family came, and the cafés and editorial offices of Beirut, to which he went each day. His father held some estates in the region of Khartoum, but in 1914, when he went there, was murdered by bandits. Hence the young orphan had soon to inter…

al-T̲h̲aʿlabiyya

(148 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a station on the Kūfa to Mecca Pilgrimage route, the so-called Darb ¶ Zubayda [ q.v. in Suppl.]. It lay in Nad̲j̲d in what is now the northeastern corner of Saudi Arabia, towards the ʿIrāḳī border, in approx. lat. 28° 50′ N., long. 43° 20′ E. some 180 km/112 miles north-north-east of Fayd [ q.v. in Suppl.]. It is mentioned by such geographers as Ibn K̲h̲urradād̲h̲bih, Ibn Rusta, Ḳudāma and al-Muḳaddasī, and such pilgrims as Ibn D̲j̲ubayr and Ibn Baṭṭūṭa passed through it. It was the birthplace of the 2nd/8th century poet Ibn Mutayr [ q.v.]. Today, the site of al-T̲h̲aʿlabiyya is in the s…

Ḳuṭb al-Dīn al-Iznīḳī

(82 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Muḥammad al-Rūmī , early Ottoman Ḥanafī scholar and father of Ḳuṭb al-Dīn-zāde Muḥammad [ q.v.]. He was born at Iznīḳ [ q.v.] and died there on 8 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 821/7 December 1418. Popular story puts him in contact with the conqueror Tīmūr when the latter occupied Anatolia, and he was the author of commentaries on the work of the great Spanish mystic Ibn al-Arabī [ q.v.]. (Ed.) Bibliography Ṭās̲h̲köprüzāde, al-S̲h̲aḳāʾiḳ al-nuʿmāniyya, Beirut 1395/1975, 24, German tr. O. Rescher, Constantinople-Galata 1927, 18-19.

Argan

(114 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(Berb.), argan-tree ( argania spinosa or argania sideroxylon), a tree of the family Sapotaceae which grows on the southern coast of Morocco. A shrub with hard, tough wood, it produces a stone whose kernel, when ground, yields a much-valued oil; the oil-cakes are given to cattle. The word is also known to some of the Arabic-speakers of Morocco, but they look upon it as a loan-word. (Ed.) Bibliography Ibn al-Bayṭār, no. 1248 L. Brunot, Textes arabes de Rabat, ii, Glossary, Paris 1952, 6-7 V. Monteil, Contribution ŕ l’étude de la flore du Sahara occidental, ii, Paris 1953, no. 409 (with a bibl.) A.…

Ḳanāt

(5,080 words)

Author(s): Lambton, A.K.S. | Ed.
(a.), pl. ḳanawāt , ḳanā , ḳunī , aḳniya , “canal, irrigation system, water-pipe”. Used also for a baton, a lance, etc., the term originally meant “reed” [see ḳaṣab ] and it is with this meaning and that of “rush” that the word ḳanū is known in Akkadian (cf. Zimmern, Akkad. Fremdwörter , Leipzig 1915, 56); becoming ḳanä in Hebrew and ḳanyā in Aramaic, it passed into Arabic and was also borrowed in Greek and Latin in the forms χάννα χάννη (χάνη), canna ; by an evolution parallel to that of ḳanāt , the Latin word canalis “in the shape of a reed”, acquired the meaning of “pipe, canal”. In Persian ḳanāt is u…

al-Ẓafra

(75 words)

Author(s): Ed,
, conventionally Dhafarah, the interior region of the shaykhdom of Abū Ẓaby [ q.v.], now a constituent of the United Arab Emirates [see al-imārāt al-ʿarabiyya al-muttaḥida , in Suppl.], the undefined southern frontier of which marches with the easternmost part of Saudi Arabia. Al-Ẓafra forms the traditional territory of the Banū Yās [ q.v.] and the Banu ’l-Manāṣīr [ q.v.]. (Ed.) Bibliography J.G. Lorimer, Gazeteer of the Persian Gulf, ʾ Oman and Central Arabia, Calcutta 1908-15, ii.A, 412-26.

al-K̲h̲ayzurān bint ʿAṭāʾ al-Ḏj̲uras̲h̲iyya

(879 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a former slave of Yemenī origin (on the D̲j̲uras̲h̲, see Ibn al-Kalbī-Caskel, Tab. 278), who was freed, and then was married to al-Mahdī, to whom she bore three children, Mūsā (al-Hādī), Hārūn (al-Ras̲h̲īd) and a daughter called al-Bānūḳa (Ibn Ḳutayba, Maʿārif , 380). According to a tradition given in particular by al-D̲j̲ahs̲h̲iyārī ( Wuzarāʾ , 136), she suckled al-Faḍl b. Yaḥyā b. K̲h̲ālid al-Barmakī, whilst al-Faḍl’s mother provided milk for Hārūn; this kind of alliance through co-lactation would accordingly explain the de…

Bāriḥ

(116 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(Ar.), a term applied to a wild animal or bird which passes from right to left before a traveller or hunter; although opinions differ on this point, this is generally interpreted as a bad omen, because, it is said, it presents its left side to the hunter who does not have time to take aim at it; an animal which passes from left to right ( sāniḥ ) is on the contrary of good omen. The nāṭiḥ approaches from the front, and the ḳaʿīd from the rear. (Ed.) Bibliography Freytag, Einleitung, 163 Wellhausen, Reste 2, 202 Doutté, Magic at religion, 359 Ḏj̲āḥiẓ. Tarbīʿ, ed. Pellat, index L.A. s.v. Maydānī, under ma…

Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. ʿUmar

(188 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan, poet, man of letters and S̲h̲āfiʿī faḳīh of the 5th/11th century, known as Ibn Abi ’l-Ṣaḳr al-Wāsiṭī. Born in D̲h̲u’l-Ḳaʿda 409/March-April 1019, he died on 14 D̲j̲umādā I 498/1 February 1105. A disciple, at the Niẓāmiyya [ q.v.] in Bag̲h̲dād, of al-S̲h̲īrāzī (393-476/1003-83 [ q.v.]) whose funeral elegy he wrote, he is noted for his ardent attachment to S̲h̲āfiʿī doctrine, and he composed on this topic some poems called s̲h̲āfiʿiyya . He himself collected his verses in a Dīwān in one volume which may have allowed him to exercise his gif…

Īsāg̲h̲ūd̲j̲ī

(139 words)

Author(s): Ed.
the Isagoge of Porphyry [see furfūriyūs ]. According to Ṣāʿid al-Andalusī ( Ṭabaḳāt al-umam , ed. Cheikho, Beirut 1912, 49, tr. Blachère, Paris, 1935, 101), it seems that Ibn al-Muḳaffaʿ [ q.v.] was the first person to translate this introduction to logic into Arabic. The Fihrist (i, 244), on the other hand, maintains that it was Ayyūb b. al-Raḳḳī, whc based himself on a Syriac translation. Among the Arabic adaptations of the Isagoge we possess that of Abu ’l-Ḥasan Ibrāhīm b. ʿUmar al-Biḳāʿī al-S̲h̲afiʿī (see Brockelmann, S II, 177). with a commentary by al-Sanūsī (…

Musnad

(2,477 words)

Author(s): Beeston, A.F.L. | Ed. | Juynboll, G.H.A.
(a.). 1. As a term applied to the ancient South Arabian script. In the first couple of centuries AD, Sabaean and ¶ Ḳatabanian inscriptions used the term ms 3 nd for an inscribed bronze plaque affixed ( musnad ) to the wall of a temple; by the 5th-6th centuries AD it came to be applied to inscriptions engraved directly on a rock face. In early Islamic times, musnad designated any inscription in the pre-Islamic South Arabian alphabet, the earliest examples of which date back to the first half of the first millenium BC. This has close affinities both with the scri…

Parda-Dār

(61 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(p.), literally “the person who draws the curtain”, a term used among the dynasties of the eastern Islamic world from the Sald̲j̲ūḳ period onwards as the equivalent of Arabic ḥād̲j̲ib , i.e. for the court official, the chamberlain, who controlled access to the ruler, the latter being normally veiled from public gaze.. For this function, see Ḥād̲j̲ib . (Ed.)

Lālis̲h̲

(136 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a valley some 30 miles/50 km northnorth-east of Mawṣil in ʿIrāḳ, in the ḳaḍāʾ of S̲h̲ayk̲h̲an and in a largely Kurdish mountain area, famed as the principal pilgrimage centre of the Yazīdī sect [see yazīdīs ]. The d̲j̲amāʿiyya of the Yazīdīs is held from the 23th to the 30th September O.S. (6th to the 13th October N.S.) each year, and revolves round the shrine of the founder, S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ ʿAdī b. Musāfir [ q.v.] and the tombs of other early saints of the sect. The first European to attend and ¶ describe the festival seems to have been Sir Henry Layard in 1846 and 1849; a valuable des…

ʿAlī Ilāhī

(52 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(“deifiers of ʿAlī”), a vague and popular designation of sects connected with, and issued from, S̲h̲īʿa extremism ( g̲h̲ulāt , [ q.v.]). In Persia and Kurdistān it covers chiefly the Ahl-i Ḥaḳḳ [ q.v.] and Ḳi̊zi̊l-bas̲h̲ [ q.v.], but may occasionally refer to such smaller communities as Ṣarli, S̲h̲abbak [ qq.v] etc. (Ed.)

Ḥarra

(280 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a basalt desert, “a district covered with black broken stones, which looks as if it had been burned by fire”. Such ḥarras , which owe their origin to subterranean volcanoes which have repeatedly covered the undulating desert with a bed of lava, are found particularly in the east of Ḥawrān and stretch from there to Medina. Al-Samhūdī, K̲h̲ulāṣat al-wafāʾ bi-ak̲h̲bār dār al-Muṣṭafā , Mecca ed., 1316, 38 gives a detailed description of a great earthquake at Medina which began on 1 D̲j̲umādā II 654/26 June 1256 and lasted several days (see also Wüstenfeld, Geschichte von Madyna

Tindūf

(122 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, conventionally Tindouf , a small town in the southwestern part of modern Algeria, in the governorate ( wilāya ) of Saoura and at the southwestern end of the Hamada of the Dra near where the modern borders of Algeria, Morocco, the former Spanish Sahara and Mauritania meet (lat. 27° 42’ N., long. 80° 10’ W.). It is now on the road connecting western Algeria with Mauritania, with an airstrip, and has recently acquired economic and political importance because of the proximity of iron ore depos…

ʿIzzet Hōlō (al-)ʿĀbid, Aḥmad b. Muḥyī ’l-Dīn Abu ’l-Hawl b. ʿUmar b. ʿAbd al-Ḳadir, popularly known as ʿArab ʿIzzet

(299 words)

Author(s): Ed.
Pas̲h̲a (1272-1343/1855-1924), late Ottoman statesman and close counselor of Sultan ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd II [ q.v.]. Born in Damascus (hence his nickname “ʿArab”) as the son of a wealthy local notable, Hōlō Pas̲h̲ā, he was educated in his hometown and in Beirut and became proficient in Turkish and French. Counted among the reformers, he edited a weekly in Arabic and Turkish, named Dimas̲h̲ḳ . Moving to Istanbul, he eventually joined the ranks of the chamberlains ( ḳurenā ) of ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd and then became a Second Secretary ( ikind̲j̲i kātib ) of the Mābeyn [ q.v.]. He gained great influence ¶ at co…

al-Ṣāliḥiyya

(194 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the name of various places in the Middle East. These include: 1. A settlement of Diyār Muḍar in al-Ḏj̲azīra, placed by Yāḳūt in the district of al-Ruhā [ q.v.] or Edessa and said to have been laid out by the ʿAbbāsid governor of Syria ʿAbd al-Malik b. Ṣāliḥ. He also quotes a (now lost) history of Mawṣil by the Ḵh̲ālidiyyāni [ q.v.] that the caliph al-Mahdī began the work of fortification there. Bibliography Yāḳūt, Buldān, ed. Beirut, iii, 389-90. 2. A settlement to the north of the old city of Damascus, on the slopes of Mount Ḳāsiyūn [ q.v.]. Yāḳūt describes it as a large village with markets and ¶ a …

Wālī

(166 words)

Author(s): Ed,
(a., pl. wulāt ), from the root w-l-y “to be near something”, hence “to be in charge of something”, comes to mean “person in authority, governor, prefect, administrator manager”, with the maṣdar of wilāya for his office and/or sphere of competence. The word occurs once in the Ḳurʾān, XIII, 12/11, applied to God in the sense of “patron, protector”. See on aspects of the function of the governor in mediaeval Islamic times, amīr . A near-synonym is ḥākim “one who exercises power, jurisdiction, etc.” Under the Ottomans, the wālī , also termed pas̲h̲a [ q.v.], was the governor of a province, eyālet

Yamīn

(261 words)

Author(s): Ed,
(a.), pls. aymān , aymun , literally, “the right hand”, but often used in Arabic with the transferred sense of “oath”. In human life and activity, the right hand often symbolises power and the ability to initiate actions. The Arabic word yamīn has such connotations as fortune and prosperity, whilst the wider term yad “hand in general” covers a vast semantic range: power, help’, strength, sufficiency, ability to act, etc. The right hand can have a cultic significance, as with the bronze hand, probably from the vicinity of Ṣanʿāʾ and now in the British Museum, with a South Arabian ex voto inscri…

Tūsān

(111 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a village in the oasis of Marw in K̲h̲urāsān, according to al-Samʿānī, Ansāb , ed. Ḥaydarābād, ix, 94-5 (who names various ʿulamāʾ from it; cf. also Yāḳūt, Buldān , ed. Beirut, iv, 49), two farsak̲h̲s from the chef-lieu Marw al-S̲h̲āhid̲j̲ān [ q.v.]. Its chief fame is that, at the time of the ʿAbbāsid Revolution, in 130/747-8, the Umayyad governor of K̲h̲urāsān, Naṣr b. Sayyār [ q.v.], threatened by the rising under Abū Muslim, appointed his commander Abu ’l-D̲h̲ayyāl over Tūsān; but the latter’s oppressive behaviour prompted Abū Muslim to send a force which…

al-Ṣiddīḳī

(44 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a nisba borne by members of the famed Egyptian family of s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ s of the Bakriyya Ṣūfī order [see al-bakrī b. abi ’l-surbūr and bakriyya ]; it related to their claimed descent from the first caliph Abū Bakr al-Ṣiddīḳ [ q.v.]. (Ed.)

Rafsand̲j̲ān

(113 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a town of Kirmān province, central Persia (lat. 30° 25ʹ N., long. 56° 00ʹ E., altitude 1,572 m/5,156 ft.), situated on the Yazd road 120 km/74 miles to the west of Kirmān city. It is the cheflieu of a s̲h̲ahrastān or district of the same name. Known also as Bahrāmābād, in 1991 it had an estimated population of 87,798 ( Preliminary results of September 1991 census, Statistical Centre of Iran, Population Division). Its chief claim to fame is as the home of the present (1993) head of state of the Islamic Republic of Iran “President and Prime Minister” ʿAlī Akbar Hās̲h̲imī Rafsand̲j̲ānī. (Ed.) Bibli…

Berberi

(46 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, name given to the eastern Hazāra inhabiting the mountainous region of central Afg̲h̲ānistān between Kābul and Harāt; in Irān, the region of Mas̲h̲had, Balūčistān (near Quetta), and in the S.S.R. of Turkmenistān, the oasis of Kus̲h̲ka (district of Maki) [see hazāra ]. (Ed.)
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