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(37,500 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J. | Islam, Riazul | Athar Ali, M. | Moosvi, Shireen | Moreland, W.H. | Et al.
an Indo-Muslim dynasty which ruled, latterly with decreasing effectiveness, 932-1274/1526-1858. 1. History. This article, like the section on History in hind, iv, above, aims at being no more than a guide to the numerous articles on the history of the Mug̲h̲al dynasty in India to be found elsewhere in the Encyclopaedia , and to relate these to a chronological framework. The Mug̲h̲als were given their first foothold in Indian territory in 800/1398 when Pīr Muḥammad, governor of Kābul and a grandson of Tīmūr, attacked Uččh and Multān, and established a gov…

Surūrī Kās̲h̲ānī

(527 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, the pen-name of Muḥammad Ḳāsim, Persian lexicographer of the 10th-11th/16th-17th century. His father, Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Muḥammad, is said to have been a shoemaker. Surūrī, during his early youth, practised the same profession but, later turned to ¶ scholarship. According to a tradition, he was endowed with a prolific memory and could recite thirty thousand verses by heart. He chose to reside in Iṣfahān, and there he is reported to have met the traveller Pietro de la Valle, who visited the city in 1032/1622-3. Surūrī made a journey to …


(382 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, the pen-name of the Persian poet ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, who was born ca. 945/1538 in Buk̲h̲ārā. His ancestors came from Marw, which is probably why he sometimes refers to himself as Marwī. According to Saʿīd Nafīsī, he received a religious education during his youth, but went on to choose the poetical vocation, in which he was the disciple of Mawlānā Ḥasan Kawkabī, a well-known poet of Buk̲h̲ārā ( flor . end of the 9th-beginning of the 10th/15th-16th centuries). In 972/1564-5 Mus̲h̲fiḳī went to Samarḳand, where he subsequently worked as ¶ librarian for the S̲h̲aybānid ruler Sultan Saʿīd …


(2,358 words)

Author(s): Schoeler, G. | Rahman, Munibur
(a.), [ s̲h̲iʿr ] musammaṭ or [ ḳaṣīda ] musammaṭa , also ḳaṣīda simṭiyya ), name of an originally Arabic (then also Hebrew, Persian, Turkish) stanzaic form of poetry. The name is derived from the Arabic simṭ “a thread, or string, having upon it beads or pearls; a thong, or strap, that is suspended from the horse’s saddle” (cf. Lane, s.v.); the original meaning of musammaṭ is probably ”that which is arranged in strings (rows, lines)“ (I. ʿAbbās, Taʾrīk̲h̲ , 221; cf., however, the etymological remarks of Ibn Ras̲h̲īḳ, al-ʿUmda , i, 180, and in TA, s.v. simṭ). 1. In the Arabic and Judaeo-Arabi…


(1,180 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, mirzā muḥammad hādī , Urdu novelist, poet, translator and writer on scientific, philosophical and religious subjects. He was born in Lucknow most probably in 1858. His ancestors had migrated from Persia during the Mug̲h̲al period. His great-grandfather, Mīrzā D̲h̲u ’l-Faḳār ʿAlī Beg, took up permanent residence in Awadh [ q.v.] during Āṣaf al-Dawla’s time (1775-97), and became ad̲j̲utant in the Nawāb’s army. Ruswā received his early education from his father, Āg̲h̲ā Muḥammad Taḳī, who taught him Arabic, Persian and mathematics. For learning E…


(7,754 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de | Flemming, B. | Rahman, Munibur
(a.), the name of apoem written in rhyming couplets. 1. In Arabic literature, see muzdawid̲j̲ . 2. In Persian. According to the prosodist S̲h̲ams-i-Ḳays (7th/13th ¶ century), the name refers to “a poem based on independent, internally rhyming lines ( abyāt-i mustaḳill-i muṣarraʿ ). The Persians call it mat̲h̲nawī because each line requires two rhyming letters— This kind ( nawʿ ) is used in extensive narratives and long stories which cannot easily be treated of in poems with one specific rhyming letter” ( al-Muʿd̲j̲am , ed. Tehran 1338/1959, 418f.). The fir…

Ṭāhir Waḥīd

(588 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, Mīrzā Muḥammad , Persian poet, court historian, epistle writer and state dignitary, born during the beginning of the 11th/17th century, and died most probably in 1110/1698-9. He was born at Ḳazwīn into a family whose members had served in the state chancery. His father, Mīrzā Ḥusayn K̲h̲ān, was a prominent citizen of Ḳazwīn. Ṭāhir Waḥīd learned the traditional subjects taught during his time, and acquired a good training in accountancy and secretarial work. He served as secretary to two successive prime ministers, Mīrzā…

Munīr Lāhawrī

(436 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
(1019-54/1610-44), the pen name of Abu ’l-Barakāt, a prominent Indo-Muslim poet of S̲h̲āh D̲j̲ahān’s period (1628-58). He was born on 12 Ramaḍān 1019/28 November 1610 at Lāhawr. His father, ʿAbd al-D̲j̲alīl b. Ḥāfiẓ Abū Isḥāḳ, was an expert calligraphier attached to Emperor Akbar’s court. Munīr received his education in Lāhawr, and started composing poetry at an early age. In 1045/1635-6 he took up service with Mīrzā Ṣafī Sayf K̲h̲ān, who was a son-in-law of Āṣaf K̲h̲ān (d. 1051/1641), father of S̲h̲āh D̲j̲ahān’s wife, Mumtāz Maḥall [ q.v.]. Sayf K̲h̲ān held important administrat…

K̲h̲alīfa S̲h̲āh Muḥammad

(198 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, Indian Muslim scholar who flourished during the latter part of the 11th/17th and early part of the 12th/18th century. He was the author of an epistolary work in Persian entitled Ḏj̲āmiʿ al-ḳawānīn , also known as Ins̲h̲āʾ-yi K̲h̲alīfa . According to G̲h̲ulām ʿAlī K̲h̲ān Āzād Bilgrāmī, S̲h̲āh Muḥammad’s book was much used in schools, and he spent some time in Bilgrām studying under two local scholars, S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ ʿAbd al-G̲h̲afūr and Sayyid K̲h̲ayr Allāh (d. 1115/1703). The Ḏj̲āmiʿ al-ḳawānīn is divided into four sections: the first two contain long and short letters resp…


(493 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
(late 9th century-988/late 15th century-1580), the tak̲h̲alluṣ [ q.v.] or pen-name of an Indo-Muslim poet, Nad̲j̲m al-Dīn Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Muḥammad, who wrote at the courts of the Mug̲h̲al emperors Humāyūn and Akbar [ q.vv.]. According to most writers he was born in Transoxania at Miyānkāl, a district situated between Samarḳand and Buk̲h̲ārā, but stayed a long time in Kābul, whence he is also known as Kābulī. When fifteen years old he is said to have visited D̲j̲āmī (d. 898/1492 [ q.v.]) at Harāt, and spent some seven years in the poet’s company. Subsequently he went to India o…

Ḳalīm Abū Ṭālib

(303 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, Persian poet, was born according to contemporary evidence, in Hamadān. His life, until he went to India, was spent chiefly in Kāshān, and therefore he is often called Kās̲h̲ānī. After receiving his education in S̲h̲īrāz during his early youth, he visited India in D̲j̲ahāngīr’s reign, but returned to Persia in 1028/1618-9. Two years later, however, he migrated permanently to India. On his arrival, he sought his fortune in various ¶ provinces, including Deccan, where he attached himself to Mīr D̲j̲umla. Following Shāhd̲j̲ahān’s accession, Kalīm entered the imperia…


(51,612 words)

Author(s): Ed. | W. Madelung | Rahman, Munibur | Landau, J. M. | Yapp, M.E. | Et al.
(a.), a noun of place from the verb d̲j̲alasa “to sit down” and, by extension, “to sit”, ¶ “to hold a session”; starting from the original meaning of “a place where one sits down, where one stays”, thence “a seat” (J. Sadan, Le mobilier au Proche-Orient médiéval , Leiden 1976, index), the semantic field of mad̲j̲lis is of very wide extent (see the dictionaries of Lane, Dozy, Blachère, etc.). Among the principal derivative meanings are “a meeting place”, “meeting, assembly” (cf. Ḳurʾān, LXVIII, 12/11), “a reception hall (of a ca…

S̲h̲awkat Buk̲h̲ārī

(354 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, Muḥammad Isḥāḳ , 17th-century Persian poet, died 1107/1695-6. He spent the early part of his life in Buk̲h̲ārā, where his father worked as a moneychanger. S̲h̲awkat also took up the same profession, but then set out ¶ for K̲h̲urāsān. In 1088/1677-8 he arrived in Harāt and entered the service of the governor Ṣafī Ḳulī K̲h̲ān S̲h̲āmlū. S̲h̲awkat was also associated for a considerable time with Mīrzā Saʿd al-Dīn, vizier of K̲h̲urāsān, who treated him with great affection and kindness, but eventually he decided to sever all connectio…

Ḳāsim Arslān

(314 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
(?-995/?-1587), Indo-Muslim poet, court panegyrist of the Mug̲h̲al emperor Akbar [ q.v.] in the later 10th/16th century. Details regarding his life and career are scanty. According to Muntak̲h̲ab al-tawārīk̲h̲ , he was originally a native of Ṭūs; but most other writers refer to him as Mas̲h̲hadī, which would indicate that he might have lived in Mas̲h̲had. He was brought up in Transoxania and went to India during Akbar’s reign. It is related that he took Arslān as his pen-name because his father clalmed…


(631 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, the pen-name of K̲h̲wād̲j̲a Ḥusayn, Indo-Persian poet of the 10th/16th century, d. 996/1587-8. Born in Mas̲h̲had, T̲h̲anāʾī, writing about himself in the introduction to his dīwān , states that, despite having talent, he initially lacked perseverance and that he took up the poetic vocation following a dream which offered him the requisite guidance. He eventually found for himself a generous patron in the person of Sulṭān Ibrāhīm Mīrzā, governor of K̲h̲urāsān, who was a poet in his own right using D…


(554 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, Mīr Muḥammad Ḥusayn ʿAṭā K̲h̲ān , pioneer in Urdu prose-writing, who lived somewhere in the middle of the 18th cetury. He was a native of Etawah (It́āwa) in present-day Uttar Pradesh, and came from a middle-class family of sayyids . His ancestors reportedly migrated from Gardīz in what is now eastern Afg̲h̲ānistan, and settled in Kaŕa Mānikpūr. His father, Mīr Muḥammad Bāḳir, moved to Dihlī at an early age and was employed as commander of 3,000 ( sih hazārī ) in Awrangzīb’s administration; he is said to have been a poet writing under the pen-name S̲h…


(2,834 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de | Halman, Talat Sait | Rahman, Munibur
(p.) or S̲h̲ahrās̲h̲ūb (“upsetting the town”), a genre of short love poems on young craftsmen, often related to the bazaars of specific towns. 1. In Persian In Persian literature, the genre is usually referred to under the latter name. E.J.W. Gibb’s contention that the genre was invented by the Turkish poet Mesīḥī [ q.v.] of Edirne ( HOP, ii, 232), was challenged already by E.G. Browne who, pointing to Persian specimens mentioned by the Ṣafawid anthologist Sām Mīrzā [ q.v.], concluded that “though they were probably written later than Masíḥí’s Turkish S̲h̲ahr-angíz

Saʿīdā Gīlānī

(562 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, Indo-Persian poet of the 11th/17th century. Details are lacking regarding his early life. He went to India from his native Persia during D̲j̲ahāngīr’s reign (1014-37/1605-27), and lived on to serve under his successor S̲h̲āh D̲j̲ahān (1037-68/1628-58). Apart from poetry, he was skilled in calligraphy, engraving and assaying of precious stones. D̲j̲ahāngīr gave him the title of Bēbadal K̲h̲ān, perhaps as an appreciation of his talent since bēbadal means “matchless”. In addition, he was appointed officer-in-charge of the royal jewellery, a…


(14,948 words)

Author(s): Arazi, A. | Ben-S̲h̲ammay, H. | Rahman, Munibur | Tekin, Gönül Alpay
(a.), an Arabic term attested at a very early stage, in the ancient inscriptions of Arabia, with the meaning of message or of mission (G. Lankester Harding, An index and concordance of pre-Islamic names and inscriptions, Toronto 1971, 277). In fact, risāla has many meanings; it has signified message, missive, letter, epistle and monograph; from the 5th/11th century onwards it could also be a synonym of maḳāma (see below, section on Risāla and maḳāma). The synonyms recorded are kitāb [ q.v.], k̲h̲iṭāb (for Ps.-Ibn al-Mudabbir in the 3rd/9th century, risāla and k̲h̲iṭāb were synonyms, Ṣafw…

Ḳudsī, Muḥammad D̲j̲ān

(205 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, poet at the Mughal court in India. He was born and raised in Mas̲h̲had, from where he performed the pilgrimage to Mecca, and was then engaged in the grocery trade before he went to India. In 1041/1632 he joined the ranks of the Emperor S̲h̲āh D̲j̲ahān’s poets. Dāg̲h̲istānī, the author of the Riyāḍ al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ , states that Ḳudsī preceded Kalīm as poet-laureate to S̲h̲āh D̲j̲ahān, but this is not confirmed by contemporary sources. He died in Lahore in 1056/1646-7 and, according to Ād̲h̲ar’s Ātas̲h̲-kada , his remains were removed to K̲h̲urāsān. Ḳudsī’s poems ar…
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