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S̲h̲ihāb Īṣfahānī

(370 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, the pen-name of Mīrzā Naṣr Allāh, a prominent Persian poet of the Ḳād̲j̲ār period, flor . in the 19th century. According to a reference in Gand̲j̲-i s̲h̲āygān by Mīrzā Ṭāhir Iṣfahānī S̲h̲iʿrī, it may be assumed that S̲h̲ihāb ¶ was born during the twenties of the 19th century. His birthplace was Simīrum, a small town in the Iṣfahān district. His family had a long history of supplying military judges to the government from among its members. S̲h̲ihāb, however, devoted himself from the beginning to the study of Arabic and had an incli…

Ṭālib Āmulī

(429 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, an Indo-Persian poet of the late 16th and early 17th centuries, b. at an unknown date ( ca. 987/1579?), d. 1036/1626-7. A native of Āmul in Māzandarān, he was a cousin of the famous physician and poet Ḥakīm Ruknā Kās̲h̲ī, who had gone to India before Ṭālib’s arrival in that country. Despite the fact that his works include ḳaṣīdas in praise of S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās I [ q.v.], there is no evidence that he was ever attached to the Ṣafawid court, and his earliest patrons seem to have been high officials. Via Kās̲h̲ān and Marw, he eventually migrated to seek his fortune i…

Mak̲h̲fī

(543 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, the much-disputed pen-name of Zīb al-Nisāʾ Begum, eldest child of the Mughal emperor Awrangzīb (1068-1118/1658-1707). She was born in 1638 at Dawlatābād in the Deccan. Her mother, Dilras Bānū Begum (d. 1657), was the daughter of S̲h̲āhnawāz K̲h̲ān (d. 1659), a dignitary of S̲h̲āhd̲j̲ahān’s reign. For her early education she was assigned to Ḥāfiẓa Maryam, a learned lady who was the mother of one of Awrangzīb’s trusted nobles, ʿInāyat Allāh K̲h̲ān (d. 1139/1726-7). Under Ḥāfiẓa Maryam’s guidance, Zīb al-Nisāʾ m…

Malik Ḳummi

(638 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, Indo-Muslim poet, was born at Ḳum in about 934/1528. The author of the Mayk̲h̲āna states that his full name was Malik Muḥammad. He went at an early age to Kās̲h̲ān, where he stayed nearly twenty years, and then spent approximately four years in Ḳazwīn, frequenting the company of writers and scholars in both places. Already during his youth he seems to have won distinction for himself in poetical competitions with his contemporaries, and was regarded highly by such literary figures as Muḥtas̲h̲am of Kās̲h̲ān (d. 996/1587-8) and Ḍamīrī of Iṣfahān (d. ca. 1578) for his innovative tenden…

Mustazād

(616 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
(a.) a classical verse form employed in Persian and kindred literatures, principally Turkish and Urdu. Its literal meaning is “additional”, and the term has sometimes been translated in English as “increment poem” (cf. E.G. Browne, A literary history of Persia, ii, 41). In its most common form, it is a poem based upon the pattern of the g̲h̲azal or the rubāʿi in which each hemistich is followed by a short metrical line. This short line is metrically related to the principal hemistich, and usually comprises the first and last feet to…

S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Mūsā Nat̲h̲rī

(468 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, modern Persian writer dealing in historical novels. The details concerning ¶ his life are at the best sketchy. By profession, he was involved in educational activities, serving as principal of the government college Nuṣrat in Hamadān and as Director of Education in Kirmāns̲h̲āhān (for his latter designation, see Armag̲h̲ān [March-April 1930], 73). He edited the periodical Ittiḥād which was published from Hamadān in 1293/1914 (Ṣadr Hās̲h̲imī, Tārīk̲h̲-i d̲j̲arāyid u mad̲j̲allāt-i Īrān , i, Iṣfahān 1343/1964-5, 46). An article from him, entitled S̲h̲āʿir kīst

Ṣabā

(1,104 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, Fatḥ ʿAlī Ḵh̲ān , Persian poet, was born in Kās̲h̲ān, probably in 1179/1765, and died in 1238/1822-3. His people belonged originally to Ād̲h̲arbayd̲j̲ān. and came from the Dunbalī stock, a tribe of Kurds settled in the region of Ḵh̲ūy. Members of his family held jobs as governors and administrators under the Zand and Ḳād̲j̲ār rulers. His father, Āḳā Muḥammad, was governor of Kās̲h̲ān under the Zands, and his eldest brother, Muḥammad ʿAlī Ḵh̲ān, was minister to the Zand ruler Luṭf ʿAlī Ḵh̲ān ( r. 1203-9/1789-94). Ṣabā also seems to have been identified with this monarch, and i…

K̲h̲ayāl

(304 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, the most important song form in the classical repertoire of north Indian music, is regarded by some to have been invented by Amīr K̲h̲usraw (651-725/1253-1325) and attributed by others to Ḥusayn S̲h̲āh S̲h̲arḳī (862-934/1458-1528), the ruler of Ḏj̲awnpūr. who was dispossessed by Buhlūl Lodī in ca. 1476. Whatever its genesis, there is little doubt that it saw its greatest development during the Muslim period of Indian history and that its major exponents have generally been Muslims. It arose as a reaction to the traditional composition dhrupad , whose rigid …

Ras̲h̲īd Yāsimī

(582 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, modern Persian poet and scholar, born on 4 December 1896 at Kirmāns̲h̲āh and died in 1951. His real name was G̲h̲ulām Riḍā, but he is popularly known as Ras̲h̲īd Yāsimī in literary and intellectual circles. He came from a cultured and well-educated family, which counted as one of its respected members the author of the novel S̲h̲ams u ṭug̲h̲rā , namely Muḥammad Bāḳir Mīrzā K̲h̲usrawī (1849-1950), who was his maternal uncle. After completing his early education in his native town, Ras̲h̲īd Yāsimī proceeded to Tehran in 1333/1914-15…

Salīm, Muḥammad Ḳulī

(769 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, an Indo-Persian poet of the 11th/17th century, died 1057/1647-8. He originated from the S̲h̲āmlū tribe of the Turks and was a native of Tehran, but details regarding his life are scanty. In Persia he served under Mīrzā ʿAbd Allāh Ḵh̲ān, governor of Lāhīd̲j̲ān [ q.v.] in Gīlān. During this time he married and had a son. Among the eminent personalities to whom he addressed his poems in the beginning were the Ṣafawid rulers S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās I (r. 996-1038/1588-1629) and his successor S̲h̲āh Ṣafī I (r. 1038-52/1629-42). Perhaps his failure to f…

Ṭālibūf

(551 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
( Talibov ), ʿAbd al-Raḥīm , Persian writer and intellectual of the 19th century (b. Tabrīz 1250/1834, d. 1329/1911). At ca. sixteen, he left for Tiflis (Tbilisi) in Transcaucasia, where he learned the Russian language and was exposed to the writings of Russian writers as well as to Western political ideas. Subsequently, he settled in Tamir K̲h̲ān S̲h̲ūra (present-day Buynaksk), capital of Dāg̲h̲istān. In ca. 1306/1888 he joined Sayyid Muḥammad S̲h̲abistarī (afterwards editor of Īrān-i naw ) ¶ in starting in Istanbul the paper S̲h̲āhsawan , of which only on…

Mug̲h̲als

(37,500 words)

Author(s): Burton-Page, J. | Islam, Riazul | Athar Ali, M. | Moosvi, Shireen | Moreland, W.H. | Et al.
an Indo-Muslim dynasty which ruled, latterly with decreasing effectiveness, 932-1274/1526-1858. 1. History. This article, like the section on History in hind, iv, above, aims at being no more than a guide to the numerous articles on the history of the Mug̲h̲al dynasty in India to be found elsewhere in the Encyclopaedia , and to relate these to a chronological framework. The Mug̲h̲als were given their first foothold in Indian territory in 800/1398 when Pīr Muḥammad, governor of Kābul and a grandson of Tīmūr, attacked Uččh and Multān, and established a gov…

Surūrī Kās̲h̲ānī

(527 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, the pen-name of Muḥammad Ḳāsim, Persian lexicographer of the 10th-11th/16th-17th century. His father, Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Muḥammad, is said to have been a shoemaker. Surūrī, during his early youth, practised the same profession but, later turned to ¶ scholarship. According to a tradition, he was endowed with a prolific memory and could recite thirty thousand verses by heart. He chose to reside in Iṣfahān, and there he is reported to have met the traveller Pietro de la Valle, who visited the city in 1032/1622-3. Surūrī made a journey to …

Mus̲h̲fiḳī

(382 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, the pen-name of the Persian poet ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, who was born ca. 945/1538 in Buk̲h̲ārā. His ancestors came from Marw, which is probably why he sometimes refers to himself as Marwī. According to Saʿīd Nafīsī, he received a religious education during his youth, but went on to choose the poetical vocation, in which he was the disciple of Mawlānā Ḥasan Kawkabī, a well-known poet of Buk̲h̲ārā ( flor . end of the 9th-beginning of the 10th/15th-16th centuries). In 972/1564-5 Mus̲h̲fiḳī went to Samarḳand, where he subsequently worked as ¶ librarian for the S̲h̲aybānid ruler Sultan Saʿīd …

Musammaṭ

(2,358 words)

Author(s): Schoeler, G. | Rahman, Munibur
(a.), [ s̲h̲iʿr ] musammaṭ or [ ḳaṣīda ] musammaṭa , also ḳaṣīda simṭiyya ), name of an originally Arabic (then also Hebrew, Persian, Turkish) stanzaic form of poetry. The name is derived from the Arabic simṭ “a thread, or string, having upon it beads or pearls; a thong, or strap, that is suspended from the horse’s saddle” (cf. Lane, s.v.); the original meaning of musammaṭ is probably ”that which is arranged in strings (rows, lines)“ (I. ʿAbbās, Taʾrīk̲h̲ , 221; cf., however, the etymological remarks of Ibn Ras̲h̲īḳ, al-ʿUmda , i, 180, and in TA, s.v. simṭ). 1. In the Arabic and Judaeo-Arabi…

Ruswā

(1,180 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, mirzā muḥammad hādī , Urdu novelist, poet, translator and writer on scientific, philosophical and religious subjects. He was born in Lucknow most probably in 1858. His ancestors had migrated from Persia during the Mug̲h̲al period. His great-grandfather, Mīrzā D̲h̲u ’l-Faḳār ʿAlī Beg, took up permanent residence in Awadh [ q.v.] during Āṣaf al-Dawla’s time (1775-97), and became ad̲j̲utant in the Nawāb’s army. Ruswā received his early education from his father, Āg̲h̲ā Muḥammad Taḳī, who taught him Arabic, Persian and mathematics. For learning E…

Mat̲h̲nawī

(7,754 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de | Flemming, B. | Rahman, Munibur
(a.), the name of apoem written in rhyming couplets. 1. In Arabic literature, see muzdawid̲j̲ . 2. In Persian. According to the prosodist S̲h̲ams-i-Ḳays (7th/13th ¶ century), the name refers to “a poem based on independent, internally rhyming lines ( abyāt-i mustaḳill-i muṣarraʿ ). The Persians call it mat̲h̲nawī because each line requires two rhyming letters— This kind ( nawʿ ) is used in extensive narratives and long stories which cannot easily be treated of in poems with one specific rhyming letter” ( al-Muʿd̲j̲am , ed. Tehran 1338/1959, 418f.). The fir…

Ṭāhir Waḥīd

(588 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, Mīrzā Muḥammad , Persian poet, court historian, epistle writer and state dignitary, born during the beginning of the 11th/17th century, and died most probably in 1110/1698-9. He was born at Ḳazwīn into a family whose members had served in the state chancery. His father, Mīrzā Ḥusayn K̲h̲ān, was a prominent citizen of Ḳazwīn. Ṭāhir Waḥīd learned the traditional subjects taught during his time, and acquired a good training in accountancy and secretarial work. He served as secretary to two successive prime ministers, Mīrzā…

Munīr Lāhawrī

(436 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
(1019-54/1610-44), the pen name of Abu ’l-Barakāt, a prominent Indo-Muslim poet of S̲h̲āh D̲j̲ahān’s period (1628-58). He was born on 12 Ramaḍān 1019/28 November 1610 at Lāhawr. His father, ʿAbd al-D̲j̲alīl b. Ḥāfiẓ Abū Isḥāḳ, was an expert calligraphier attached to Emperor Akbar’s court. Munīr received his education in Lāhawr, and started composing poetry at an early age. In 1045/1635-6 he took up service with Mīrzā Ṣafī Sayf K̲h̲ān, who was a son-in-law of Āṣaf K̲h̲ān (d. 1051/1641), father of S̲h̲āh D̲j̲ahān’s wife, Mumtāz Maḥall [ q.v.]. Sayf K̲h̲ān held important administrat…

K̲h̲alīfa S̲h̲āh Muḥammad

(198 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, Indian Muslim scholar who flourished during the latter part of the 11th/17th and early part of the 12th/18th century. He was the author of an epistolary work in Persian entitled Ḏj̲āmiʿ al-ḳawānīn , also known as Ins̲h̲āʾ-yi K̲h̲alīfa . According to G̲h̲ulām ʿAlī K̲h̲ān Āzād Bilgrāmī, S̲h̲āh Muḥammad’s book was much used in schools, and he spent some time in Bilgrām studying under two local scholars, S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ ʿAbd al-G̲h̲afūr and Sayyid K̲h̲ayr Allāh (d. 1115/1703). The Ḏj̲āmiʿ al-ḳawānīn is divided into four sections: the first two contain long and short letters resp…
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