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Ibn Mattawayh

(474 words)

Author(s): Madelung, W.
, Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan b. Aḥmad , Muʿtazilī theologian. Virtually nothing certain is known about his life beyond that he was a student of Ḳāḍī ʿAbd al-D̲j̲abbār (d. 415/1025) in Rayy and survived him. His grandfather Mattawayh has been erroneously identified, on the basis of the title page of Houben’s edition of his al-Mad̲j̲mūʿ fi ’l-muḥīṭ bi ’l-taklīf , as ʿAlī b. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿUṭba (read ʿAṭiyya) b. Muḥammad b. Aḥmad al-Nad̲j̲rānī, who was rather the scribe of one of the manuscripts of this book. The death dates given, withou…

Murd̲j̲iʾa

(2,680 words)

Author(s): Madelung, W.
, “upholders of ird̲j̲āʾ ”, is the name of a politico-religious movement in early Islam and, in later times, refers to all those who identified faith ( īmān [ q.v.]) with belief, or confession of belief, to the exclusion of acts. The names Murd̲j̲iʾa and ird̲j̲āʾ are derived from Ḳurʾānic usage of the verb ard̲j̲ā (in non-Ḳurʾānic usage ard̲j̲aʾa ) in the meaning of “to defer judgment”, especially in sūra IX, 106. The related meaning of “to give hope” ( rad̲j̲āʾ ), although often imputed by opponents to the Murd̲j̲iʾa from an early date, was not implied. The early politico-religious movemen…

al-Ḥādī Ila ’l-Ḥaḳḳ

(943 words)

Author(s): Madelung, W.
, Abu ’l-Ḥusayn Yaḥyā b. al-Ḥusayn b. al-Ḳāsim b. Ibrāhīm al-Ḥasanī , the founder of the Zaydī imāmate in Yaman, was born in al-Madīna in 245/859. His mother was Umm al-Ḥasan Fāṭima bint al-Ḥasan b. Muḥammad b. Sulaymān b. Dāwūd b. al-Ḥasan b. al-Ḥasan. He excelled early in religious learning and by the age of seventeen is said to have reached the level of rendering independent judgments in fiḳh and composing treatises. Because of his erudition, physical strength, bravery, and asceticism he soon carne to be considered ¶ by his family, including his fathers and uncles, as the most …

al-Karakī

(793 words)

Author(s): Madelung, W.
, nūr al-dīn ʿalī b. al-ḥusayn b. ʿalī b. muḥammad b. ʿabd al-ʿālī al-ʿāmilī , Imāmī scholar, born probably not later than 870/1466 into a family of scholars. His nisba al-Karakī refers to Karak Nūḥ in al-Biḳāʿ, where he studied religious sciences, chiefly under ʿAlī b. Hilāl al-D̲j̲azāʾirī. He also visited Egypt and heard some Sunnī scholars there. Around 909/1504 he settled in al-Nad̲j̲af, and in winter 910/1504-5 he was probably present at the court of the Ṣafawid S̲h̲āh Ismāʿī…

Ibn Warsand

(335 words)

Author(s): Madelung, W.
, ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn al-Bad̲j̲alī , founder of a S̲h̲īʿī sect in the Maghrib known as the Bad̲j̲aliyya [see al-bad̲j̲alī ]. His books ( kutub ), in which he gathered S̲h̲īʿī legal traditions, are quoted by the Ḳāḍī al-Nuʿmān in his K. al-Īḍāḥ . These quotations indicate that he wrote in the first half of the 3rd/9th century and belonged to the Mūsawī S̲h̲īʿa, who recognised Mūsā al-Kāẓim as their last imām and as the Mahdī. He lived and taught in Nafṭa in Ḳasṭīliya. His doctrine seems to have been propagated first by his son al-Ḥasan [see al-bad̲j̲alī ] in Darʿa and then…

al-Ūs̲h̲ī

(303 words)

Author(s): Madelung, W.
, ʿAlī b. ʿUt̲h̲mān b. Muḥammad b. Sulaymān, Sirād̲j̲ al-Dīn al-Taymī al-Farag̲h̲ānī, Ḥanafī scholar from Ūs̲h̲ in Farg̲h̲āna of the 6th/12th century. Nothing is known about his life. The death date of 575/1179-80, mentioned in one place by Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī K̲h̲alīfa, may be a mere guess. According to his own testimony, he completed his al-Fatāwā al-Sirād̲j̲iyya in Ūs̲h̲ on 2 Muḥarram 569/13 August 1173. The epithet Imām al-Ḥaramayn given to him suggests that he taught for some time in Mecca and Medina. Al-Ūs̲h̲ī is best known for his lāmiyya , theological poem of 66 or 68 lines also called Badʾ …

al-Ḥāmidī

(558 words)

Author(s): Madelung, W.
, (1) Ibrāhīm b. al-Ḥusayn b. Abi ’l-Suʿūd al-Hamdānī , the second dāʿī muṭlaḳ of the Ṭayyibī Ismāʿīlīs in the Yaman. According to ʿUmāra, not supported by Ṭayyibī sources, the Ṣulayḥid Queen al-Sayyida in 526/1132 appointed him chief dāʿī but then transferred the headship to the Amīr of ʿAdan, Sabaʾ b. Abi ’l-Suʿūd b. Zurayʿ, who supported the claim of the Fāṭimid al-Ḥāfiẓ to the Imāmate. If the report is reliable, Ibrāhīm may have been deposed for his sympathy with the claim of al-Ṭayyib. After the death of the dāʿī al-K̲h̲aṭṭāb b. al-Ḥasan in 533/1138, the first Ṭayyibī dāʿī muṭlaḳ, D̲h̲uʾ…

Yaḥyā b. Zayd

(724 words)

Author(s): Madelung, W.
b. ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn , ʿAlid fugitive and rebel killed late in 125/summerautumn 743. His mother was Rayṭa, daughter of Abū Hās̲h̲im [ q.v.] b. Muḥammad b. al-Ḥanafiyya. As the eldest son of Zayd b. ʿAlī, he participated in Zayd’s revolt in Kūfa in Muḥarram 122/end of 739. After his father’s death, he escaped, relentlessly sought by Yūsuf b. ʿUmar al-T̲h̲akafī, governor of ʿĪrāḳ [ q.v.] Yaḥyā went first to Nīnawā near Karbalāʾ. He was then given protection by the Umayyad ʿAbd al-Malik b. Bis̲h̲ī b. Marwān, who concealed him in a village owned by him that later became Ḳaṣr Ibn Hubayra [ q.v.]. Afte…

His̲h̲ām b. al-Ḥakam

(1,455 words)

Author(s): Madelung, W.
Abū muḥammad , the most prominent representative of Imāmī kalām [ q.v.] in the time of the Imāms D̲j̲aʿfar al-Ṣāḍiḳ and Mūsā al-Kāẓim. A client of the tribe of Kinda, he was born and raised in Wāsiṭ, but later lived in Kūfa among the Banū S̲h̲aybān. He is said to have been a D̲j̲ahmī before his conversion to S̲h̲īʿism by the Imām D̲j̲aʿfar al-Ṣādiḳ. Other accounts, however, point to his early association with representatives of dualist religions, notably with Abū S̲h̲ākir al-Dayṣānī. It is certain that after his conversion to S̲h̲īʿīsm he held disputations with Abū S̲h̲ākir and ¶ other duali…

Ṭalḥa

(1,022 words)

Author(s): Madelung, W.
b. ʿUbayd Allāh , prominent Companion of Muḥammad, is counted among the first ¶ eight converts to Islam and the ten mubas̲h̲s̲h̲ara , those to whom the Prophet had promised Paradise. He belonged to the clan of Taym b. Murra of Ḳurays̲h̲ and thus was a kinsman of Abū Bakr, but was about twenty years younger than he. The two were evidently closely associated and were known as the “two mates ( ḳarīnān ).” According to the prevalent explanation, they were thus named because during the early persecution of the Muslims they were …

Zayd b. ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn

(1,701 words)

Author(s): Madelung, W.
, great-grandson of ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib and Fāṭima and leader of the revolt that gave rise to the Zaydiyya [ q.v.] branch of the S̲h̲īʿa. He was born in Medina in 75/694-5 according to his son al-Ḥusayn. This date seems more reliable than the year 79/698 or 80/699 usually mentioned by the Sunnī sources. He was thus at least 18 years younger than his brother Muḥammad al-Bāḳir, who became the head of the Ḥusaynids after the death of their father ʿAlī Zayn al-ʿĀbidīn in 94/712-13 and was widely recognised as the imām by the S̲h̲īʿa. Zayd’s mother was a woman of slave o…

Kuraybiyya

(615 words)

Author(s): Madelung, W.
or, more commonly, Karibiyya is the name of a subsect of the Kaysāniyya [ q.v.] derived from its otherwise unknown leader Abū, more rarely Ibn Karib (or Kurayb, Karnab) al-Ḍarīr. The heresiographical sources are agreed that Abū Karib denied the death of Muḥammad b. al-Ḥanafiyya, the Imām and Mahdī of the Kaysāniyya. It is thus evident that he was active immediately after the death of Ibn al-Ḥanafiyya in 81/700 and probably played a major rôle in promoting Messianic ideas about him among the Kaysāniyya. The sources disagr…

al-Taftāzānī

(982 words)

Author(s): Madelung, W.
, Saʿd al-Dīn Masʿūd b. ʿUmar b. ʿAbd Allāh, renowned scholar and author on grammar, rhetoric, theology, logic, law and Ḳurʾān exegesis, born in Ṣafar 722/February-March 1322 in Taftāzān, a village near Nasā in Ḵh̲urāsān, d. 793/1390 (on the form of this place-name, see al-Samʿānī, Ansāb , ed. Ḥaydarābād, iii, 61-2; Yāḳūt, Buldān , ed. Beirut, ii, 35). His family seems to have been distinguished in scholarship for several generations, and his grandfather Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn ʿUmar was a ḳāḍī . Nothing certain is known about his education. Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar al-ʿA…

al-Rassī

(1,163 words)

Author(s): Madelung, W.
, al-Ḳāsim b. Ibrāhīm b. Ismāʿīl b. Ibrāhīm b. al-Ḥasan b. al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib (169-246/785-860), Zaydī imām and founder of the legal and theological school later prevalent among the Zaydīs in the Yemen. He grew up in Medina where he was taught basic Zaydī religious doctrine in his family and Medinan ḥadīt̲h̲ , and perhaps Ḳurʾān readings and Arabic language, by Abū Bakr ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd b. Abī Uways, a nephew of Mālik b. Anas. Before 199/815 he came to Egypt, probably al-Fusṭāṭ. It is doubtful whether he was, as reporte…

D̲j̲ābir al-D̲j̲uʿfī

(902 words)

Author(s): Madelung, W.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh or Abū Muḥammad b. Yazīd b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ , Kufan S̲h̲īʿī traditionist of Arab descent. His chief teacher seems to have been al-S̲h̲aʿbī [ q.v.] (d. 100/718-19). Among other well-known traditionists, from whom he related, were ʿIkrima, ʿAṭāʾ b. Abī Rabāḥ and Ṭāwūs. Initially, he held the moderate S̲h̲īʿī views widespread among the Kūfan traditionists. Later he joined the more radical S̲h̲īʿī circles looking to Muḥammad al-Bāḳir (d. ca. 117/735) and his son D̲j̲aʿfar al-Ṣādiḳ for religious guidance. According to some Sunnī heresiologists, he became th…

Manṣūr al-Yaman

(1,085 words)

Author(s): Madelung, W.
Abu ’l-Ḳāsim al-Ḥasan b. Farad̲j̲ b. Ḥaws̲h̲ab b. Zād̲h̲ān al-Nad̲j̲d̲j̲ār al-Kūfī , often known as Ibn Ḥaws̲h̲ab , was the founder of the Ismāʿīlī daʿwa in Yaman. Other forms of his name and genealogy are less well attested; later Ismāʿīlī tradition considered him a descendant of Muslim b. ʿAḳīl b. Abī Ṭālib. He was a Kūfan Imāmī S̲h̲īʿī, probably from Nars, a canal near Kūfa, learned in the religious sciences, and was won for the Ismā ʿīlī cause by a dā ʿī , who is identified in a Fāṭimid source as the chief dā ʿī Fīrūz and by the Ḳarmaṭī account as Ibn Abi ’l-Faw…

Kaysāniyya

(2,780 words)

Author(s): Madelung, W.
(more rarely Muk̲h̲tāriyya) is the name applied by the heresiographers to those supporters of al-Muk̲h̲tār [ q.v.] recognising Muḥammad b. al-Ḥanafiyya [ q.v.] as their imām and as the Mahdī [ q.v.]. The name is derived from Abū ʿAmra Kaysān [ q.v.], chief of the guard and leader of the mawālī under al-Muk̲h̲tār. Its choice, made probably by the opponents of the movement, may reflect the importance they attributed to the mawlā element in it. Actually, many supporters of the movement, among them some of the most radical, were Arabs, especially from Yamanī tribes, an…

Makramids

(1,622 words)

Author(s): Madelung, W.
, a family which has held the spiritual and political leadership of the Banū Yām [ q.v.] and the Sulaymānī Ismāʿīlī community [see ismāʿīliyya ] in Nad̲j̲rān and Yaman since the 11th/17th century. The name evidently refers to the Banū Makram of Hamdān who are settled in Ṭayba in the Wādī Ḍahr and in some other villages to the west of Ṣanʿāʾ There is evidence that the family came from Ṭayba, an old Ismāʿīlī stronghold. A pedigree linking them rather to a Makram b. Sabaʾ b. Ḥimyar al-Aṣg̲h̲ar is fictitious. The term Makārima is often also extended to their followers. The earliest known member of…

al-Ḥākim al-D̲j̲us̲h̲amī

(609 words)

Author(s): Madelung, W.
, Abū Saʿd al-Muḥsin b. Muḥammad b. Karāma al-Bayhaḳī al-Barawḳanī , Muʿtazilī, later Zaydī, scholar, was born in Ramaḍān 413/Decernber 1022 in D̲j̲us̲h̲am (Persian: D̲j̲is̲h̲urn), a village in the region of Bayhaḳ. According to Ibn Funduḳ, he was a descendant of Muḥammad b. al-Ḥanafiyya, but the family was not known by the nisba of al-ʿAlawī. His first teacher was Abū Ḥāmid Aḥmad b. Muḥammad al-Nad̲j̲d̲j̲ār, a student of the Muʿtazilī ḳāḍī ʿAbd al-D̲j̲abbār, who taught him Muʿtazilī theology, uṣūl al-fiḳh , and ḥadīt̲h̲ . After Abū Ḥāmid’s death in 433/1…

Yaḥyā b. ʿAbd Allāh

(1,850 words)

Author(s): Madelung, W.
b. al-Ḥasan b. al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī, Medinan ʿAlid leader of a revolt in Daylam and Zaydī imām . His mother was Ḳurayba bt. Rukayḥ b. Abī ʿUbayda b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Zamʿa b. al-Aswad, niece of the mother of his paternal brothers Muḥammad al-Nafs al-Zakiyya [ q.v.] and Ibrāhīm, leaders of the Ḥasanid revolt against the caliph al-Manṣūr in 145/762. As a much younger brother, born perhaps around 128/745-6, he did not participate in that revolt. He was partly brought up and taught by the Imāmī S̲h̲īʿī imām D̲j̲aʿfar al-Ṣādiḳ [ q.v.], presumably after the imprisonment of his father in 140/758, a…
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