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(380 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. al-Mahdī al-G̲h̲azzāl al-Andalusī al-Malaḳī , the secretary of the sultan of Morocco Sīdī Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh (1171-1204/1757-89), who entrusted to him various diplomatic missions. In 1179/1766 he was the head of a delegation sent to negotiate an exchange of captives with Charles III of Spain; he was received with great honour in Madrid, and was able to return to Morocco with a Spanish mission which made a peace treaty with the sultan and an agreement abo…

Ibrāhīm b. Sayāba

(242 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, minor poet of the second half of the 2nd/8th century who died circa 193/809. Of obscure origin and a mawlā of the ʿAbbāsids, he held, according to Ibn al-Muʿtazz, the office of secretary to al-Mahdī but, having once been suspected of zandaḳa , he was dismissed and obliged to beg for a living. Like so many of his contemporaries, he led a disorganized and even dissolute life, but he was not lacking in wit, to judge by the anecdotes of which he is the hero. Ibn al-Muʿtazz described him as a born ( maṭbūʿ ) poet, while the author of the Ag̲h̲ānī has a different opinion of him…

Rustam b. Farruk̲h̲ Hurmuzd

(214 words)

Author(s): ed.
(thus in al-Ṭabarī; in al-Masʿūdī, b. Farruk̲h̲-zād), Persian general and commander of the Sāsanid army at the battle of al-Ḳādisiyya [ q.v.] fought against the Arabs in Muḥarram 15/February-March 536 or Muḥarram 16/February 637, the battle in which he was killed. His father is described as the ispabad̲h̲ [ q.v.] of K̲h̲urāsān, for which province Rustam was deputy. In the lengthy account by al-Ṭabarī of the battle of al-Ḳādisiyya, derived mainly from Sayf b. ʿUmar, there is much folkloric material, doubdess derived from materials used by the ḳuṣṣāṣ [see ḳāṣṣ ], …

Ibn Ḥamādu

(357 words)

Author(s): Ed.
( Ibn Ḥammād ), Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. Ḥammād b. ʿĪsā b. ʿAbī Bakr al-Ṣanhād̲j̲ī , a Berber ḳāḍī and historian related to the Banū Ḥammād [ q.v.] and a native of a village near their Ḳalʿa [ q.v.]. After studying at the Ḳalʿa and in Bougie, he was ḳāḍī of Algeciras and Salé (unless there is some confusion on the part of the writer of the Mafāk̲h̲ir al-Barbar (65), who gives him the kunya of Abu ’l-Ḥasan, he was also ḳāḍī of Azammūr in 616/1219), and he died in 628/1231. His Kitāb al-Nubad̲h̲ al-muḥtād̲j̲a fī ak̲h̲bār mulūk Ṣanhād̲j̲a bi-Ifrīḳiya wa-Bid̲j̲āya , whi…

Mad̲j̲maʿ ʿIlmī

(12,288 words)

Author(s): Waardenburg, J.D.J. | Jazayery, M.A. | J. M. Landau | Ed.
(i) Arab countries. Mad̲j̲maʿ , pl. mad̲j̲āmiʿ , lit. “a place of collecting, a place in which people collect, assemble, congregate” (Lane i/2, 459), became in the second half of the 19th century, as mad̲j̲maʿ ʿilmī , a technical term for Academy of Science, mad̲j̲maʿ al-lug̲h̲a being an Academy of [Arabic] language. There is thus a close relationship between both kinds of mad̲j̲maʿ , since the striving for science takes place in an Arabic language made capable of it. Whereas mad̲j̲lis [ q.v.] had been the current term in earlier Arab civilisation for [the place of] an inform…


(130 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, ʿi̊ti̊ḳnāme , also ʿi̊tāḳnāme , an Ottoman term for a certificate of manumission, given to a liberated slave [see ʿabd ]. The document normally gives the name and physical description, often also the religion and ethnie origin of the slave, together with the date and circumstances of his manumission, and is dated, signed, witnessed, and registered. The issue of such certificates goes back to early Islamic times (for examples see A. Grohmann, Arabic papyri in the Egyptian library, i, Cairo 1934, 61-4; idem, Arabische Papyri aus den Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin , in Isl


(1,143 words)

Author(s): Ed. | R. Le Tourneau
, the night patrol or watch in Muslim cities. According to Maḳrīzī the first to carry out this duty was ʿAbdallah b. Masʿūd, who was ordered by Abu Bakr to patrol the streets of Medina by night. ʿUmar is said to have gone on patrol in person, accompanied by his mawlā Aslam and by ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAwf. ( Ḵh̲iṭaṭ . ii, 223, cf. Ṭabarī, i, 5, 2742; R. Levy, (ed.) Maʿālim al-Ḳurba , 216; al-G̲h̲azzālī, Naṣīḥat al-Mulūk (ed. Humāʾī, 13, 58). Later the ʿasas was commanded by a police officer, known as the ṣāḥib al-ʿasas (Maḳrīzī, loc. cit.; Ibn Tag̲h̲rībirdī, ii, 73; Nuw…

Mās̲h̲āʾ Allāh

(416 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), a phrase occurring in the Ḳurʾān (VI, 128; VII, 188; X, 50; XVIII, 37; LXXXVII, 7; cf. XI, 109-10, LXXII, 8) and widely used in the Islamic lands of the Middle East with the general meaning of “what God does, is well done”. The formula denotes that things happen according to God’s will and should therefore be accepted with humility and resignation. In a cognate signification, the phrase is often used to indicate a vague, generally a great or considerable, but some times a small, number or quantity of time (Lane, Lexicon , s.v., who refers to S. de Sacy, Relation de l’Egypte, 246, 394). One …


(77 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Kambō , S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ D̲j̲amālī , Suhrawardī Ṣūfī saint of early 10th/16th century Muslim India, who died in 941/1534-5 during the reign of the Mug̲h̲al ruler Humāyūn [ q.v.] and was buried at Mihrawlī. His son Gadāʾī [see gadāʾī kambō, in Suppl.], whom D̲j̲amālī had in his lifetime made his k̲h̲alīfa or spiritual successor within the Suhrawardī order, achieved equal religious influence at the courts of Humāyūn and then Akbar. (Ed.) Bibliography See that to gadāʾī kambō.


(331 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, an Arabic verbal noun, from the tenth form of the root ḳ-l-l . In Classical and Middle Arabic this form is used with a variety of meanings (see Dozy and other dictionaries), and especially to convey the notion of separate, detached, unrestricted, not shared, or sometimes even arbitrary. It occurs occasionally in a political context— e.g., of a dynasty, a region, a people or a city quarter not effectively subject to some higher authority. Such occurrences are, however, rare, and the word was in no sense a political technical term. In Ottoman officia…

Ḥarb b. Umayya b. ʿAbd S̲h̲ams

(137 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the father of Abū Sufyān and father-in-law of Abū Lahb [ qq.v.], one of the leading figures of Mecca in his day. He is said to have been the first to use Arabic writing, and one of the first to renounce wine. A companion of ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib, he succeeded him ¶ as war-leader, and led the clan of ʿAbd S̲h̲ams and, according to some traditions, all Ḳurays̲h̲ in the so-called sacrilegious war [see fid̲j̲ār ]. After his death the leadership is said to have passed to the Banū Hās̲h̲im. The story of his contest of merits and subsequent quarrel with ʿAb…


(112 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Sunḳur (t.), one of the many words in Turkish denoting birds of prey. In the modern Turkic languages, and probably always, it means the gerfalcon, falco gyrfalco (Sir Gerard Clauson, An etymological dict. of pre-thirteenth century Turkish, Oxford 1972, 838a). Maḥmūd al-Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī says that it was a raptor smaller than the ṭog̲h̲ri̊l ( Dīwān lug̲h̲āt al-turk , tr. Atalay, iii, 381). The term became frequently used as a personal name in mediaeval Islamic times, both alone and in such combinations as Aḳ/Ḳara Sonḳor “White/Black Gerfalcon”, cf. J. Sauvaget, Noms et surnoms de Mamelouk


(96 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the Amīr, lord of Hamad̲h̲ān, played an important rôle in the struggles for the throne between the rival Sald̲j̲ūḳ princes Barkiyāruḳ and Muḥammad I. After having first taken the side of the latter, in 494/1100 he went over to the side of Barkiyāruḳ, ¶ and, after the latter’s death, became the Atabeg of his son Maliks̲h̲āh, who was a minor. He could not, however, hold his own against Muḥammad, and was treacherously murdered by him in 499/1105. (Ed.) Bibliography Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, x, 199 ff. Houtsma, Receuil, ii, 90 see also barkiyāruḳ and muḥammad b. maliks̲h̲āh.


(2,024 words)

Author(s): Vignet-Zunz, J. | Ed.
(a.), “countryside”. I. As a geographical and territorial term. One sense of this term early emerged from the Egyptian context, where an arid country is traversed by a river with food-producing fringes: the image is that of the fertile (and cultivated) banks of the Nile [see nīl ]. It includes two ideas, that of “fringe” (bank, littoral and, by extension, flank, limit) and that of “fertile countryside”, “abundance” (as opposed to the desert; and, by extension, “countryside” as opposed to the town) (see the lexicon of Lane and Kazimirski). In Morocco, where the natural environment is…

Ahl al-Ḥall wa’l-ʿAḳd

(213 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(this, though illogical, is the normal order of the words), “those who are qualified to unbind and to bind”, the representatives of the community of the Muslims who act on their behalf in appointing and deposing a caliph or ¶ another ruler [see bayʿa]. They must be Muslims, male, of age, free, ʿadl [ q.v.], and capable of judging who is best qualified to hold the office. No fixed number of “electors” is required; according to the prevailing opinion, even the appointment made by one “elector” in the presence of two qualified witnesses is valid. This…


(104 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, pl. d̲j̲usūr (Ar., cf. Fränkel, Aram. Fremdwörter im Arab historians asArabischen , 285), “bridge”, is more particularly, though by no means exclusively, a bridge of boats in opposition to ḳanṭara [ q.v.], an arched bridge of stone. An incident in the history of the conquest of Babylonia has become celebrated among the Arab historians as yawm al-d̲j̲isr “the day of [the fight at] the bridge”: in 13/634 Abū ʿUbayd al-T̲h̲aḳafī was defeated and slain in battle against the Persians at a bridge across the Euphrates near Ḥīra; cf. Wellhausen, Skizzen und Vorarbeiten ,…


(108 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(t.), the common Turkish word for “water”, originally suv (which explains the form suy before vowel-initial possessive suffixes, e.g. suyu “his water”), the form still found in South-West Turkmen, in Ottoman orthography ṣū . The word is found frequently in the Ork̲h̲on inscriptions, often in the phrase yer suv = “territory”, i.e. an area containing both land and water in the form of rivers, lakes, etc. (see Sir Gerald Clauson, An etymological dictionary of prethirteenth century Turkish, Oxford 1972, 783-4). In Central Asia and in the Turkicised northern tier of the Midd…

Muḥammad b. ʿUmar b. Muḥammad, Andalusian mathematician and astronomer (d. 447/1056) known by his surname of Ibn Burg̲h̲ūt̲h̲

(344 words)

Author(s): Ed.
He is cited among the “famous ¶ pupils” of Ibn al-Ṣaffār [ q.v.] by Ṣāʿid al-Andalusī, who presents him moreover as very knowledgeable in grammar, Ḳurʾān, theoretical and practical law, and appreciates highly his character and conduct. He mentions as his principal pupils Ibn al-Layt̲h̲, Ibn al-D̲j̲allal and Ibn al-Ḥayy. The first, Muḥammad b. Aḥmad, was an expert in the field of arithmetic and geometry and devoted himself to astronomical observations, at the same time as performing the functions of ḳāḍī of S̲h̲urriyūn (Surio), in the region of Játiva. …


(316 words)

Author(s): Ed,
, the Ottoman Turkish name for the Vardar , Grk. Axios, a river of the southern Balkans. It rises in the Šar Mountains near where Macedonia, Albania and the region of Kosovo meet, and flows northeastwards and then in a southeastern and south-south-eastern direction through the present (Slavic) Macedonian Republic [see maḳadūnyā ], past Skopje or Üsküb [ q.v.] and through Greek Macedonia to the Gulf of Salonica. Its length is 420 km/260 miles. The lower valley of the Vardar probably passed into Ottoman Turkish hands around the time of the first Turkish capture of Salonica in 1387 [see selānīk …


(259 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.) or ʿāriya , also iʿāra , the loan of non-fungible objects ( prêt à usage, commodatum ). It is distinguished as a separate contract from the ḳarḍ or loan of money or other fungible objects ( prêt de consommation, mutuum ). It is defined as putting some one temporarily and gratuitously in possession of the use of a thing, the substance of which is not consumed by its use. The intended use must be lawful. It is a charitable contract and therefore "recommended" ( mandūb ), and the beneficiary or borrower enjoys the privileged position of a trustee ( amīn ); he is not, in …
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