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Muk̲h̲tārāt

(9,164 words)

Author(s): Hamori, A. | Bruijn, J.T.P. de | Kut, Günay Alpay | Haywood, J.A.
(a.), anthologie, morceaux choisis. I. — En arabe. Selon la tradition médiévale, la plus vieille anthologie de poèmes arabes est le petit recueil de célèbres ḳaṣīdas préislamiques, connues sous les noms des «sept longs poèmes», al-Muʿallaḳāt [ q.v.], al-Sumūṭ, etc. Elle est probablement la plus ancienne à avoir été conçue. Au début de la période ʿabbāside, ont été compilées les célèbres Mufaḍḍaliyyāt [ q.v.]. L’anthologie d’al-Aṣma’î, les Asmaʿiyyāt, qui contient 92 ḳaṣīdas dues à 71 poètes (dont 44 préislamiques) a retenu relativement peu l’attention des écrivains…

Prēm Čand

(1,233 words)

Author(s): Haywood, J.A.
(1880-1936), auteur indien de fiction en ourdou/hindī, très connu pour ses nouvelles, qui lui valurent une large audience comme pionnier du genre. De son vivant, et déjà un siècle auparavant, l’anglais mis à part, la langue officielle du Gouvernement Britannique de l’Inde était souvent appelée l’hindūstānī. Elle était habituellement rédigée dans l’écriture de style persan par et pour les Musulmans, et en dēvanāgarī par et pour les Hindous. Le premier type, lorsqu’il était employé comme langue littéraire, était également appelé l’ourdou («la langue du camp militaire», urdû [voir Ord…

Nāsik̲h̲

(661 words)

Author(s): Haywood, J.A.
, S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Imām Bakhs̲h̲ (m. 1838), grand poète en ourdou de l’école de Lucknow, mais considéré souvent comme plus important en tant qu’arbitre de la langue, par opposition à l’ourdou littéraire de Dihlī. Telle est sans aucun doute la raison de son tak̲h̲alluṣ de Nāsik̲h̲ «celui qui abroge». Il était né à Fayḍābād (Fayzabad) et avait été adopté comme fils et héritier par un fabricant de tentes, Ḵh̲udā Bak̲h̲s̲h̲, Après des études en persan et en ourdou, il prit Sawda [ q, v. ] comme modèle en poésie. Il passa ses années de formation à la cour d’un noble, Mīrzā Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī, …

Ḳiṣṣa

(24,279 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch. | Vial, Ch. | Flemming, B. | İz, Fahir | Elwell-Sutton, L.P. | Et al.
(a.), pl. ḳiṣaṣ, est le terme qui, après une longue évolution, est généralement employé, de nos jours, pour désigner en arabe un roman, tandis que son diminutif, uḳṣūṣa, pl. aḳāṣīṣ, a été adopté quelque temps, notamment par Maḥmūd Taymūr [ q.v.], comme équivalent de «nouvelle», avant d’être malencontreusement remplacé par un calque de l’anglais, ḳiṣṣa ḳaṣīra (short story). C’est à ces genres littéraires tels qu’il sont cultivés dans diverses littératures que seront en grande partie consacrées les sections du présent article, même si le mot ḳiṣṣa lui-même n’est pas usité. Malgré …

Anīs

(536 words)

Author(s): Haywood, J. A.
, Mīr Babar ʿAlī (1217-91/1802-74) poète en ourdou né à Fayḍābād, dans une famille qui avait produit cinq générations de poètes, dont certains, notamment son père Ḵh̲āliḳ, avaient cultivé le; type indien caractéristique de mart̲h̲iya qui était en honneur dans les récitals publics à Lucknow, capitale des nawwābs, s̲h̲īʿites de l’Oudh. Ce type, qui peut provenir du Deccan, était consacré au martyre de Ḥusayn [ q.v.]. Anīs se rendit encore tout jeune à Lucknow et passa son existence à faire de la poésie, surtout des marāt̲h̲ī, dont il devint le principal spécialiste; des milliers d…

Āg̲h̲ā Ḥas̲h̲ar Kas̲h̲mīrī

(564 words)

Author(s): Haywood, J. A.
(1879-1935), est le dramaturge en ourdou le plus connu. Il s’appelait en réalité Āg̲h̲ā Muḥammad S̲h̲āh (Ḥas̲h̲ar est son tak̲h̲alluṣ), et sa nisba se rapporte au pays d’origine de son père. Ce dernier, venu du Kas̲h̲mīr, s’était fixé à Bénarès comme commerçant, et c’est la qu’Āg̲h̲ā Ḥas̲h̲ar naquit et fit ses études, mais, en 1897, il s’enfuit à Bombay, car il redoutait la colère paternelle pour avoir fait un mauvais usage de l’argent qui lui avait été confié. Son goût pour la nouvelle forme du théâtre en ourdou, qu…

Madīḥ, Madḥ

(10,443 words)

Author(s): Wickens, G.M. | Clinton, J.W. | Stewart-Robinson, J. | Haywood, J.A. | Knappert, J.
(a.), termes techniques normaux pour désigner, en arabe et dans d’autres littératures islamiques, le genre de la poésie panégyrique; un poème est généralement appelé umdūḥa (pi. amādiḥ) ou maḍīḥa (pi. madāʾīh), l’auteur lui-même, madīḥ ou, considéré d’un point de vue professionnel, maddāḥ. La racine est parfois employée sans acception technique, comme les autres radicaux impliquant l’idée de «louange»: ḥ.m.d, m.d̲j̲.d, ḳ.r.ẓ., t̲h̲.n.y,ṭ.r.w/y, etc. I. — En arabe. Tant sous forme d’unité indépendante que de composante de la ḳaṣīda [ q.v.], le genre est si répandu dans la l…

Āzād

(928 words)

Author(s): Haywood, J. A.
, Muḥammad Ḥusayn (1830-1910), pionnier de la réaction contre la tradition persane dans le domaine de la poésie en ourdou (surtout en ce qui a trait au g̲h̲azal et au langage recherché), et important partisan de la «nouvelle» prose ourdoue. Né à Delhi, il était le fils de l’un des premiers grands journalistes de l’Inde du Nord. Il fit ses études au Delhi College, acquit la maîtrise de l’arabe et du persan et se trouva, en 1854, rédacteur en chef du journal de son père, l’ Urdū Ak̲h̲bār de Delhi. L’amour de la poésie lui fut inspiré par le poète Ḏh̲awḳ (1789-1854) qui était un ami …

Mad̲j̲nūn Laylā

(5,623 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch. | Bruijn, J.T.P. de | Flemming, B. | Haywood, J.A.
, “the Madman of Laylā”, or Mad̲j̲nūn Banī ʿĀmir, the name given to the hero of a romantic love story, the original form of which could date back as far as the second half of the 1st/7th Century. 1. In Arabic literature This imaginary character (acknowledged as such even by some Arab critics; see Ag̲h̲ānī , ed. Beirut, ii, 6, 11) has been furnished by the ruwāt with an ism and with a complete genealogy; Ḳays b. al-Mulawwaḥ b. Muzāḥim b. Ḳays b. ʿUdas b. Rabīʿa b. D̲j̲aʿda b. Kaʿb b. Rābīʿa b. ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa, but according to the evidence, …

Āzād

(920 words)

Author(s): Haywood, J. A.
, muḥammad ḥusayn (1830-1910), Urdu writer, was a leading exponent of “new” Urdu prose, and a pioneer of the reaction against the Persian tradition in Urdu poetry, with its emphasis on g̲h̲azal and its preoccupation with ornate, stylised language. Born in Dihlī, he was the son of one of the first leading journalists of north India. He was educated at Delhi College, and acquired a mastery of both Arabic and Persian. By 1854, he was editor of his father’s newspaper, the Dihlī Urdū Ak̲h̲bār . A love of poetry was fostered in him by the poet D̲h̲awḳ (1789-1854…

Ḳāmūs

(4,265 words)

Author(s): Haywood, J.A. | MacKenzie, D.N. | Eckmann, J.
(a.), dictionary. 1. Arabic Lexicography The word ḳāmūs/ḳawmas , from the Greek Ωχεανός appeared in Arabic, at the latest at the time of the Prophet, with the meaning of “the bottom, the very deepest part of the sea”. Nevertheless, following Ptolemy, the Arab geographers borrowed the Greek word again, in the form Uḳiyānūs , and applied it to “the mass of water surrounding the earth”, more particularly the Atlantic Ocean, which was called Uḳiyānūs al-muḥīṭ , then more simply al-Ḳāmūs al-muḥīṭ . As this latter term was employed in a metaphorical sense by al-Fīrūzābādī [ q.v.] as the title o…

Ḥasan, Mīr G̲h̲ulām

(979 words)

Author(s): Haywood, J. A.
(1140-1201/1727-86), Urdu poet noted for his mat̲h̲nawī s, was born in Dihlī, the son of Mīr Ḍāḥik, a poet of modest attainments who was satirised by Sawdā. Mīr Ḥasan had a liberal education, which included the Persian language, but apparently not Arabic. He learned the poetic art from his father and from Mīr Dard. After the sack of Dihlī in 1739 by Nādir S̲h̲āh, he emigrated with his father to Faizabad (or Fayḍābād [ q.v.]), the capital of Oudh or Awadh [ q.v.]. En route, they stayed at Dig, near Bharatpur, and joined the pilgrimage procession to the festival of the saint S̲…

Nāsik̲h̲

(639 words)

Author(s): Haywood, J.A.
, S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Imām Bak̲h̲s̲h̲ (d. 1838), a leading Urdu poet of the Lucknow School, though often now considered more important as an arbiter of the language, as opposed to the literary Urdu of Dihlī. This is no doubt the reason for his tak̲h̲alluṣ Nāsik̲h̲ “abrogator”. He was born in Fayḍābād (Fayzabad), and became the adopted son and heir of a tent-maker, K̲h̲udā Bak̲h̲s̲h̲. He studied Persian and Urdu, and took Sawdā [ q.v.] as his model in poetry. His formative years were spent at the court of a nobleman Mīrzā Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ī, where he was able to indulge his preoccup…

Prēm Čand

(1,196 words)

Author(s): Haywood, J.A.
(1880-1936), Indian writer of fiction in Urdu/Hindi, best known for his short stories, ¶ which gained him wide recognition as a pioneer of the genre. During his lifetime, and a hundred years previously, apart from English the official language of the British Government of India was often called Hindūstānī. It was usually written in Persian-style script by and for Muslims, and in Dēvanāgarī script by and for Hindus. The former type, when used as a literary language, was also referred to as Urdū (“the language of the army camp, urdū [see ordo ]) and the latter type as Hindī (formerly Hin…

Muʾmin

(1,205 words)

Author(s): Haywood, J.A.
(Mōmin), Ḥakīm Muḥammad K̲h̲ān (1215-68/1800-51), Urdu poet, was born into a noble Kās̲h̲mīrī family noted for its distinguished physicians. As such, his father Ḥākim G̲h̲ulām Nabī was persona grata at the Mug̲h̲al court. The family had been granted a d̲j̲āgīr [ q.v.] which was subsequently appropriated by the East India Company in exchange for a substantial pension. In due course, the poet had a share of it, and he never needed to work for a living. This background of financial independence and social status should be borne in mind in judging Muʾmin as both a man and a poet. After sowing his…

Malik Muḥammad D̲j̲āyasī

(722 words)

Author(s): Haywood, J.A.
( D̲j̲āysī/D̲j̲aysī ) (?900/1493 to?949/1542), Indian Ṣūfīand poet, was born at D̲j̲āyas (D̲j̲ays) in Awadh [ q.v.] and died at nearby Amēthī. Educated locally, he became a disciple of the Čis̲h̲tī S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Muḥyī ’l-Dīn. He had Hindu as well as Muslim teachers, and showed a religious tolerance which some ascribe to the influence of Kabīr. He wrote poetry in Awadhī, a form of Eastern Hindī, including two fairly short religious poems, one of which, Āk̲h̲irī kalām , is on the Day of Judgement. But he is famed chiefly for his Padumāvat , a narrative and descriptive…

Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad Dihlawī

(920 words)

Author(s): Haywood, J.A.
(Mawlwi/Deputy) (1836-1912), Urdu prose writer, is often described as “the first real novelist” in the language. But this description presupposes that by “novels” we mean fiction dealing with contemporary social themes, more or less following Western models (for fiction prior to Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad, and that on other themes, see Ḳiṣṣa 5. In Urdu. The same article provides information on five of Nad̲h̲īr Aḥmad’s novels). He was born in a village of Bid̲j̲nawr district, not far from Dihlī, of an impoverished and improvident father, who also tried to prevent him fro…

S̲h̲iblī Nuʿmānī

(648 words)

Author(s): Haywood, J.A.
(1857-1914), leading Urdu writer of the ʿAlīgaŕh Movement, was born into a well-to-do family at Bindūl, in the Aʿẓamgaŕh [ q.v.] District of the then United Provinces. Early in life he became preoccupied with the Ḥanafī law school, and acquired expertise in the languages and literatures of Arabic, Persian and Urdu. Islamic history and biography, and literary criticism in Persian and in general, became his métiers, and he composed poetry in both Persian and Urdu, but though superficially he seems to challenge comparison with that other ʿAlīgaŕh polygraph, Alṭāf Ḥusayn Ḥālī [ q.v.], he d…

Madīḥ, Madḥ

(10,231 words)

Author(s): Wickens, G.M. | Clinton, J.W. | Stewart Robinson, J. | Haywood, J.A. | Knappert, J.
(a.), the normal technical terms in Arabic and other Islamic literatures for the genre of panegyric poetry, the individual poem being usually referred to as umdūḥa (pl. amādīḥ ) or madīḥa (pl. madāʾiḥ ). The author himself is called mādiḥ or, as considered professionally, maddāḥ . The root itself is sometimes used without technical connotations, as also are commonly the various other roots signifying "praise": ḥ-m-d, m-d̲j̲-d, ḳ-r-ẓ, t̲h̲-n-y, ṭ-r-w/y, etc. 1. In Arabic literature. As both an independent unit and a component of the ḳaṣīda [ q.v.], the genre has been so widespread …

Nuṣratī

(206 words)

Author(s): Haywood, J.A.
, Muḥammad Nuṣrat , Deccani Urdu poet of the 11th/17th century, whose work marks a stage in the history of Urdu language and literature. Born in the Carnatic as a relative of the ruling family there, he at first lived as a dervish but then moved to Bīd̲j̲āpūr [ q.v.], wherehe became an official and the poet-laureate of the ʿĀdil-S̲h̲āhī ʿAlī II b. Muḥammad (1066-83/1656-72 [see ʿādil-s̲h̲āhs ]. He wrote many poems, including ḳaṣīda s and g̲h̲azal s, but more especially a number mat̲h̲nawī s of substantial length. The most important of these was his ʿAlī-nāma , a eulog…
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