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Taḳī Awḥadī

(451 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, ou Taḳī al-dīn Muḥammad al-Ḥusaynī al-Awḥadī, auteur d’anthologies, lexicographe et poète persan. Né à Iṣfahān le 3 Muḥarram 973/31 Janvier 1565, d’une famille de tradition ṣūfie originaire de Balyān, dans le Fārs. Il eut pour ancêtre du côté de son père, S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Abū ʿAlī al-Daḳḳāḳ, au Ve/XIe siècle. Au cours de son adolescence, il étudia à S̲h̲īrāz, où il présenta ses premiers poèmes à un cercle de poètes et il fut encouragé par ʿUrfī [ q.v.]. De retour à Iṣfahān, il attira l’attention du jeune S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās Ier et rejoignit ses familiers. En 1003/1594-5, Taḳī se retira pour …

Yūsuf et Zulayk̲h̲ā

(2,739 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de | Flemming, Barbara
, célèbre histoire de la littérature islamique médiévale. 1. Dans la littérature persane. L’histoire biblique de Joseph et de la femme de Putiphar, à qui l’on donna plus tard le nom de Zulayk̲h̲ā, entra dans la littérature persane principalement à travers des sources arabes, et en premier lieu par la Surat Yūsuf (XII) du Ḳurʾān, puis par des commentaires de cette «histoire parmi les plus belles» et par des traditions sur la vie des anciens Prophètes ( Ḳiṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ [ q.v.]). Les nombreuses adjonctions à l’histoire telle qu’elle est racontée dans les écritures saintes pro…

K̲h̲araḳānī

(2,077 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, Abū l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Aḥmad, mystique persan, m. le 10 muḥarram 425/5 décembre 1033 à l’âge de 73 ans. Sa nisba vient du village de Ḵh̲araḳān situé dans les montagnes au Nord de Bisṭām, sur la route d’Astarābād (mod. Gurgān); ce nom de lieu est diversement vocalisé, même dans les sources anciennes relatives à la vie de ce mystique, et la confusion peut fort bien provenir de l’existence d’autres toponymes dont le ductus consonantique est le même, notamment Ḵh̲arḳān, près de Samarḳand, et Ḵh̲anaḳān, entre Hamadān et Ḳazwīn. Dans les poèmes de ʿAṭṭār, la nisba de ce mystique est uniformément…

Kisāʾī

(889 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H. | Bruijn, J. T. P. de
, Mad̲j̲d al-dīn Abū l-Ḥasan, poète persan de la seconde moitié du IVe/Xe siècle. Dans des sources plus tardives, il porte la kunya d’Abfi Isḥāḳ, mais la forme indiquée ci-dessus se trouve déjà dans une source aussi ancienne que les Čahār makāla. La Dumyat al-ḳaṣr d’al-Bāk̲h̲arzī contient une référence à l’«ascète solitaire» ( al-mud̲j̲tahid al-mukīm bi-nafsi-h) Abu l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Muḥammad al-Kisāʾī de Marw qui pourrait bien être le poète (cf. A. A teş, giriş à son éd. du Kitāb Tarcumān al-Balāġa, 97 sq.). Le pseudonyme de Kisāʾī serait dû, d’après ʿAwfī, au mode de vie asc…

Mad̲j̲āz

(2,463 words)

Author(s): Reinert, B. | Bruijn, J.T.P. de | Stewart-Robinson, J.
(A.), terme de rhétorique désignant un trope et, plus généralement, l’emploi d’un mot dans un sens ne correspondant pas à sa signification originale. L’opposé en est ḥaḳīḳa (expression «véritative»). En arabe. Les différents modes d’expression dénommés mad̲j̲āz par les théoriciens arabes ont été classés par Fak̲h̲r al-dīn al-Rāzī (m. 606/1210) en douze catégories sans suivre un système consistant de critères (cf. al-Suyūṭī, Muzhir, éd. Caire 1282, I, 171). On rencontre ce même principe de classification, sous une forme plus fine et détaillée, chez al-Suyūṭ…

Nizārī Ḳuhistānī

(754 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, Ḥakīm Saʿd al-Dīn b. S̲h̲ams al-dīn Muḥammad poète persan, né en 647/1247-8 à Bīrd̲j̲and [ q.v.], où il mourut en 720/1320. Nizārī n’était pas seulement son pseudonyme en tant que poète, mais aussi une indication de la loyauté de sa famille à l’égard de Nizār [ q.v.] qui, à la fin du Ve/XIe siècle, prétendit à l’imāmat fāṭimide avec le soutien de la plupart des Ismāʿīliens persans. Les seules données biographiques doivent être tirées de ses propres oeuvres. D’après Borodin, suivi par Rypka, il aurait été attaché à la cour des Maliks Kart de Harā…

Maḥmūd b. ʿAbd al-Karīm b. Yaḥyā S̲h̲abistarī

(1,180 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J. T. P. de
(ou S̲h̲abustarī, selon des écrivains modernes en azéri), s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Saʿd al-dīn, mystique et écrivain persan. Il naquit à S̲h̲abistar, petite ville proche de la rive Nord-est du Lac d’Urmiya, à une date inconnue, qui pourrait cependant être fixée aux alentours de 686/1287-8 si l’on admet qu’il mourut à 33 ans ainsi que le mentionne une inscription figurant sur une pierre tombale érigée au XIXe siècle sur sa sépulture. Il aurait mené la vie d’un éminent savant religieux à Tabrīz. Des voyages en Égypte, en Syrie et au Ḥid̲j̲āz sont cités dans l’introduction du Saʾādat-nāma. Il aurait éga…

ʿUnṣurī

(1,275 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Ḥasan Aḥmad, Persian poet at the G̲h̲aznawid court during the early 5th/11th century. The external information about his life is mosdy anecdotal. It is said that he was born at Balk̲h̲, became an orphan at an early age and in his youth earned a living as a merchant. A story, told in some sources, about a robbery during one of his travels was mistakingly associated with him (cf. Storey-de Blois, v/1, 234-5). His career as a poet began under the patronage of the Amīr Abu ’l-Muẓaffar Naṣr (d. 412/1021-2), the military governor ( sipahsālār ) of his brother ¶ Sultan Maḥmūd [ q.v.] in K̲h…

Mad̲j̲nūn Laylā

(5,623 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch. | Bruijn, J.T.P. de | Flemming, B. | Haywood, J.A.
, “the Madman of Laylā”, or Mad̲j̲nūn Banī ʿĀmir, the name given to the hero of a romantic love story, the original form of which could date back as far as the second half of the 1st/7th Century. 1. In Arabic literature This imaginary character (acknowledged as such even by some Arab critics; see Ag̲h̲ānī , ed. Beirut, ii, 6, 11) has been furnished by the ruwāt with an ism and with a complete genealogy; Ḳays b. al-Mulawwaḥ b. Muzāḥim b. Ḳays b. ʿUdas b. Rabīʿa b. D̲j̲aʿda b. Kaʿb b. Rābīʿa b. ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa, but according to the evidence, …

S̲h̲ifāʾī Iṣfahānī

(526 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, Ḥakīm S̲h̲araf al-Dīn Ḥasan, Persian physician and poet of the Ṣafawid period. He was born in 956/1549 (Gulčīn-i Maʿānī) or 966/1558-9 (Ṣafā) at Iṣfahān. His nom-de-plume refers to the medical profession, which was a tradition of his family. He was also a student of speculative mysticism, but he achieved his greatest fame as a poet. His literary work consists of g̲h̲azals and ḳaṣīdas , written respectively in the style of Bābā Fig̲h̲ānī and K̲h̲āḳānī (cf. Rypka, 300), as well as poems in several other forms, including a series of mat̲h̲nawīs . His best known poem is the didactic mat̲h̲nawī …

Luṭf ʿAlī Beg

(1,060 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H. | Bruijn, J.T.P. de
b. Āḳā K̲h̲ān , Persian anthologist and poet, who is also known by his penname Ād̲h̲ar which he adopted after having used the names Wālih and Nak̲h̲at previously. He was descended from a prominent Turcoman family belonging to the Begdīlī tribe of Syria (Begdīlī-i S̲h̲āmlū) which had joined the Ḳi̊zi̊lbās̲h̲ movement [ q.v.] in the 9th/15th century. Afterwards, the family settled down in Iṣfahān. Many of his relatives served the later Ṣafawids and Nādir S̲h̲āh as administrators and diplomats. Luṭf ʿAlī Beg was born on Saturday 20 Rabīʿ II 1134/7 F…

K̲h̲amsa

(1,175 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
is in the technical language of Persian and Turkish literature a set of five mat̲h̲nawī poems. The term is used, first of all, to designate the five epic poems of Niẓāmī [ q.v.] of Gand̲j̲a which were composed between ca. 570/1174-5 and 600/1203-4. The set contains one didactic poem Mak̲h̲zan al-asrār , in the metre sarīʿ-i maṭwiyy-i mawḳūf ; three romantic poems: Laylā u Mad̲j̲nūn in the metre hazad̲j̲-i musaddas-i maḳbūḍ-i maḥd̲h̲ūf , K̲h̲usraw u S̲h̲īrīn in the metre hazad̲j̲-i musaddas-i maḥd̲h̲ūf , and Haft Paykar in the metre k̲h̲afīf-i mak̲h̲būn-i maḳsūr ; and the Iskandarnāma

Kisāʾī

(944 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H. | Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, Mad̲j̲d al-Dīn Abu ’l-Ḥasan , a Persian poet of the second half of the 4th/10th century. In some later sources his kunya is given as Abū Isḥāḳ, but the form given above can be found already in an early source like the Čahār makāla . The Dumyat al-ḳaṣr by al-Bāk̲h̲arzī contains a reference to the “solitary ascetic” ( al-mud̲j̲tahid al-muḳīm bi-nafsihi ) Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Muḥammad al-Kisāʾī of Marw who might very well be identical with this poet (cf. A. Ates, giriş to his edition of Kitāb Tarcumān al-balāġa , 97 f.). The pen name Kisāʾī would, according to ʿAw…

K̲h̲argird

(860 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, or K̲h̲ard̲j̲ird, has been the name of at least two different places in northeastern Persia but is at present only current for one of them. 1. K̲h̲argird in the s̲h̲ahristān of Turbat-i Ḥaydariyya, or, more precisely, the dihistān of Rūd-i miyān K̲h̲wāf, is situated at about 6 km. to the southwest of the latter place. It is now a small settlement, the inhabitants of which live on the growing of cereals and cotton as well as on weaving. Archaeological remains point, however, to a much more prosperous past when K̲h̲argird was one of the main urban centres of the district of K̲h̲wāf [ q.v.]. Many m…

Tad̲h̲kira

(2,139 words)

Author(s): Heinrichs, W.P. | Bruijn, J.T.P. de | Stewart Robinson, J.
(a.), “memorandum” or “aidemémoire”. The word is considered a verbal noun of the form II verb d̲h̲akkara “to-remind”, but already in its nine occurrences in the Ḳurʾan it tends to mean a concrete “reminder” rather than a verbal “reminding”. 1. In Arabic literature. Tad̲h̲kira occurs not infrequentiy in the tides of books. From a closer scrutiny of these tides, two clusters of books emerge that represent two different “genres” of text presentation: (1) handbooks and (2) notebooks. It should be noted that, in most cas…

Naṣr Allāh b. Muḥammad

(444 words)

Author(s): Berthels, E. | Bruijn, J.T.P. de
b. ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd, Niẓām al-Dīn Abu ’l-Maʿālī, also known as Naṣr Allāh Muns̲h̲ī, a Persian author and statesman who was born at G̲h̲azna in a family which came from S̲h̲īrāz. He served as a secretary in the dīwān of the G̲h̲aznawids. Under K̲h̲usraw Malik (555-82/1160-86) he rose to the rank of a vizier but he fell into disgrace with this sultan and was executed while in prison (cf. ʿAwfī, Lubāb , i, 92 ff.). Naṣr Allāh Muns̲h̲ī’s fame rests on his version ( Tard̲j̲uma ) of the Indian mirror for princes Kalīla wa Dimna [ q.v.] into Persian prose, which was based on the Arabic of ʿAbd Allā…

S̲h̲ams-i Ḳays

(970 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, the familiar form of the name of S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Ḳays Rāzī, author of the oldest Persian work on poetics, al-Muʿd̲j̲am fī maʿāyīr as̲h̲ʿār al-ʿad̲j̲am , which covers the full range of traditional literary scholarship. Facts about his life are only to be found in his own statements, mostly in the introduction to his sole surviving work ( Muʿd̲j̲am , 2-24). His native town was Rayy, where he must have been born around the beginning of the last quarter of the 12th century. For many years he lived in Transoxania, K̲h̲wārazm and Ḵh̲urāsān. He relates an incident situated in Buk…

Nizārī Ḳuhistānī

(747 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, Ḥakīm Saʿd al-Dīn b. S̲h̲ams al-Dīn b. Muḥammad, Persian poet, born 645/1247-8 in Bīrd̲j̲and [ q.v.], where he died in 720/1320-1. The name Nizārī was not only his nomde-guerre as a poet, but also seems to indicate the loyalty of his family to Nizār [ q.v.], the pretender to the Fāṭimid imāmate in the late 5th/11th century whose claim was supported by most Persian Ismāʿilīs. Reliable facts concerning his life can only be deduced from his own works. According to Borodin, followed by Rypka, he would have been attached to the court of the Kart [ q.v.] Maliks of Herāt, but Bayburdi identified…

Marzbān-Nāma

(1,081 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J.H. | Bruijn, J.T.P. de
(also known in the Arabicised form Marzubān-nāma ), a work in Persian prose containing a variety of short stories used as moral examples and bound together by one major and several minor framework stories. It is essentially extant in two versions written in elegant Persian with many verses and phrases in Arabic. They were made from a lost original in the Ṭabarī dialect independently of each other in the early 13th century. The oldest version, entitled Rawḍat al-ʿuḳūl , was completed in 598/1202 by Muḥammad b. G̲h̲āzī al-Malaṭyawī (or Malaṭī) and was …

S̲h̲emʿī

(777 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, the tak̲h̲alluṣ or pen-name of a Turkish translator and commentator of Persian literary works who flourished in the second half of the 10th/16th century. In his own works and in most of the biographical sources only this name is mentioned. B. Dorn, referring to “two manuscripts” of Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī K̲h̲alīfa, asserted that he was properly called Muṣṭafā Darwīs̲h̲. Even more uncertain is the name S̲h̲emʿ-Allāh Perzennī which Bursali̊ Meḥmed Ṭāhir attributed to him; this was based perhaps on the confusion with another S̲h̲emʿī, a Ṣūfī poet from the town of Prizren [ q.v.], or Perzerīn, who …
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