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Rustam

(1,707 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de | Robinson, B.W.
, the principal hero of the Iranian epic, especially in the version of Firdawsī [ q.v.]. 1. In Iranian legend. Neither his name nor that of his father Zāl occur in the Avesta. In the Yas̲h̲t s, Kərəsāspa (in Persian, Kars̲h̲āsp or Gars̲h̲āsp) is the most important heroic figure. Marquait conjectured that originally “Rustam” was no more than an epithet of Kərəsāspa, which only by chance was not attested in the extant Avestan texts. The exploits later attributed to Rustam would be the result of a blend of the l…

S̲h̲ahrangīz

(2,834 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de | Halman, Talat Sait | Rahman, Munibur
(p.) or S̲h̲ahrās̲h̲ūb (“upsetting the town”), a genre of short love poems on young craftsmen, often related to the bazaars of specific towns. 1. In Persian In Persian literature, the genre is usually referred to under the latter name. E.J.W. Gibb’s contention that the genre was invented by the Turkish poet Mesīḥī [ q.v.] of Edirne ( HOP, ii, 232), was challenged already by E.G. Browne who, pointing to Persian specimens mentioned by the Ṣafawid anthologist Sām Mīrzā [ q.v.], concluded that “though they were probably written later than Masíḥí’s Turkish S̲h̲ahr-angíz

Muk̲h̲tārāt

(9,678 words)

Author(s): Hamori, A. | Bruijn, J.T.P. de | Kut, Günay Alpay | Haywood, J.A.
(a.), anthology, selection of poetry. 1. In Arabic. Mediaeval tradition holds that the oldest anthology of Arabic poems is the small collection of celebrated pre-Islamic ḳaṣīda s variously known as “the seven long poems”, al-Muʿallaḳāt [ q.v.], al-Sumūṭ , etc. It is probably the oldest in conception. The early ʿAbbāsid period saw the compilation of the celebrated Mufaḍḍaliyyāt [ q.v.]. Al-Aṣmaʿī’s anthology of 92 ḳaṣīdas by 71 poets (44 of them D̲j̲āhilī), the Aṣmaʿiyyāt , received relatively little attention from mediaeval writers. A comment in the Fihrist ,…

Muḥtas̲h̲am-i Kās̲h̲ānī

(875 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
, S̲h̲ams al-S̲h̲uʿarāʾ Kamāl al-Dīn , Persian poet of the early Ṣafawid period, born ca. 1500 in Kās̲h̲ān. According to the most reliable sources, he died in 996/1587-8; a ¶ less likely dating of his death, given by Abū Ṭālib Iṣfahānī in K̲h̲ulāṣat al-afkār (see Storey i/2, 878), is 1000/1591-2. For some time he was a draper ( bazzāz ) like his father, but he abandoned this trade for the more profitable career of a professional poet. His work was appreciated at the Ṣafawid court at Ḳazwīn. He seems to have continued, however, to l…

ʿUbayd-I Zākānī

(909 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. De
, or Niẓām al-Dīn ʿUbayd Allāh al-Zākānī, Persian poet of the Mongol period who became especially famous for his satires and parodies. He was born into a family of scholars and state officials descending from Arabs of the Banū Ḵh̲afād̲j̲a [ q.v.] settled in the area of Ḳazwīn since early Islamic times. In 730/1329-30 the historian Ḥamd Allāh Mustawfī described him as a talented poet and a writer of learned treatises. A collection of Arabic sayings by prophets and wise men, entitled Nawādir al-amt̲h̲āl , belongs to this early period. When later in the same …

Malik al-S̲h̲uʿarāʾ

(980 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de
(a.), “King of the Poets”, honorific title of a Persian poet laureate, which is also known in other forms. It was the highest distinction which could be given to a poet by a royal patron. Like other honorifics [see laḳab ], it confirmed the status of its holder within his profession and was regarded as a permanent addition to his name which sometimes even became a hereditary title. Corresponding to this on a lower level was the privilege, given occasionally to court poets, of choosing a pen name [see tak̲h̲alluṣ ] based on the name or one of the laḳab s of their patron. Certain responsibilities we…
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