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Pan-Turkism

(1,892 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M.
, one of the Pan-ideologies originating in the late 19th century. It expresses strong nationalist interest in the welfare of all Turks and members of Turkic groups, recognisable by kindred languages and a common origin, history and tradition. It addresses itself chiefly to those in Turkey, Cyprus, the Balkans, the former Soviet Union, Syria, ʿIrāḳ, Persia, Afg̲h̲ānistān and East Tur…

Ibn Dāniyāl

(589 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M.
, S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Dāniyāl b. Yūsuf al-K̲h̲uzāʿī al-Mawṣilī , b. ca . 646/1248, d. 710/1310, Arab writer in Egypt. Born in Mawṣil; from the age of 19, he lived in Cairo, studying and practising ophthalmology. In literary and colloquial Arabic poetry and versified prose, he wrote some of the earliest shadow-plays in mediaeval Egypt. He apparently composed some Arabic…

Abū Naḍḍāra

(374 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M.
, YaʿḲūb b. Rafāʾīl Ṣanūʿ (also James Sanua), prolific Jewish Egyptian journalist and playwright (1839-1912). He indirectly influenced the ʿUrābī Revolt by teaching, lecturing, writing and performing short satirical plays and first starting the publication of Abū Naḍḍāra Zarḳāʾ ("the man with green spectacles"), ¶ an anonymous lithographic sheet, enlivened by cartoons, in the Egyptian fallāḥīn dialect. Because he had criticized the Khedive and his counsellors, he had to leave Egypt in 1878; but he continued to publish his newspaper in Par…

Cinema

(1,157 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M.
( sīnimā ). History. Cinema is a newly imported art into the Muslim world; as such, it is a facet of the Western impact on the inhabitants and expresses their interest in Western technical achievements and forms of entertainment. Silent films were apparently first imported into Egypt by Italians (1897), attracting considerable interest. Film shows for Allied troops, during World War I, familiarized many Near Easterners with the cinema. The influx of foreign films, the constru…

Kuttāb

(3,461 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M.
(a., plural katātib ), itself probably plural of kātib (“scribe”), a type of beginners’ or primary school. The term is frequently synonymous with maktab in Arabic and Persian and mektep in Turkish. In Ottoman it was also called mekteb-k̲h̲āne or mekteb-i ṣi̊byān or ṣi̊byān mektebi, (“children’s school”); later, in the Tanẓīmāt era, it was more generally referred to as ibtidāʾī mekteb (“beginner’s school”) and then as ilk mekteb (“primary school”). European writers have often called it “Ḳurʾānic school”. The kuttāb was formerly widespread in Islamic la…

Muʿāhada

(3,742 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M.
(a.) treaty, agreement: 1. In earlier times: See for this, ʿahd ; baḳṭ…

Maktab

(931 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M.
(a.), pl. makātib , was an appellation for the Islamic traditional school frequently known also as kuttāb [ q.v.; a brief discussion of the uses of maktab will be found there]. The same applies to its equivalents in Persian, maktab, and in Turkish, mekteb . In Egypt, the Copts too used maktáb to denote their own traditional schools. Later, however, the term came also to mean “school”, more generally, as in the Ottoman Turkish mekteb-i ṣanāʾiʿ (“vocational school”) or even mekteb gemisi (“training ship”). In both Ottoman Turkish and Arabic the term was borrowed, mainly during…

Pan-Islamism

(2,499 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M.
(in Arabic al-Waḥda al-Islāmiyya ; in Ottoman Turkish Ittiḥād-i̊ Islām , in modern Turkish İslam ittihadi ), the ideology aiming at a comprehensive union of all Muslims into one entity, thus restoring the situation prevalent in early Islam. The religious element of the unity of all Muslims had been advocated since the days of Muḥammad, but acquired an added political significance in the 19th century. The Turkish term was used politically by Turkish writers and journalists since the 1860s, …

Abyaḍ

(596 words)

Author(s): Landau, J. M.
, georges (b. Beirut, 5 May 1880; d. Cairo, 21 May 1959), a Syrian Christian who became a prominent protagonist of the modern Egyptian theatre. After acting in school-plays, Abyaḍ attempted a career as a clerk; unhappy with this work, he moved in 1898-9 to Egypt, then the centre of the young theatre in Arabic. In Alexandria and Cairo, he attended theatrical performances, both local and foreign, then, with a group of Egyptian amateurs, repeatedly tried his own hand, with some success. The turning …

Farmāsūniyya

(1,704 words)

Author(s): Landau, J. M.
(a.), freemasonry (also in Arabic: Firmāsūniyya , Māsūniyya and Bināya Ḥurra ; in Turkish, Franmasonluk , Farmasonluk , Masonluk ). I. In the Ottoman empire and its successor states. Freemansonry first penetrated the Empire via lodges (Arabic mahfil ; Turkish mahfel , loca ) established by Europeans. As many of the lodges were established without the authority of organised freemasonry, they were frequently short-lived. Several lodges were reported in Aleppo, Izmir and Corfu in 1738, in Alexandretta in the early 1740…

al-Naḳḳas̲h̲

(1,119 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M.
, Mārūn b. Ilyās (b. Sidon, 9 February 1817, d. Ṭarsus, 1 June 1855), pioneer of modern playwriting in Arabic. A Maronite, al-Naḳḳās̲h̲ belonged to that Christian group which had already begun to display cosmopolitan tendencies, particularly in Beirut, where he resided from 1825 onwards, eventually assuming several positions in municipal administration. He knew Arabic, Turkish, Italian and French well. As a merchant, he travelled frequently, e.g. in 1846 he visited Egypt and t…

Mandates

(16,261 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M.
The mandate (Arabic intidāb ; Turkish manda , from the French) was essentially a systemoftrusteeship, instituted by the League of Nations after the end of the First World War, for the ¶ administration of certain territories detached from the vanquished states, chiefly the Ottoman and German Empires. The concept of the mandate has been variously understood as either a new world order or, contrariwise, merely as a façade for neo-colonialism, with other interpretations ranging between these two extremes. Essentially, the option …

Pan-Arabism

(2,294 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M.
, an ideology advocating an overall union of Arabs ( waḥdat al-ʿArab , al-waḥda al-ʿArabiyya ). Ideologues of Pan-Arabism have consistently recommended such union on the basis of several elements of commonality: (a) Language and culture, considered the ultimate expression of the entire Arab nation and one of its major links with the ¶ past (including the Islamic past; many Arabs have expressed their nationalism in Islamic terms), (b) History, preoccupation with which afforded immersion in a common past glory differing from the 20th century situati…

Menderes

(1,734 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M.
, Adnan (1899-1961), Turkish statesman. Born and educated in Izmir, he studied at the Ankara University Faculty of Law, following service in the First World War and Turkey’s War of Independence. His political activity commenced upon his joining Ali Fethi Okyar’s Free Party in 1930, when he became this party’s chairman in Aydın. When the party was closed down, he joined the People’s Party (later called Republican People’s Party, RPP) and was elected repeatedly to the Grand Na…

Taʾmīm

(976 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M.
(a., Pers. millī , kardan , Tkish. devletleştirme ), all neologisms for nationalisation (in Turkish, probably with Verstaatlichung in mind), i.e. the state’s assumption of control or ownership of natural resources, services or economic enterprises, from private individuals or corporations. The explicit or implicit reasoning offered is that nationalisation conforms with social advancement and the public good. The term was employed in 19th-century Europe, together with the political and socio…

Menderes

(1,865 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M.
, Adnan (1899-1961), homme d’Etat turc. Né et élevé à Izmir, il fit ses études à la Faculté de Droit de l’Université d’Ankara, et prit part à la première Guerre mondiale et à la guerre d’Indépendance turque. Son activité politique commença lorsque, rejoignant en 1930 le Parti Libéral d’Ali Fethi Okyar, il en devint président à Aydin. Lorsque le Parti disparut, il rejoignit le Parti du Peuple (appelé plus tard Parti Républicain du Peuple, PRP) et fut élu à plusieurs reprises à la Grande Assemblée …

Mandats

(16,816 words)

Author(s): Landau, J. M.
Le mandat (A. intidāb; turc manda, du français) était essentiellement un système de tutelle institué par la Société des Nations, après la fin de la première Guerre mondiale, pour l’administration de certains territoires détachés d’États vaincus, principalement des empires ottoman et allemand. Le concept de mandat a été diversement interprété, soit comme un nouvel ordre mondial, soit, au contraire, comme une simple façade du néo-colonialisme, avec toute une gamme d’interprétations entre ces deux extrê…

Ibn Dāniyāl

(662 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M.
, S̲h̲ams al-dīn Muḥammad b. Dāniyāl b. Yūsuf al-Ḵh̲uzāʿī al-Mawṣilī, né à al-Mawṣil vers 646/1248, m. au Caire en 710/1310, écrivain arabe d’Égypte. A partir de l’âge de 19 ans, il vécut au Caire où il étudia et pratiqua l’ophtal-mologie, mais il écrivit aussi en arabe littéral et dialectal quelques-unes des pièces de théâtre d’ombres les plus anciennes de l’Égypte médiévale utilisant la rime et le vers libre. Il semble également avoir composé des poèmes, mais la postérité a surtout retenu son sens affi…

Kuttāb

(3,559 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M.
(A. pl. katātīb, mais lui-même probablement pi. de kātib «scribe»), type d’école élémentaire. Ce terme est employé concurrem- ment avec mahtab en arabe et en persan, mektep en turc. Sous les Ottomans, cette école était également appelée mekteb-k̲h̲āne ou mekteb-i ṣi̊byān ou encore ṣi̊byān mektebi «école d’enfants»; par la suite, à l’époque des Tanẓīmāt, elle était plus généralement désignée par l’expression ibtidāʾī mektep «école élémentaire», puis ilk mektep «école primaire»; les auteurs européens parlent souvent d’«école cora- nique». Le kuttāb était autrefois répandu da…
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