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Yūsuf and Zulayk̲h̲ā

(2,633 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de | Flemming, Barbara
, a popular story in mediaeval Islamic literature. 1. In Persian literature. The Biblical story of Joseph and Potiphar’s wife, who later received the name of Zulayk̲h̲ā, entered into Persian literature mainly through Arabic sources, consisting first of Sūrat Yūsuf (XII) of the Ḳurʾān, and then of commentaries on this “most beautiful of stories” and traditions on the lives of ancient Prophets ( ḳiṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ [ q.v.]). The many additions to the story as it was told in the holy scriptures were derived from the Hebrew Midrash and Christian works in Syriac (cf. …

Tak̲h̲alluṣ

(861 words)

Author(s): Gelder, G.J.H. van | Bruijn, J.T.P. de
(a.), literally, “freeing oneself, escaping from (something)”, a technical term of literary usage. 1. In literary form. Here, it is the transition from the introduction [see nasīb ] of the polythematic ḳaṣīda [ q.v.] to subsequent themes, esp. the panegyric section. Often called k̲h̲urūd̲j̲ “exit”, it may be abrupt, without any attempt at preparing what follows, or effected brusquely with formulas such as daʿ d̲h̲ā “leave this (and speak on something else)”. From ʿAbbāsid times onwards, poets and critics favoured t…

K̲h̲argird

(860 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, or K̲h̲ard̲j̲ird, has been the name of at least two different places in northeastern Persia but is at present only current for one of them. 1. K̲h̲argird in the s̲h̲ahristān of Turbat-i Ḥaydariyya, or, more precisely, the dihistān of Rūd-i miyān K̲h̲wāf, is situated at about 6 km. to the southwest of the latter place. It is now a small settlement, the inhabitants of which live on the growing of cereals and cotton as well as on weaving. Archaeological remains point, however, to a much more prosperous past when K̲h̲argird was one of the main urban centres of the district of K̲h̲wāf [ q.v.]. Many m…

Tad̲h̲kira

(2,139 words)

Author(s): Heinrichs, W.P. | Bruijn, J.T.P. de | Stewart Robinson, J.
(a.), “memorandum” or “aidemémoire”. The word is considered a verbal noun of the form II verb d̲h̲akkara “to-remind”, but already in its nine occurrences in the Ḳurʾan it tends to mean a concrete “reminder” rather than a verbal “reminding”. 1. In Arabic literature. Tad̲h̲kira occurs not infrequentiy in the tides of books. From a closer scrutiny of these tides, two clusters of books emerge that represent two different “genres” of text presentation: (1) handbooks and (2) notebooks. It should be noted that, in most cas…

Naṣr Allāh b. Muḥammad

(444 words)

Author(s): Berthels, E. | Bruijn, J.T.P. de
b. ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd, Niẓām al-Dīn Abu ’l-Maʿālī, also known as Naṣr Allāh Muns̲h̲ī, a Persian author and statesman who was born at G̲h̲azna in a family which came from S̲h̲īrāz. He served as a secretary in the dīwān of the G̲h̲aznawids. Under K̲h̲usraw Malik (555-82/1160-86) he rose to the rank of a vizier but he fell into disgrace with this sultan and was executed while in prison (cf. ʿAwfī, Lubāb , i, 92 ff.). Naṣr Allāh Muns̲h̲ī’s fame rests on his version ( Tard̲j̲uma ) of the Indian mirror for princes Kalīla wa Dimna [ q.v.] into Persian prose, which was based on the Arabic of ʿAbd Allā…

Kās̲h̲if

(302 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, muḥammad s̲h̲arīf b. s̲h̲ams al-dīn al-s̲h̲īrāzī ( ca. 1001/1592-after 1063/1653), a Persian prosewriter and poet with the tak̲h̲alluṣ Kās̲h̲if (the forms Kās̲h̲if-i Kumayt, cf. Rosen, loc. cit., and S̲h̲arīfā Kās̲h̲if, cf. Tad̲h̲kira-i Naṣrābādī in the synopsis by A. Sprenger, Cat. Oudh , 91, are also mentioned). He lived in Iṣfahān and later in Ray, where he was a ḳāḍī for 15 years. His brothers Ismāʿīl Munṣif and Muḳīma were also known as poets. Only two works by Kās̲h̲if seem to have survived. Both deal with ethical questions…

S̲h̲ams-i Ḳays

(970 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, the familiar form of the name of S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Ḳays Rāzī, author of the oldest Persian work on poetics, al-Muʿd̲j̲am fī maʿāyīr as̲h̲ʿār al-ʿad̲j̲am , which covers the full range of traditional literary scholarship. Facts about his life are only to be found in his own statements, mostly in the introduction to his sole surviving work ( Muʿd̲j̲am , 2-24). His native town was Rayy, where he must have been born around the beginning of the last quarter of the 12th century. For many years he lived in Transoxania, K̲h̲wārazm and Ḵh̲urāsān. He relates an incident situated in Buk…

Nizārī Ḳuhistānī

(747 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, Ḥakīm Saʿd al-Dīn b. S̲h̲ams al-Dīn b. Muḥammad, Persian poet, born 645/1247-8 in Bīrd̲j̲and [ q.v.], where he died in 720/1320-1. The name Nizārī was not only his nomde-guerre as a poet, but also seems to indicate the loyalty of his family to Nizār [ q.v.], the pretender to the Fāṭimid imāmate in the late 5th/11th century whose claim was supported by most Persian Ismāʿilīs. Reliable facts concerning his life can only be deduced from his own works. According to Borodin, followed by Rypka, he would have been attached to the court of the Kart [ q.v.] Maliks of Herāt, but Bayburdi identified…

Marzbān-Nāma

(1,081 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H. | Bruijn, J.T.P. de
(also known in the Arabicised form Marzubān-nāma ), a work in Persian prose containing a variety of short stories used as moral examples and bound together by one major and several minor framework stories. It is essentially extant in two versions written in elegant Persian with many verses and phrases in Arabic. They were made from a lost original in the Ṭabarī dialect independently of each other in the early 13th century. The oldest version, entitled Rawḍat al-ʿuḳūl , was completed in 598/1202 by Muḥammad b. G̲h̲āzī al-Malaṭyawī (or Malaṭī) and was …

S̲h̲emʿī

(777 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, the tak̲h̲alluṣ or pen-name of a Turkish translator and commentator of Persian literary works who flourished in the second half of the 10th/16th century. In his own works and in most of the biographical sources only this name is mentioned. B. Dorn, referring to “two manuscripts” of Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī K̲h̲alīfa, asserted that he was properly called Muṣṭafā Darwīs̲h̲. Even more uncertain is the name S̲h̲emʿ-Allāh Perzennī which Bursali̊ Meḥmed Ṭāhir attributed to him; this was based perhaps on the confusion with another S̲h̲emʿī, a Ṣūfī poet from the town of Prizren [ q.v.], or Perzerīn, who …

Ḳahramān-Nāma

(858 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. De
, or Dāstān-i Ḳahramān , a popular romance in prose, several versions of which are known in both Persian and Turkish. It belongs to a series of prose works which develop themes from the Iranian epic tradition, embellishing them with fabulous touches borrowed from folk literature. Like the Hūs̲h̲ang-nāma , the Ṭahmūrat̲h̲-nāma and the Ḳiṣṣa-i Ḏj̲ams̲h̲īd . the story takes place in the earliest period of the legendary history of Iran, the times of the pis̲h̲dādīyān . The central hero is Kahramān, nicknamed Ḳātil, “the slayer”. His name is in fact a c…

Muṣannifak

(313 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn ʿAlī b. Mad̲j̲d al-Dīn Muḥammad al-Bisṭāmī (or al-Harawī), Persian scholar and theologian, was born in 803/1400-1 at S̲h̲āhrūd near Bisṭām as a descendant of the famous theologian Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn al-Rāzī [ q.v.]. The nickname muṣannifak (“the little writer”) was probably given to him “in allusion to his youthful productivity as a writer” (Storey). He studied at Harāt and continued to live in Eastern Persia until 848/1444 when he travelled to Anatolia. While he was teaching at Ḳonya, his hearing d…

al-Kirmānī

(1,781 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, Ḥamīd al-Dīn Aḥmad b. ʿAbd Allāh , was a prominent dāʿī of the Fāṭimids during the reign of al-Ḥākim bi-amr Allāh (386-411/996-1021) as well as the author of many works on the theory of the Imāmate and on Ismāʿīlī philosophy. The life of al-Kirmānī is known only in its main outlines, which can be traced on the basis of statements contained in his own works. Some other details can be derived from unpublished Ismāʿīlī sources, as has been done notably by Muṣṭafā G̲h̲ālib ( op. cit., 41 f.) who, however, does not specify these sources. His nisba points to his origin fro…

Masraḥ

(31,037 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M. | Bencheneb, R. | And, Metin | Bruijn, J.T.P. de | Allworth, E. | Et al.
(a.), “scene”, increasingly employed as “theatre” (in the same sense as “Bühne” in German); frequently synonymous with tiyātrō (from the Italian). 1. In the Arab East. Primarily an artistic and literary phenomenon of the last two centuries, the Arab theatre has its roots in local performances of passion plays [see taʿziya ], marionette and shadow plays [see ḳaragöz ], mimicry and other popular farces, and was affected by the then contemporary (rather than the classical) foreign theatre as well. Although some popular open-air plays…

Takī Awḥadī

(447 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, or Taḳī al-Dīn Muḥammad al-Ḥusaynī al-Awḥadī, Persian anthologist, lexicographer and poet. He was born at Iṣfahān on 3 Muḥarram 973/31 January 1565, into a family with a Ṣūfī tradition from Balyān in Fārs. One of his paternal ancestors was the 5th/11th-century S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Abū ʿAlī al-Daḳḳāḳ. During his adolescence he studied in S̲h̲īrāz, where he presented his early poems to a circle of poets and was encouraged by ʿUrfī [ q.v.]. Returning to Iṣfahān, he attracted the attention of the young S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās I and joined his entourage. In 1003/1594-5, Taḳī retired for six years to the ʿatabāt

Labībī

(454 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, the pen-name of a Persian poet who lived at the end of the 4th/11th and the beginning of the 5th/12th century. His personal name as well as almost any other particulars of his life are unknown. The Tard̲j̲umān al-balāg̲h̲a has preserved an elegy by Labībī on the death of Farruk̲h̲ī [ q.v.], which means that the former was probably still alive in 429/1037-8. A ḳaṣīda attributed to him by ʿAwfī is addressed to a mamdūḥ by the name of Abu ’l-Muẓaffar, who in that source is identified with a younger brother of the G̲h̲aznavid Sultan Maḥmūd. But it i…

K̲h̲wāndamīr

(1,622 words)

Author(s): Beveridge, H. | Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, surname of the Persian historian G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn who was born ca. 880/1475 into a family of high officials and scholars. His father, K̲h̲wād̲j̲a Humām al-Dīn Muḥammad b. K̲h̲wād̲j̲a D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn Muḥammad b. K̲h̲wad̲j̲a Burhān al-Dīn Muḥammad S̲h̲īrāzī, was for many years the minister of Sulṭān Maḥmūd b. Abī Saʿīd, who at the end of his political career became the Tīmūrid ruler of Samarḳand from 899-900/1494-5. The historian Mirkhwānd [ q.v.] was his maternal uncle and took an important part in his primary education. It is, therefore, likely that K̲h̲wāndamīr was actually bor…

Rind

(809 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
(p.), a word applied in Persian with a contemptuous connotation to “a knave, a rogue, a drunkard” or “a debauchee”; in the terminology of poets and mystics it acquired the positive meaning of “one whose exterior is liable to censure, but who at heart is sound” (Steingass, s.v., after the Burhān-i ḳāṭiʿ ). The etymology of rind is unclear. It is not an Arabic loanword, in spite of the existence of the broken plural runūd , a learned form used next to the regular Persian plural rindān . The abstract noun rindī denotes the characteristic behaviour of a person thus qualified. Mediaeval historians r…

S̲h̲ahriyār

(547 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, Sayyid (or Mīr) Muḥammad Ḥusayn , a modern Persian poet. He was born about 1905 at Tabrīz as the son of a lawyer, and belonging to a family of sayyid s in the village of K̲h̲us̲h̲gnāb. In his early work he used the pen name Bahd̲j̲at, which he later changed to S̲h̲ahriyār, a name chosen from the Dīwān of Ḥāfiẓ, who was his great model as a writer of g̲h̲azal s. He read medicine at the Dār al-Funūn in Tehran, but left his studies unfinished to become a government clerk in K̲h̲urāsān. After some time he returned to Tehran, where for many years…

S̲h̲āʿir

(23,851 words)

Author(s): Fahd, T. | Moreh, S. | Ben Abdesselem, A. | Reynolds, D.F. | Bruijn, J.T.P. de | Et al.
(a.), poet. ¶ 1. In the Arab world. A. Pre-Islamic and Umayyad periods. Among those endowed with knowledge and with power in ancient Arabia stands the figure of the s̲h̲āʿir , whose role is often confused with that of the ʿarrāf ( s̲h̲aʿara and ʿarafa having the same semantic value: cf. I. Goldziher, Abhandlungen , i, 3 ff.) and of the kāhin [ q.v.]. They were credited with the same source of inspiration, the d̲j̲inns (Goldziher, Die Ǧinnen der Dichter , in ZDMG, xlv [1891], 685 ff.). However, the s̲h̲āʿir was, originally, the repository of magical rather than divinatory knowledge; …
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