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(221 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a right-bank affluent of the Greater Zāb river [see Zāb ], which drains the kūra of Nak̲h̲la, to the east of Mawṣil; locally, it is called Barrīs̲h̲ū. It was on the banks of this river that there took place, on 10 Muḥarram 67/6 August 686, a decisive battle between Ibrāhīm b. Mālik al-As̲h̲tar [ q.v.] and ʿUbayd Allāh b. Ziyād [ q.v.]. After having suffered a defeat at ʿAyn Warda [ q.v.], ʿUbayd Allāh made for ʿIrāḳ with his army, but was intercepted by the forces of Ibn al-As̲h̲tar, who was fighting in the name of al-Mūk̲h̲tār [ q.v.]. According to tradition, ʿUmayr b. al-Ḥubāb al-Sulamī, …

Muʾnis Dede Derwīs̲h̲

(125 words)

Author(s): Ed.
Ottoman Ṣūfī poet of Edirne in the early 12th/18th century. His birth date is unknown, but he was a Mewlewī murīd at that order’s Murādiyya convent in Edirne, where he received his instruction from the famous s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Enīs Red̲j̲eb Dede (d. 1147/1734-5). He himself died of plague in Edirne in 1145/1732-3 and was buried in the convent. His dīwān of poetry was praised by early authorities as being good, but has not survived. (Ed.) Bibliography Fatīn, Ted̲h̲kere, Istanbul 1271/1855-6, 385 Esrār Dede, Ted̲h̲kere, Istanbul Univ. Libr. ms. T. 89, p. 281 S̲h̲ekīb Dede, Sefīne-yi Mewlewiyān, C…

Ibn Muḥriz

(261 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abu ’l-K̲h̲aṭṭāb muslim (or Salm, or ʿAbd Allāh) b. Muḥriz , famous musician and singer of Mecca, who lived in the 1st-2nd/7th-8th centuries. A mawlā of Persian origin of the ʿAbd al-Dār b. Kusayy and the son of a sādin of the Kaʿba, he was first the pupil of Ibn Misd̲j̲aḥ [ q.v.], and then of ʿAzzat al-Maylāʾ [ q.v.], going to Medina to receive lessons from her; he then completed his musical education in Persia and Syria, where he studied Greek music. He is said to have later chosen what seemed best to him from these different musical traditions and i…


(115 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a. pl. ruʾūs / arʾus ), “head”, in geography the common word for “cape” (cf. Latin caput → cape), but it is also used with the meaning of “headland, promontory”. The Musandam Peninsula in ʿUmān is sometimes called Raʾs Musandam, while the small territory occupying the northern tip of the Peninsula is called Ruʾūs al-D̲j̲ibāl “the Mountain tops”. Raʾs Tannūra [ q.v.], the terminal of pipelines in eastern Saudi Arabia, derives its name from the tip of a small peninsula, at which the modern port is situated. In the name Raʾs al-K̲h̲ayma [ q.v.] “Tent Point”, the word raʾs

(al-)Murtaḍā b. al-ʿAfīf

(242 words)

Author(s): Ed.
( = ʿAfīf al-Dīn?) b. Ḥātim b. Muslim al-Maḳdisī al-S̲h̲āfīʿī. the author of a work in Arabic on ancient Egypt of which the Bibliothèque Mazarine in Paris once possessed a ms. of the 10th/16th century, now lost, but of which there exists a French translation by the translator of al-Makīn [ q.v.], Pierre Vattier (d. 1667), and published at Paris in 1666 under the title L’Égypte de Murtadifils du Gaphiphe , il est traité des Pyramides , du débordement du Nil et des autres merveilles de cette Province , selon les opinions et traditions des Arabes . This version, in its…


(94 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a place in the northeastern part of the mediaeval Indian province of Gud̲j̲arāt [ q.v.], lying to the east of modern Pat́an. It is mentioned in the history of the Muslim sultans of Gud̲j̲arāt as a pilgrimage centre much revered by the local Hindus but sacked in ca. 816/1414 by Sultan ¶ Aḥmad I b. Tātār K̲h̲ān, who destroyed the temples there and imposed the d̲j̲izya or poll-tax on the inhabitants. (Ed.) Bibliography M. Habib and K.A. Nizami (eds.), A comprehensive history of India. V. The Delhi Sultanate ( A.D. 1206-1526), Delhi etc. 1970, 853-4.

Ibrāhīm b. al-As̲h̲tar

(399 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, son of the famous Mālik b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ al-Nak̲h̲aʿī [see al-as̲h̲tar ] and himself a soldier attached to the ʿAlid party. It is said that he had already fought at Ṣiffīn [ q.v.] in the ranks of ʿAlī, but his historical importance is based on his action in support of al-Muk̲h̲tār b. Abī ʿUbayd [ q.v.]. In fact he seems to have hesitated before joining the agitator, and the chroniclers themselves consider that it was necessary for the latter to forge a letter which purported to be written by Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥanafiyya to Ibrāhīm before the latter agr…


(300 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Ras̲h̲īd al-Sid̲j̲ilmāssī , Moroccan scholar who owned his nisba to Ibrāhīm b. Hilāl (d. 903/1497; see Brockelmann, S II, 348), the ancestor of a family of intellectuals in Sid̲j̲ilmāssa. He was born in that town in 1113/1701, and began his studies there, going on to Fās for them, and then returning to the Tāfilālt, where he gathered round himself numerous pupils. He also obtained id̲j̲āzas from various eastem scholars on the occasions of two pilgrimages. He died at Madag̲h̲ra (Tāfilālt) on 21 Rabīʿ I 1175/20 October 1761. Al-Hilālī owed his fame …


(342 words)

Author(s): Ed.
was in the middle ages the name of the village now called La-Garde-Freinet, lying in a gap in the Mt. des Maures (département of Var, France). This locality only finds a place in this Encyclopaedia because it was occupied for 80 years by Muslim pirates who had come from Spain between 278-81/891-4. Having gained a footing in the gulf of Saint-Tropez, they occupied a natural fortress (Fraxinet, Freinet) near the modern village of La-Garde-Freinet; “soon reinforced by new groups from the Iberian peninsula, the invaders visited the county of Fréjus with fire and the sword, ¶ and sacked the ch…


(1,154 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Arabic orthography of the Turkish word il, more correctly él , which has undergone a wide semantic development (see Radloff, Versuch ..., i, 803-5, 1471). (1) It is defined by V. Thomsen as signifying, in its numerous occurrences in the Orkhon inscriptions: “un peuple ou une réunion de peuples considerés comme formant un tout indépendant et organisé et ayant à sa tête un kagan” ( Inscriptions de l ’Orkhon déchiffrées , Helsingfors 1896, 135), and thus approximately “empire”. In this sense it often appears in conjunction with the word budun (? read boδ un), “confederation of tribes”, or…


(572 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū D̲j̲aʿfar Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh , a Muʿtazilī of the Bag̲h̲dād branch and a native of Samarḳand. The date of his birth is unknown, but he is known to have reached a great age and to have died in 240/854. He began life as a tailor, and his parents prevented him from continuing his studies, but Ḏj̲aʿfar b. Ḥarb [ q.v.] took him under his care and initiated him in the Iʿtizāl . Possessing a lively intelligence, knowledge of many subjects, and a lofty moral sense, he enjoyed the esteem and respect of al-Muʿtaṣim, who seems to have used him as …


(930 words)

Author(s): Ed.
b. Muḥammad b. (al-) Ḥasan b. K̲h̲alaf b. Ḥāzim al-Anṣārī al-Ḳarṭād̲j̲annī abu ’l-Ḥasan , poet, grammarian and theorist of rhetoric, born in 608/1211 in Cartagena, in a family of Awsī ancestry. From his father, who was ḳāḍī of the town, he received an education oriented towards grammar, the Arabic language, tradition and Mālikī fiḳh ; he continued his studies in Murcia, ¶ and then in Seville and Granada and came under the influence of al-S̲h̲alawbīn [ q.v.], who inspired him to study Greek philosophy through the medium of the works of the philosophers writing in Arabic,…

Ibn al-Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲

(387 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Ḥamdūn b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Sulamī al-Mirdāsī al-Fāsī (1174-1232/1760-1817), “one of the most outstanding scholars of the reign of Mawlay Sulaymān” (1206-38/1792-1823), according to E. Lévi-Provençal, Les historiens des Chorfa , Paris 1922, 342, n. 5). As the faḳīḥ appointed to the Moroccan sultan, he filled the office of muḥtasib of Fās, then of ḳāʾid of the G̲h̲arb, before devoting a great part of his activites to literature. He is the author of several commentaries and glosses, of epistles of a religious character and of an account of the pilg…


(147 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a., from the form IV verb aḥalla ), literally, “those who make lawful [what is unlawful]”, an expression used in early Islamic historical texts to denote those who had shed the blood of al-Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī [ q.v.]; it was accordingly especially used by those seeking vengeance against the Umayyads for the clash at Karbalāʾ [ q.v.] and by the partisans of the Ahl al-Bayt , the proto-S̲h̲īʿa. Above all, it was used by al-Muk̲h̲tār b. Abī ʿUbayd [ q.v.] at the time of his revolt in Kūfa (66-7/685-7), including by al-Muk̲h̲tār himself when he extracted allegiance ( bayʿa ) fro…

Ibn al-K̲h̲ayyāṭ

(264 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. Manṣūr , known as Ibn al-K̲h̲ayyāṭ , ¶ grammarian, a native of Samarḳand who lived in Baṣra and Bag̲h̲dād. In Bag̲h̲dād he is said to have quarrelled over grammatical matters with al-Zad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ (d. 316/928 [ q.v.]). Among his pupils are mentioned Abu ’l-Ḳāsim al-Zad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ī and Abū ʿAlī al-Fārisī. The latter, in a reply to Sayf al-Dawla, denied having tried to denigrate Ibn al-K̲h̲ayyāṭ (see Yāḳūt); and from this we learn also that at a certain period of his life the grammarian became afflicted …


(56 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), also irtid̲j̲āʿ , the term coined in modern Arabic for reaction in the political sense (from r-d̲j̲-ʿ “to return”). Towards the same end of the political spectrum appear also the terms muḥāfiẓ “conservative” and muḥāfaẓa “conservatism”; cf. A. Ayalon, Language and change in the Arab Middle East , New York-Oxford 1987, 125. (Ed.)


(66 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), a term frequently applied to mediaeval Islamic textiles, from silks to woollen materials, and denoting a pattern of lines in the cloth forming quadrangular compartments, i.e. checks (Dozy, Supplément, i, 352). Such cloths seem to have been woven almost everywhere in the Islamic lands; see R.B. Serjeant, Islamic textiles, material for a history up to the Mongol conquest, Beirut 1972, index s.v. (Ed.)


(193 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the nisba of several persons originally from Majorca (Mayurḳa [ q.v.]) or residents of the island. In his Muʿd̲j̲am al-buldān , iv, 720-3, s.v. Mayurḳa, Yāḳūt mentions a certain number. In addition to al-Ḥumaydī [ q.v.], the best-known person with this last nisba, one should mention the name of Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Aḥmad b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Ṭunayz, who seems to have led quite a lively existence. According to Yāḳūt, iv, 722-3, he was a good grammarian (cf. al-Suyūṭī, Bug̲h̲ya , 327) who was also concerned with the Ḳurʾān readings; he naturally collected ḥadīt̲h̲ s at…

Ḥasab wa-Nasab

(873 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a muzāwad̲j̲a [ q.v.] in the Arabic manner used of two aspects of the single idea of nobility. The second term denotes kinship, the relationship, particularly ancestral, i.e. the genealogy of an individual or a tribe, the record of which, in the time of the D̲j̲āhiliyya, was carefully maintained by the nassāba and which, under Islam, formed a branch of history [see nasab ]. The nasab , which was an element of honour, was based not only on consanguinity but also on maternal descent, although the relationship on the paternal side, which wa…

Abū S̲h̲abaka

(770 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, ilyās (usual orthography, Elias Abou Chabakeh), Maronite poet, journalist and translator (1903-47). He was born in Providence, R.I., whilst his parents were travelling in the United States, but he spent all his life in Lebanon, dividing his time between his home in the village of Zūḳ Mīk̲h̲āʾīl (in Kisrawān), from which his family came, and the cafés and editorial offices of Beirut, to which he went each day. His father held some estates in the region of Khartoum, but in 1914, when he went there, was murdered by bandits. Hence the young orphan had soon to inter…


(148 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a station on the Kūfa to Mecca Pilgrimage route, the so-called Darb ¶ Zubayda [ q.v. in Suppl.]. It lay in Nad̲j̲d in what is now the northeastern corner of Saudi Arabia, towards the ʿIrāḳī border, in approx. lat. 28° 50′ N., long. 43° 20′ E. some 180 km/112 miles north-north-east of Fayd [ q.v. in Suppl.]. It is mentioned by such geographers as Ibn K̲h̲urradād̲h̲bih, Ibn Rusta, Ḳudāma and al-Muḳaddasī, and such pilgrims as Ibn D̲j̲ubayr and Ibn Baṭṭūṭa passed through it. It was the birthplace of the 2nd/8th century poet Ibn Mutayr [ q.v.]. Today, the site of al-T̲h̲aʿlabiyya is in the s…

Ḳuṭb al-Dīn al-Iznīḳī

(82 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Muḥammad al-Rūmī , early Ottoman Ḥanafī scholar and father of Ḳuṭb al-Dīn-zāde Muḥammad [ q.v.]. He was born at Iznīḳ [ q.v.] and died there on 8 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 821/7 December 1418. Popular story puts him in contact with the conqueror Tīmūr when the latter occupied Anatolia, and he was the author of commentaries on the work of the great Spanish mystic Ibn al-Arabī [ q.v.]. (Ed.) Bibliography Ṭās̲h̲köprüzāde, al-S̲h̲aḳāʾiḳ al-nuʿmāniyya, Beirut 1395/1975, 24, German tr. O. Rescher, Constantinople-Galata 1927, 18-19.


(114 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(Berb.), argan-tree ( argania spinosa or argania sideroxylon), a tree of the family Sapotaceae which grows on the southern coast of Morocco. A shrub with hard, tough wood, it produces a stone whose kernel, when ground, yields a much-valued oil; the oil-cakes are given to cattle. The word is also known to some of the Arabic-speakers of Morocco, but they look upon it as a loan-word. (Ed.) Bibliography Ibn al-Bayṭār, no. 1248 L. Brunot, Textes arabes de Rabat, ii, Glossary, Paris 1952, 6-7 V. Monteil, Contribution ŕ l’étude de la flore du Sahara occidental, ii, Paris 1953, no. 409 (with a bibl.) A.…


(75 words)

Author(s): Ed,
, conventionally Dhafarah, the interior region of the shaykhdom of Abū Ẓaby [ q.v.], now a constituent of the United Arab Emirates [see al-imārāt al-ʿarabiyya al-muttaḥida , in Suppl.], the undefined southern frontier of which marches with the easternmost part of Saudi Arabia. Al-Ẓafra forms the traditional territory of the Banū Yās [ q.v.] and the Banu ’l-Manāṣīr [ q.v.]. (Ed.) Bibliography J.G. Lorimer, Gazeteer of the Persian Gulf, ʾ Oman and Central Arabia, Calcutta 1908-15, ii.A, 412-26.

al-K̲h̲ayzurān bint ʿAṭāʾ al-Ḏj̲uras̲h̲iyya

(879 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a former slave of Yemenī origin (on the D̲j̲uras̲h̲, see Ibn al-Kalbī-Caskel, Tab. 278), who was freed, and then was married to al-Mahdī, to whom she bore three children, Mūsā (al-Hādī), Hārūn (al-Ras̲h̲īd) and a daughter called al-Bānūḳa (Ibn Ḳutayba, Maʿārif , 380). According to a tradition given in particular by al-D̲j̲ahs̲h̲iyārī ( Wuzarāʾ , 136), she suckled al-Faḍl b. Yaḥyā b. K̲h̲ālid al-Barmakī, whilst al-Faḍl’s mother provided milk for Hārūn; this kind of alliance through co-lactation would accordingly explain the de…


(116 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(Ar.), a term applied to a wild animal or bird which passes from right to left before a traveller or hunter; although opinions differ on this point, this is generally interpreted as a bad omen, because, it is said, it presents its left side to the hunter who does not have time to take aim at it; an animal which passes from left to right ( sāniḥ ) is on the contrary of good omen. The nāṭiḥ approaches from the front, and the ḳaʿīd from the rear. (Ed.) Bibliography Freytag, Einleitung, 163 Wellhausen, Reste 2, 202 Doutté, Magic at religion, 359 Ḏj̲āḥiẓ. Tarbīʿ, ed. Pellat, index L.A. s.v. Maydānī, under ma…

Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. ʿUmar

(188 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan, poet, man of letters and S̲h̲āfiʿī faḳīh of the 5th/11th century, known as Ibn Abi ’l-Ṣaḳr al-Wāsiṭī. Born in D̲h̲u’l-Ḳaʿda 409/March-April 1019, he died on 14 D̲j̲umādā I 498/1 February 1105. A disciple, at the Niẓāmiyya [ q.v.] in Bag̲h̲dād, of al-S̲h̲īrāzī (393-476/1003-83 [ q.v.]) whose funeral elegy he wrote, he is noted for his ardent attachment to S̲h̲āfiʿī doctrine, and he composed on this topic some poems called s̲h̲āfiʿiyya . He himself collected his verses in a Dīwān in one volume which may have allowed him to exercise his gif…


(139 words)

Author(s): Ed.
the Isagoge of Porphyry [see furfūriyūs ]. According to Ṣāʿid al-Andalusī ( Ṭabaḳāt al-umam , ed. Cheikho, Beirut 1912, 49, tr. Blachère, Paris, 1935, 101), it seems that Ibn al-Muḳaffaʿ [ q.v.] was the first person to translate this introduction to logic into Arabic. The Fihrist (i, 244), on the other hand, maintains that it was Ayyūb b. al-Raḳḳī, whc based himself on a Syriac translation. Among the Arabic adaptations of the Isagoge we possess that of Abu ’l-Ḥasan Ibrāhīm b. ʿUmar al-Biḳāʿī al-S̲h̲afiʿī (see Brockelmann, S II, 177). with a commentary by al-Sanūsī (…


(61 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(p.), literally “the person who draws the curtain”, a term used among the dynasties of the eastern Islamic world from the Sald̲j̲ūḳ period onwards as the equivalent of Arabic ḥād̲j̲ib , i.e. for the court official, the chamberlain, who controlled access to the ruler, the latter being normally veiled from public gaze.. For this function, see Ḥād̲j̲ib . (Ed.)


(136 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a valley some 30 miles/50 km northnorth-east of Mawṣil in ʿIrāḳ, in the ḳaḍāʾ of S̲h̲ayk̲h̲an and in a largely Kurdish mountain area, famed as the principal pilgrimage centre of the Yazīdī sect [see yazīdīs ]. The d̲j̲amāʿiyya of the Yazīdīs is held from the 23th to the 30th September O.S. (6th to the 13th October N.S.) each year, and revolves round the shrine of the founder, S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ ʿAdī b. Musāfir [ q.v.] and the tombs of other early saints of the sect. The first European to attend and ¶ describe the festival seems to have been Sir Henry Layard in 1846 and 1849; a valuable des…

ʿAlī Ilāhī

(52 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(“deifiers of ʿAlī”), a vague and popular designation of sects connected with, and issued from, S̲h̲īʿa extremism ( g̲h̲ulāt , [ q.v.]). In Persia and Kurdistān it covers chiefly the Ahl-i Ḥaḳḳ [ q.v.] and Ḳi̊zi̊l-bas̲h̲ [ q.v.], but may occasionally refer to such smaller communities as Ṣarli, S̲h̲abbak [ qq.v] etc. (Ed.)


(280 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a basalt desert, “a district covered with black broken stones, which looks as if it had been burned by fire”. Such ḥarras , which owe their origin to subterranean volcanoes which have repeatedly covered the undulating desert with a bed of lava, are found particularly in the east of Ḥawrān and stretch from there to Medina. Al-Samhūdī, K̲h̲ulāṣat al-wafāʾ bi-ak̲h̲bār dār al-Muṣṭafā , Mecca ed., 1316, 38 gives a detailed description of a great earthquake at Medina which began on 1 D̲j̲umādā II 654/26 June 1256 and lasted several days (see also Wüstenfeld, Geschichte von Madyna


(122 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, conventionally Tindouf , a small town in the southwestern part of modern Algeria, in the governorate ( wilāya ) of Saoura and at the southwestern end of the Hamada of the Dra near where the modern borders of Algeria, Morocco, the former Spanish Sahara and Mauritania meet (lat. 27° 42’ N., long. 80° 10’ W.). It is now on the road connecting western Algeria with Mauritania, with an airstrip, and has recently acquired economic and political importance because of the proximity of iron ore depos…

ʿIzzet Hōlō (al-)ʿĀbid, Aḥmad b. Muḥyī ’l-Dīn Abu ’l-Hawl b. ʿUmar b. ʿAbd al-Ḳadir, popularly known as ʿArab ʿIzzet

(299 words)

Author(s): Ed.
Pas̲h̲a (1272-1343/1855-1924), late Ottoman statesman and close counselor of Sultan ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd II [ q.v.]. Born in Damascus (hence his nickname “ʿArab”) as the son of a wealthy local notable, Hōlō Pas̲h̲ā, he was educated in his hometown and in Beirut and became proficient in Turkish and French. Counted among the reformers, he edited a weekly in Arabic and Turkish, named Dimas̲h̲ḳ . Moving to Istanbul, he eventually joined the ranks of the chamberlains ( ḳurenā ) of ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd and then became a Second Secretary ( ikind̲j̲i kātib ) of the Mābeyn [ q.v.]. He gained great influence ¶ at co…


(194 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the name of various places in the Middle East. These include: 1. A settlement of Diyār Muḍar in al-Ḏj̲azīra, placed by Yāḳūt in the district of al-Ruhā [ q.v.] or Edessa and said to have been laid out by the ʿAbbāsid governor of Syria ʿAbd al-Malik b. Ṣāliḥ. He also quotes a (now lost) history of Mawṣil by the Ḵh̲ālidiyyāni [ q.v.] that the caliph al-Mahdī began the work of fortification there. Bibliography Yāḳūt, Buldān, ed. Beirut, iii, 389-90. 2. A settlement to the north of the old city of Damascus, on the slopes of Mount Ḳāsiyūn [ q.v.]. Yāḳūt describes it as a large village with markets and ¶ a …


(166 words)

Author(s): Ed,
(a., pl. wulāt ), from the root w-l-y “to be near something”, hence “to be in charge of something”, comes to mean “person in authority, governor, prefect, administrator manager”, with the maṣdar of wilāya for his office and/or sphere of competence. The word occurs once in the Ḳurʾān, XIII, 12/11, applied to God in the sense of “patron, protector”. See on aspects of the function of the governor in mediaeval Islamic times, amīr . A near-synonym is ḥākim “one who exercises power, jurisdiction, etc.” Under the Ottomans, the wālī , also termed pas̲h̲a [ q.v.], was the governor of a province, eyālet


(261 words)

Author(s): Ed,
(a.), pls. aymān , aymun , literally, “the right hand”, but often used in Arabic with the transferred sense of “oath”. In human life and activity, the right hand often symbolises power and the ability to initiate actions. The Arabic word yamīn has such connotations as fortune and prosperity, whilst the wider term yad “hand in general” covers a vast semantic range: power, help’, strength, sufficiency, ability to act, etc. The right hand can have a cultic significance, as with the bronze hand, probably from the vicinity of Ṣanʿāʾ and now in the British Museum, with a South Arabian ex voto inscri…


(111 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a village in the oasis of Marw in K̲h̲urāsān, according to al-Samʿānī, Ansāb , ed. Ḥaydarābād, ix, 94-5 (who names various ʿulamāʾ from it; cf. also Yāḳūt, Buldān , ed. Beirut, iv, 49), two farsak̲h̲s from the chef-lieu Marw al-S̲h̲āhid̲j̲ān [ q.v.]. Its chief fame is that, at the time of the ʿAbbāsid Revolution, in 130/747-8, the Umayyad governor of K̲h̲urāsān, Naṣr b. Sayyār [ q.v.], threatened by the rising under Abū Muslim, appointed his commander Abu ’l-D̲h̲ayyāl over Tūsān; but the latter’s oppressive behaviour prompted Abū Muslim to send a force which…


(44 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a nisba borne by members of the famed Egyptian family of s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ s of the Bakriyya Ṣūfī order [see al-bakrī b. abi ’l-surbūr and bakriyya ]; it related to their claimed descent from the first caliph Abū Bakr al-Ṣiddīḳ [ q.v.]. (Ed.)


(113 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a town of Kirmān province, central Persia (lat. 30° 25ʹ N., long. 56° 00ʹ E., altitude 1,572 m/5,156 ft.), situated on the Yazd road 120 km/74 miles to the west of Kirmān city. It is the cheflieu of a s̲h̲ahrastān or district of the same name. Known also as Bahrāmābād, in 1991 it had an estimated population of 87,798 ( Preliminary results of September 1991 census, Statistical Centre of Iran, Population Division). Its chief claim to fame is as the home of the present (1993) head of state of the Islamic Republic of Iran “President and Prime Minister” ʿAlī Akbar Hās̲h̲imī Rafsand̲j̲ānī. (Ed.) Bibli…


(46 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, name given to the eastern Hazāra inhabiting the mountainous region of central Afg̲h̲ānistān between Kābul and Harāt; in Irān, the region of Mas̲h̲had, Balūčistān (near Quetta), and in the S.S.R. of Turkmenistān, the oasis of Kus̲h̲ka (district of Maki) [see hazāra ]. (Ed.)


(943 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(A.), son. The Arab grammarians and lexicographers, who tend to trace all words to three root elements, generally attribute ibn to a root *b.n.w. ¶ and consider that it derives from a hypothetical *banaw un by loss of the 3rd sonant radical. Others state that the root is b.n.y. and that the word ibn comes from the verb banā / yabnī ʿalā “set up [a tent] on”, and, by extension, “marry”. In reality, we have an ancient Semitic biliteral, which is nevertheless triliteralized in the relative adjective banawī and in the abstract noun bunuwwa . The fern, bint , formed with the fem. indicator -t, has a ri…


(74 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a slave singing-girl ( ḳayna [ q.v.]) in the earliest days of Islam. She is mentioned as being in the poetry and music-making circles of Medina in ʿUt̲h̲mān’s caliphate, i.e. the middle years of the 7th century A.D., and as being the teacher ( ustād̲h̲a ) of the celebrated singer ʿAzza al-Maylāʾ [ q.v.]. (Ed.) Bibliography Ag̲h̲ānī 1, xvi, 13=3xvi, 162 H. G. Farmer, A history of Arabian music, London 1929, 46, 54, 147.


(2,578 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), name. In Arabic-Islamic usage the full name of a person is usually made up of the following elements: 1) kunya; 2) ism; 3) nasab ) ; 4) nisba . A certain number of persons are also known by a nickname ( laḳab ) or a pejorative sobriquet ( nabaz ) which, when the name is stated in full, cornes after the nisba. From the end of the 3rd/9th century, the use of an honorific before or after the kunya became more and more frequent with persons of some importance. 1) The kunya [ q.v.], usually a name compound with Abū (“father of”) or Umm (“mother of”): Abu ’l-Faḍl, Umm al-Ḥasan. ¶ 2) The ism , also cailed ʿalam


(218 words)

Author(s): Ed,
(a., pl. awsima ), in modern Arabic usage a decoration, order, medal or badge of honour. The roots w-s-m and w-s̲h̲-m mean basically “to mark, brand [an animal]”, an important feature of nomadic life when ownership of beasts like horses and camels had to be determinable. For this idea of branding, marking, in Arabic desert life, see wasm. In the old Turkish nomadic society, tamg̲h̲a had a similar sense of “tribal mark or emblem”. In the modern Turkish pronunciation damga it is used for government revenue stamps, ministerial seals for validating govern…


(83 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, purification incumbent upon the Believer after the fulfilment of his natural needs. This practice, which is described in detail, is obligatory (recommended only according to Abū Ḥanīfa) and must be carried out either immediately, or before performing the ṣalāt or any other act which requires a state of ritual purity. (Ed.) Bibliography All the works of fiḳh, ik̲h̲tilāf, etc. deal with this subject in the chapter on ṭahāra similarly G̲h̲azālī, Iḥyāʾ, in the same chapter (iii = 22 of Bousquet’s analysis).


(132 words)

Author(s): Ed,
, in northern Persia, the name for the southern shore of the Caspian Sea, comprising both the narrow coastal plain region and the steeply-rising mountainous interior of the Elburz chain. It was bounded in mediaeval Islamic times by Gīlān and Daylam on the west and by Gurgān on the east. The name Ṭabaristān enshrines a memory of the ancient people of the Τάπυροι, but received a popular etymology as “land of the axe ( ṭabar )” because woodcutting was an activity in this heavily-wooded region. Ṭabaristān ( nisba , al-Ṭabarī) was the designation for the region up …

Ulu Dāg̲h̲

(110 words)

Author(s): Ed,
, modern Turkish Ulu Dağ, a small but imposing mountain range in northwestern Anatolia, to the south-east of Bursa [ q.v.] and now in the il or province of Bursa. It is some 32 km/20 miles by 13 km/8 miles in extent, and its forest-clad slopes rise to a peak of 2,493 m/8,170 feet (lat. 40° 05′ N., long. 28° 58′ E.), the highest point of western Anatolia. It is the classical Mysian Olympus, but its more modern fame is as a winter ski resort. (Ed.) Bibliography Sir Wm. Ramsay, The historical geography of Asia Minor, London 1890, 146 Naval Intelligence Division, Admiralty Handbooks, Turkey, London 19…


(95 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(or Ḏj̲āvuldur ), a Turcoman tribe, the first settlers of which came to Ḵh̲wārizm in the 16th and 17th centuries, the bulk following in the 18th century. After the wars against the Ḵh̲ānate of Ḵh̲īwa, a proportion of them was driven off to the Mangi̊s̲h̲laḳ peninsula, whence some clans emigrated to the steppes of Stavropol’. Part of the tribe submitted to Ḵh̲īwa and settled permanently in Ḵh̲wārizm. It is now a sedentary tribe with a population of ¶ some 25,000, in the Nuk̲h̲us area (Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Ḳara-Ḳalpaḳistān). [See: Türkmen ]. (Ed.)


(124 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(t., from Persian pand̲j̲ yak “fifth”), a term of Ottoman Turkish financial and administrative usage. It denoted the fifth which the sultan drew as the ruler’s right (equivalent to the Arabic k̲h̲ums [ Suppl.]) from booty captured in the Dār al-Ḥarb . This involved, in particular, the collection of young boys from the Christian Balkans and Greece by the process of the dews̲h̲irme [see devs̲h̲irme ], and these were then trained for either palace or military service as the ḳapi̊ ḳullari̊ ; the official in charge of the process of thus extracting the sultan’s fifth was termed the pend̲j̲i…

Ibn Zūlāḳ

(261 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, (or zawlāk ), Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan b. Ibrāhīm … al-Layt̲h̲ī , born 306/919, died 386/996, Egyptian historian, the author of a number of biographical, historical and topographical works on Egypt in the time of the Ik̲h̲s̲h̲īdids and early Fāṭimids. These works, though almost entirely lost, underlie a good deal of subsequent historiography relating to this period. He is said to have written continuations to the works of al-Kindī [ q.v.] on the governors and judges of Egypt, a book on the Mād̲h̲arāʾī [ q.v.] family of officials, and others on the reigns of the Ik̲h̲s̲h̲īd, Kāfū…


(128 words)

Author(s): ed.
, a hill fortress and settlement in the S̲h̲āhābād District in the northeast of the state of Bihar in the Indian Union (lat. 24° 37′ N., long. 83° 55′ E.), some 50 km/30 miles south of the town of Sahsārām [ q.v.]. There must have been a Hindu fort or settlement there previously, but the present fortifications date from its capture by S̲h̲īr S̲h̲āh Sūr [ q.v.] in 946/1539. They were added to by Akbar’s general Mān Singh [ q.v.] when he was appointed governor of Bihār and Bengal. It was surrendered to the British army in Bengal soon after the battle of Baksar (Buxar [ q.v.]) in 1764 through the effor…

ʿAmr b. Kirkira

(151 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, abū mālik al-aʿrābī , mawlā of the Banū Saʿd, had learnt the ʿarabiyya in the desert and had settled at Baṣra. Since his mother had married Abu ’l-Baydāʾ [ q.v.], he acted as rāwiya to this last, but he owed his fame to his incomparable knowledge of the Arabic language, since, according to an oft-mentioned tradition, he knew it in its entirety, whereas al-Aṣmaʿī had only one-third of it, Abū ʿUbayda (or al-K̲h̲alīl b. Aḥmad) half of it and Abū Zayd al-Anṣārī (or Muʾarrid̲j̲) two-thirds of it. His speciality was rare words. Abū Mālik was allegedly the author of at least two works, a K. K̲h̲alḳ al-…

Zag̲h̲ard̲j̲i̊ Bas̲h̲i̊

(108 words)

Author(s): Ed,
(t.), the title of one of the three commanders who formed the dīwān or administrative focus of the Janissary corps of the Ottoman army (the other two being the S̲h̲amsund̲j̲i̊ Bas̲h̲i̊ and the Turnad̲j̲i̊ Bas̲h̲i̊). Since zag̲h̲ar means “hound” and zag̲h̲ard̲j̲i̊ “keeper of the hounds”, the orta or company of the zag̲h̲ard̲j̲i̊s (no. 64 in the Janissary corps) was probably in origin part of the hunting force of the early Ottoman sultans (cf. also the Segbāns [ q.v. in Suppl.]). (Ed.) Bibliography İ.H. Uzunçarşili, Osmanli devleti teşkilâtindan kapi kulu ocaklar, Ankara 1943-4, i, 19…


(481 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), in Islamic law, the civil liability in the widest meaning of the term, whether it arises from the non-performance of a contract or from tort or negligence ( taʿaddī , literally “transgression”). Prominent particular cases are the liability for the loss of an object sold before the buyer has taken possession ( ḍamān al-mabīʿ ), for eviction ( ḍamān al-darak ), for the loss of a pledge in the possession of the pledgee ( ḍamān al-rahn), for the loss of an object that has been taken by usurpation ( ḍamān al-g̲h̲aṣb ), and for loss or damage caused by artisans ( ḍamān al-ad̲j̲īr , . al-ṣunnāʿ


(61 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), a term used in Ottoman administrative parlance to mean vacant. It is used in the registers of a grant or office which has been vacated by the previous holder, by death, dismissal, or transfer, and not yet re-allocated. The term is also used more generally for land and other assets left without heir (see also muk̲h̲allafāt ). (Ed.)


(157 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Ḥasan b. Muḥammad b. Ḥasan, the author of a local history of the town of Ḳum [ q.v.] in northern Persia, fl. in the 4th/10th century. He is said to have compiled his history originally in Arabic at the instigation of his brother, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim ʿAlī, governor of Ḳum for the Būyids, aiming to gather together and record all the traditions about the arrival of the Arabs in Ḳum and the town’s subsequent history. He dedicated the book to the famous vizier, the Ṣāḥib Ibn ʿAbbād [see ibn ʿabbād ]. The Arabic original has not survived, but a Persian translation was made by one Ḥasan [b. ʿAlī…


(368 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(Bandar Rābig̲h̲, Rābug̲h̲), a port in the Ḥid̲j̲āz province of Saudi Arabia, in lat. 22° 48ʹ N., and long. 39° 1ʹ E., half-way between D̲j̲udda [ q.v.] and Yanbuʿ. It may perhaps be identified with Ptolemy’s ’Αργα χώμη (Sprenger, Die alte Geographie , no. 38). North of Rābig̲h̲ lies al-Abwāʾ [ q.v.], now called al-K̲h̲urayba. the reputed burial place of the Prophet’s mother Āmina [ q.v.]. In the past, the port had no proper harbour. Ships anchored at S̲h̲arm Rābig̲h̲, an inlet about 3 km long, which offered excellent anchorage (Hogarth, Hejaz , 29). From there ca…


(117 words)

Author(s): Ed,
(a.), in early Arabic “the confused noise of distant thunder” (Lane, 1249b), but widely used in the sources for early Islamic history for the priests of the Magians reciting and intoning the Zoroastrian prayers and scriptures, producing (to the Arabs’ ears) an indistinct, droning sound. Thus in al-Ṭabarī, i, 1042, we have the zamzama of the Herbadhs, in 2874 the muzamzim or adherent of Zoroastrianism, and in 2880 zamzama for the Zoroastrian rites and zamāzima for the Magians in general. The term may have passed into Christian Sogdian texts, probably in the early Islamic period, as zmzmʾ


(83 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, S̲h̲ammāk̲h̲ī, S̲h̲ammāk̲h̲iyya, the mediaeval Islamic names for a town in the former region of S̲h̲īrwān in eastern Caucasia, from ca. the 4th/10th century capital of the local Yazīdī dynasty of S̲h̲īrwān S̲h̲āhs, by whom it was temporarily re-named Yazīdiyya. For its pre-modern role and then for its post-1917 one, first within the Azerbaijan Republic of the former Soviet Union and now in the independent Republic of Azerbaijan, under its present name of S̲h̲emak̲h̲a, see s̲h̲īrwān and s̲h̲īrwān s̲h̲āhs . (Ed.)


(172 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Meḥmed Ṭāhir , Ottoman ḳāḍī and author of several theological works, often known as Ḳāḍī Meḥmed. The date of his birth is unknown, but he was born in Istanbul and was presumably connected with the Lālezār quarter near the Fātiḥ Mosque. He became a mollā and a müderris . In 1201/1786-7 he was ḳāḍī at Eyyūb, and then on 30 Muḥarram 1204/20 October 1789 he died at his house in Rumeli Ḥiṣār. None of his extant works has been printed, but these all exist in manuscript in Istanbul libraries. They include a series of theological commentaries, such as the Mīzān al-muḳīm fī maʿrifat al-ḳisṭ…

Ibn Nāṣir

(758 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the name, nowadays replaced by al-Nāṣirī , of a Moroccan family who founded the branch of the S̲h̲ād̲h̲iliyya order [ q.v.] known as Nāṣiriyya and founded its headquarters at the zāwiya of Tamgrūt [ q.v.] in southern Morocco. The numerous biographical sources, published and unedited, as well as a monograph on the family, the Ṭalʿat al-mus̲h̲tarī (Fās 1309) by Aḥmad al-Nāṣirī al-Salāwī, allow its history to be traced easily and allow a genealogical tree to be constructed; the reader will find information on this in the article al-Nāṣiriyya , and there will mer…

Ibn Sanāʾ al-Mulk

(390 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Hibat Allāh b. Abī ’l-Faḍl Ḏj̲aʿfar b. al-Muʿtamid , known as al-Ḳāḍī al-Saʿīd, Arabic poet of the Ayyūbid period famous mainly for the treatise Dār al-ṭirāz which he devoted to the genre of muwas̲h̲s̲h̲aḥ [ q.v.]. He was born in Cairo circa 550/1155, and died there in 608/1211; he was educated by Egyptian teachers and, like his father al-Ḳāḍī al-Ras̲h̲īd, embarked on the career of ḳāḍī ; he worked under the direction of al-Ḳāḍī al-Fāḍil, whom he joined at Damascus and to whom he dedicated some pieces of poetry; he also wrote in praise of Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn (Saladin). …

Ibn ʿUt̲h̲mān al-Miknāsī

(1,083 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Wahhāb b. ʿut̲h̲mān , a Moroccan diplomat and vizier of the 12th/18th century, who played a prominent role in the forging of ties between his country and Spain. At the start of his career he followed his father as preacher in one of the mosques of Meknès; here he came to the attention of the Sultan, Sīdī Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh (1171-1204/1757-89) who, at a date difficult to determine, took him into his service as a secretary. In 1193/1799, he was …

Ibn ʿUnayn

(449 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abu ’l-Maḥāsin S̲h̲araf al-Dīn Muḥ. b. Naṣr b. ʿAlī b. Muḥ. b. G̲h̲ālib al-Anṣārī , satirical poet born at Damascus on 9 S̲h̲aʿbān 549/19 October 1154, and died there on 20 Rabīʿ I 630/4 January 1233. After receiving a traditional education from the main teachers of Damascus and spending a period in ʿIrāḳ, Ibn ʿUnayn began early to use his lively satire against many different kinds of people; he did not spare even Salāḥ al-Dīn (Saladin), who had just made himself master of the town (570…


(191 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, ʿAbd al-Hakīm b. S̲h̲ams al-Dīn (d. 1067/1657), counsellor of the Mughal emperor S̲h̲āh D̲j̲ahān ( regn . 1037-68/1628-58 [ q.v.]), versatile scholar and well-known writer of glosses ( ḥawās̲h̲ī , sg. ḥās̲h̲iya ) on a number of popular textbooks. Many of them exist in old prints and lithographs, of which a fair number have recently been reprinted. In non-Indian prints, his name often appears distorted as al-Siyalkūtī or al-Silkūtī (intended vowels unknown). Works on which he wrote ḥawās̲h̲ī include: (1) the Tafsīr of al-Bayḍāwī (d. 685/1286 or later [ q.v.]); (2) the commentary of …


(89 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Sandābūr , a port on the western coast of peninsular India. Al-Idrīsī describes it as a trading town on a large estuary with an anchor-: age. It has been tentatively identified with either Sidd̲h̲āpūr/S̲h̲iddāpūr or the modern S̲h̲adās̲h̲ivagad, some 80 km/50 miles south of Goa, hence in what is now the union territory of Goa, Daman and Diu in the Indian Union. (Ed.) Bibliography S. Maqbul Ahmad, India and the neighbouring territories in the Kitāb Nuzḥat al-Mus̲h̲tāq ... of al-S̲h̲arīf al-Idrīsī, Leiden 1960, 58, 62, 102, 159.

Abū Māḍī

(1,093 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, īliyyā (1889-1957), poet and journalist of Lebanese origin, who spent his childhood in the village of al-Muḥaydit̲h̲a near Bikfayā, his birthplace, but left his native land at the age of 11 to help his maternal uncle with his business in Alexandria. During his stay of some dozen years in Egypt, he was able to find time to acquire an advanced literary education, to learn a lot of classical and modern poetry and to frequent the circles of intellectuals who were in varying de…


(204 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(t.) “son of a slave”, in Ottoman usage, more specifically the son of a Janissary, admitted to the pay-roll of the corps; for further information see yeñi čeri . In the period of Turkish domination in Algeria and Tunisia, the word ḳulug̲h̲lī/kulug̲h̲lī and, with dissimilation, ḳurug̲h̲lī/kurug̲h̲lī (pl. ḳulug̲h̲lān/kulug̲h̲lān , ḳurug̲h̲lān/kurug̲h̲lān/krag̲h̲el ; French koulougli and variants) denoted those elements of the population resulting from marriages of Turks with local women. They were fairly numerous at Tunis, Alg…


(117 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, from Persian dīdebān , a term applied at different times to certain categories of sentinels, watchmen, inspectors, etc. It already appears as the name of a profession in the Rasāʾil Ik̲h̲wān al-Ṣafā (8th risāla of 1st series, ed. Cairo, i, 210; cf. IC, 1943, 147), together with the Nātūr . In classical Ottoman usage the term, pronounced Dīdebān , was applied to the Customs-house guards, whose chief was the Dīdebān bas̲h̲i̊ . It was also given to the watchmen on the fire-towers in Istanbul, as well as to naval and military look-outs. (Ed.) Bibliography Dozy, Supplément, i, 481 I. H. Uzunçarş…


(200 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), the name of the fourteenth metre in Arabic prosody [see ʿarūḍ ]. Theoretically, it comprises Three feet: mustafʿilun / fāʿilātun / fāʿilātun ( ─ ─ ∪ ─ / ─ ∪ ─ ─ / ─ ∪ ─ ─ ) to each hemistich, but in practice, there is just one single fāʿilātun. Mustafʿilun can become mutafʿilun (∪ ─ ∪ ─ ) or even mutafʿilu (∪ ─ ∪∪), whilst fāʿilātun can be replaced in the ʿarūḍ (the first hemistich) by faʿilātun (∪∪ ─ ─ ) or even fāʿilun ( ─ ∪ ─ ) and, in the ḍarb (the second hemistich) by one of the two preceding feet or by mustafʿil ( ─ ─ ─ ). This metre is not used by the ancient poets, and it is not impossible th…


(52 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a plain in eastern Anatolia through which the Murad Su, sc. the more southerly of the two upper arms of the Euphrates, flows in one part of its course between Malazgird and Muş, hence now in the modern Turkish il or province of Muş; see further, al-furāt . (Ed.)

Abu ’l-Ḥasan al-Battī

(333 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, aḥmad b. ʿalī , poet and littérateur, originally from al-Batt in ʿIrāḳ (Yāḳūt, i, 488), who was a member of the staff of al-Ḳādir’s chancery (reigned 381-422/992-1031). When the future caliph had in 381/991 to flee from al-Ṭāʾiʿ, al-Battī had already been in his service, since it was with him that al-Ḳādir sought refuge. Hence as soon as he succeeded to the caliphate, he appointed al-Battī to his dīwān , where he was in charge of the postal service and of intelligence. A Muʿtazilī in theology and a Ḥanafī in fiḳh , he had previously specialised in study of the Ḳurʾān and ḥadīt̲h̲


(545 words)

Author(s): Ed.
is one of the Turkish forms of the name Muḥammad which, having been borne by the Prophet of Islam, is by far the commonest used name in the Islamic world. Independent of the modifications which it may undergo from the influence of the speech habits of allophonic groups and the phonetic structure of languages other than Arabic, this name has undergone, in spite of—and perhaps because of—the veneration which it inspires, various deliberate modifications on the part of sincere Muslims who hold fast to what exactly respects the …


(117 words)

Author(s): Ed,
, “the rearwards region”, conventionally Dhahirah, the name given to the interior, landwards part of ʿUmān, that lying behind the D̲j̲abal Ak̲h̲ḍar range and merging into the desert fringes of the Empty Quarter [see al-rubʿ al-k̲h̲ālī ]. The term al-Ẓāhira contrasts with that of al-Bāṭina, the coastlands of ʿUmān. The religious and political history of this “inner ʿUmān”, and its social and cultural development, with local Ibāḍī elements mingled with Sunnīs, have frequently diverged from that of the Sultanate…


(329 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.; noun of unity, ḥaysa ), an Arab dish made from dates (of the variety called barnī ) crushed and then kneaded with some preserved butter; to this is added skimmed, dried and crumbly camels’ milk cheese, or some flour, or even some crumbled bread. The invention of this mixture of ingredients is attributed traditionnally (see al-D̲j̲āḥiẓ, Buk̲h̲alaʾ , ed. Ḥād̲j̲irī, 211; tr. in Arabica , ii/3 [1955], 336) to a prominent member of Mak̲h̲zūm called Suwayd al-Haramī (Ibn al-Kalbī-Caskel, D̲j̲amhara , Tab. 22), who is also said to have been the first to s…


(178 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abu ’l-Ḥusayn Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān , S̲h̲āfīʿī faḳīh and specialist in the Ḳurʾānic readings, born at Malaṭya [ q.v.] and died at ʿAsḳalān in 377/987, whence the nisba of al-ʿAsḳalānī which he also bears. He was the author of a ḳaṣīda of 59 verses on the readings and the readers, in imitation of a poem by Mūsā b. ʿUbayd Allāh al-K̲h̲āḳānī, but he deserves the notice of Islamicists through his having left behind one of the oldest treatises on heresiography, the Kitāb al-Tanbīh wa ’l-radd ʿalā ahl al-ahwāʾ wa ’l-bidaʿ , which has been edited and publi…


(60 words)

Author(s): Ed.
or Bagimzā, in the time of the ʿAbbāsid Caliphate, was a village north-east of Bag̲h̲dād, some 8 miles from Baʿḳūbā, where the caliph al-Muḳtafī bi-Amr Allāh put to flight the troops of the Sald̲j̲ūḳ Sulṭān Muḥammad II under Alp Ḳus̲h̲ Kūn-i Ḵh̲ar in 549/1154. (Ed.) Bibliography Yāḳūt, i, 497, 706 Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, xi, 129 Houtsma, Recueil, ii, 237 ff.


(189 words)

Author(s): ed.
ibrāhīm ḥilmī pas̲h̲a (b. 1160/1747, d. 1240/1825) Ottoman Grand Vizier, November 1806-June 1807. The son of a Janissary officer, he rose through various posts in the corps to the chief command (hence he is sometimes referred to as Ibrāhīm “Ag̲h̲a”). Upon the dismissal of Ḥāfiẓ Ismāʿīl Pas̲h̲a (14 November 1806), provoked by the attempt to use the troops of the Niẓām-i Ḏj̲edīd [ q.v.] in Rūmeli, he was appointed Grand Vizier. As serdār against Russia (war having been declared by the Porte on 22 December), he led a refractory army of Janissaries…


(94 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Yūsuf b. Sulaymān b. Marwān al-Anṣārī, Abū ʿUmar, b. 367/978, d. at Murcia 448/1056, grammarian of Muslim Spain. Best known as such, he is equally credited with competence in fiḳh , poetry, metrics and genealogies. It appears that he played a certain role in the reconciliation of the various grammatical schools in al-Andalus. A Radd ʿalā ’l-Ḳabrī and a Radd ʿalā Abī Muḥammad al-Aṣīlī are attributed to him, but do not seem to have survived. (Ed.) Bibliography Ibn Bas̲h̲kuwāl, Ṣila, Cairo 1374/1955, ii, 640 no. 1499 Kaḥḥāla, Muʾallifīn, Damascus 1376-80/1957-61, xiii, 303.


(219 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), lit. “something circular”, a term used in the central and western parts of the Arab world in the later Middle Ages to denote a large tent of rulers and great men, used especially when the army was on the march. K̲h̲alīl al-Ẓāhirī ( Zubdat kas̲h̲f al-mamālik , ed. R. Ravaisse, Paris 1894, 136-7, tr. Venture de Paradis, Beirut 1950, 228) states that when the Mamlūk sultan sent out a powerful military expedition, the order of the commander’s tents, when encamped, is that the highest-ranking officer’s tent ( waṭāḳ ) is set up at the end of the formation, with the sultan’s mudawwara


(362 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a family of derebeys [ q.v.] in Ottoman southern Anatolia, with their centre of power in the 19th century in the sand̲j̲aḳ of Ḳōzān [ q.v.] (i.e. western Ḳōzān) and the ḳaḍāʾ of Ḳōzān (i.e. east Ḳōzān), in the piedmont area where the Taurus Mountains come down to the Cilician Plain or Çukurova. They were thus in a good position, during the 19th century, together with other local derebeys, to dominate the plain and at times to exert influence in Adana itself. The Ḳōzān-og̲h̲ullari̊ claimed descent from a Turkmen tribe which had entered Cilicia in Sald̲j̲ūḳ times, and which is…


(144 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, country of the d̲j̲inns , beyond the sands of Yabrīn, into which no human ventures, and also a fabulous kind of camels, which are the issue of a cross between ordinary camels and d̲j̲inn stallions or descended from the camels of the Wabār [ q.v.], whose country they alone occupy. At times the males leave these desert wastes to attack herds and mate with female domestic camels; it is thus, it is thought, that famous species such as the mahriyya [see ibil ] or the ʿasd̲j̲ādiyya are born. Ḥūs̲h̲ appears to be a doublet of waḥs̲h̲ [ q.v.] “wild”, and ḥūs̲h̲ī/waḥs̲h̲ī is a te…

ʿAdī b. Arṭāt

(271 words)

Author(s): Ed.
al-fazarī , abū wāt̲h̲la , official in the service of the Umayyads who governed ʿIrāḳ from Baṣra between 99/718 and 101/720. He was appointed to this office by ʿUmar b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz in place of Yazīd b. al-Muhallab, and received the order to arrest all the sons of al-Muhallab. He managed to get hold of al-Mufaḍḍal, Ḥabīb, Marwān and Yazīd, but the latter escaped and returned to the attack. ʿAdī then raised the troops of Baṣra and had a trench dug round the town to prevent the …


(142 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a mountain outside Mecca, on the north side of the valley of Minā [ q.v.]. Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am al-buldān , ed. Beirut, ii, 72-4, enumerates several mountains of this name, and also gives a tradition that T̲h̲abīr was, with Ḥirāʾ [ q.v.] and T̲h̲awr, one of the three most significant mountains outside Mecca. It seems to have played a role in the ceremonies of the pre-Islamic ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ or pilgrimage outside Mecca. In Umayyad times, in the early 8th century A.D., the governor of Mecca K̲h̲ālid b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḳasrī [ q.v.], on the orders of Sulaymān b. ʿAbd al-Malik, piped water from a…

al-D̲j̲awād al-Iṣfahānī

(302 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū D̲j̲aʿfar Muḥammad b. ʿAlī (he also had the honorific name of D̲j̲āmal al-Dīn ), vizier of the Zangids; he had been carefully educated by his father, and at a very early age was given an official appointment in the dīwān al-ʿarḍ of the Sald̲j̲ūḳid sultan Maḥmūd. Subsequently he became one of the most intimate friends of Zangī, who made him governor of Naṣībīn and al-Raḳḳa and entrusted him with general supervision of the whole empire. After Zangī’s assassination he very nearly shared his master’s ¶ fate, but succeeded in leading the troops to Mosul. Zangī’s son, Sayf al-Dīn…


(166 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, nāṣiḥ al-dīn abū bakr aḥmad b. muḥammad al-anṣārī , Arab poet born at Arrad̲j̲ān in 460/1067, died in 544/1149-50 at Tustar or ʿAskar Mukram. Religious studies, pursued mainly at the Niẓāmiyya at Iṣfahān, enabled him to be nominated ḳāḍī of Tustar, but he early devoted himself to poetry, which he considered as a means of livelihood, and wrote panegyrics, addressed in particular to the ʿAbbāsid Caliph al-Mustaẓhir, in ḳaṣīda form, with the traditional nasīb . Although some critics praise his work, al-Arrad̲j̲ānī must be considered as a versifier of limited stature. His dīwān


(29 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, name of various Turkish chiefs, particularly the Dānis̲h̲mendid prince known also as Amīr G̲h̲āzī [see dānis̲h̲mendids ] and the atabeg of Aleppo [see zangids ]. (Ed.)


(273 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), literally “he who seeks”, in Ṣūfī mystical parlance, the novice or postulant or seeker after spiritual enlightenment by means of traversing ( sulūk ) the Ṣūfī path in obedience to a spiritual director ( murs̲h̲id , pīr , s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ [ q.vv.]). The equivalent Persian term is s̲h̲āgird , literally “pupil, apprentice”. The stages of the novice’s spiritual initiation are detailed in numerous Ṣūfī manuals and works touching on Ṣūfism, such as al-G̲h̲azālī’s Iḥyāʾ , and the term murīd figures in numerous titles of such works. One of the earliest manuals was the Ādāb al-murīdīn


(110 words)

Author(s): Ed,
, Udaipur , the usual more recent name for the region in southwestern Rād̲j̲āsthān known in Islamic Indian times as Mēwāŕ, and the name also of its main town, actually founded in 966/1599. For this Rād̲j̲pūt state, which strenuously opposed the Muslims from the 8th/14th century onwards until its conquest by the Mug̲h̲al Akbar in the later 10th/16th century, see mēwāŕ . The subsequent Native State of Udaypūr in British India became part of the first Rajasthan Union in April 1948, and is now a District of the Rajasthan State of the Indian Union. (Ed.) Bibliography See that to mēwāŕ, and also Imper…

Aḥmad b. Muḥammad

(160 words)

Author(s): Ed.
or maḥmūd , called muʿīn al-fuḳarāʾ , Transoxanian author of an important work on the religious leaders and saints of Buk̲h̲ārā, the Kītāb-i Mullāzādū or Kïtāb-i Mazārāt-i Buk̲h̲ārā , in which the cemeteries of the city and their occupants are described. Since the last date mentioned in the book is 814/1411-12, the author must have lived in the reigns of Tīmūr and S̲h̲āh-Ruk̲h̲ [see tīmūrids ]. From the number of extant manuscripts, the work was obviously popular in Central Asia. Extracts from it were first given by Barthold, Turkestan v epok̲h̲u Mongolskago nas̲h̲estviy̲a̲ , i, Teksty


(167 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, pl. of ḥaḳḳ [ q.v.], legal rights or claims, and corresponding obligations, in the religious law of Islam. One distinguishes the ḥuḳūḳ Allāh , the rights or claims of Allāh, e.g., the ḥadd [ q.v.] punishments, and the ḥuḳūḳ al-ādamiyyīn , private, and essentially civil, rights or claims. Used of things, ḥuḳūḳ signifies the accessories necessarily belonging to them, such as the privy and the kitchen of a house, and servitudes in general; this term is of common occurrence in the legal formularies ( s̲h̲urūṭ [ q.v.]). In contemporary terminology, ḥuḳūḳ means merely “law” in the modern …

Ibn al-Rabīb

(163 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū ʿAlī Ḥasan b. Muḥammad b. Aḥmad al-Tamīmī , known also under the name of al-Ḳāḍī al-Tāhartī (because he was for some time ḳāḍī of Tāhart), philologist, poet and man of letters of Ḳayrawān, where he died in 430/1038-9. He is remembered only for a risāla addressed to Abu ’l-Mug̲h̲īra Ibn Ḥazm [see ibn ḥazm ] in which he criticizes the Andalusians (text in Ibn Bassām, D̲h̲ak̲h̲īra . i, 111-3; al-Maḳḳarī, Analectes , ii, 108-9; 5- W. ʿAbd al-Wahhāb, al-Muntak̲h̲ab al-madrasī Cairo 1944, 64-6; Eng. tr. P. de Gayangos, The history of the Mohammedan dynasties in Spain, London 1840, i, 168-70…

Ahl al-Naẓar

(79 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, “those who apply reasoning”. This term originally denotes the Muʿtazila [ q.v.], and it is probable that they coined it themselves. It occurs in Ibn Ḳutayba, Taʾwīl Muk̲h̲talif al-Ḥadīt̲h̲ , passim; al-Masʿudī speaks of ahl al-baḥt̲h̲ wal-naẓar ; synonyms are ahl al-kalām (in al-S̲h̲āfiʿī) and al-mutakallimūn (in al-As̲h̲ʿarī). Later, ahl (or aşḥāb ) al-naẓar came to denote the careful scholars who held a sound, well-reasoned opinion on any particular question. See also naẓar . (Ed.)


(205 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the common name in modern Arabic, Persian, Turkish, etc. for administration. The term appears to have acquired its technical significance during the period of European influence. Muslim administration is discussed in the articles on administrative departments and services ( bāb-i-ʿālī , bayt al-māl , barīd , dīwān , dīwān-i humāyūn , istīfāʾ , ḳalam ḳānūn , rawk, taḥrīr , etc.); on officers and functionaries ( ʿāmil , ʿamīd , daftardār , ḥād̲j̲ib , kâhya , k̲h̲āzin , mus̲h̲īr , mus̲h̲rif , mustawfī , nāʾib , nāẓir , raʾīs al-kuttab, s̲h̲ādd , wakīl , wāsiṭa , wazīr , etc.); on scribes ( kātib …

Baḥr Adriyās

(13 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, name of the Adriatic in Arabic geographical works. (Ed.)


(365 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the name of a family of Berber “physicians”, whose ancestor, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad (d. 1070/1658-60) left the Sūs and settled at Fās; he must have used completely empirical methods, but nevertheless obtained significant results. Ibn S̲h̲akrūn [ q.v. in Suppl.] was the pupil of a certain Aḥmad b. Muḥammad Ādarrāḳ, who was probably the son of the above-mentioned person, but the best-known member of the family was this Aḥmad’s son, abu muḥammad ʿabd al-wahhāb b. aḥmad ( b. ca . 1077/1666, d. 28 Ṣafar 1159/22 March 1746), who was attached to Mawlāy Ismā…


(181 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(Ar.), sea and also large perennial river.— The articles which follow treat of the principal seas known to the Arabs, but it is convenient to note here that in Islamic cosmology, on the basis of a conception generally related on the authority of Kaʿb al-Aḥbār [ q.v.], the mountain Ḳāf [ q.v.], which encircles the terrestial sphere, is itselt surrounded by seven concentric intercommunicating seas; these seas bear respectively the following names: Nīṭas (or Bayṭas̲h̲), Ḳaynas (or Ḳubays), al-Aṣamm, al-Sākin, al-Mug̲h̲allib (or al-Muẓlim), al-Muʾan…

al-Wazīr al-Ṣag̲h̲īr

(94 words)

Author(s): Ed,
(a.), a term of Fāṭimid administrative usage, also called the Ṣāḥib al-Bāb , i.e. head chamberlain. He was equal in status to the Isfahsālār or Muḳaddam al-ʿAskar , the commander-in-chief of the army, and the two of them setded all matters of military organisation. According to al-Ḳalḳas̲h̲andī, Ṣubḥ , iii, 483, vi, 7-8, he was second in the civilian administrative hierarchy after the wazīr himself and could hear maẓālim [ q.v.] when the wazīr was pre-occupied. (Ed.) Bibliography See also W. Björkman, Beiträge zur Geschichte der Staatskanzlei im islamischen Ä gypten, Hamburg 1928, 98.

Abu ’l-Ḥasan al-Mag̲h̲ribī

(249 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, muḥammad b. aḥmad b. muḥammad , poet and littérateur of the 4th/10th century whose origin is unknown. He seems to have undergone many vicissitudes, since he appears in the service of Sayf al-Dawla, of al-Ṣāḥib Ibn ʿAbbād and of the ruler of K̲h̲urāsān, where he met Abu ’l-Farad̲j̲ al-Iṣfahānī, and he also resided in Egypt, in the D̲j̲abal, and in Transoxania, at S̲h̲ās̲h̲. The surviving verses of this great traveller are occasional pieces without any great originality, but he seems also to have been the author of several epistles and books, in particular, of a Tuḥfat al-kuttāb fi ’l-rasā…
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