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(493 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
(late 9th century-988/late 15th century-1580), the tak̲h̲alluṣ [ q.v.] or pen-name of an Indo-Muslim poet, Nad̲j̲m al-Dīn Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Muḥammad, who wrote at the courts of the Mug̲h̲al emperors Humāyūn and Akbar [ q.vv.]. According to most writers he was born in Transoxania at Miyānkāl, a district situated between Samarḳand and Buk̲h̲ārā, but stayed a long time in Kābul, whence he is also known as Kābulī. When fifteen years old he is said to have visited D̲j̲āmī (d. 898/1492 [ q.v.]) at Harāt, and spent some seven years in the poet’s company. Subsequently he went to India o…

Ḳalīm Abū Ṭālib

(303 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, Persian poet, was born according to contemporary evidence, in Hamadān. His life, until he went to India, was spent chiefly in Kāshān, and therefore he is often called Kās̲h̲ānī. After receiving his education in S̲h̲īrāz during his early youth, he visited India in D̲j̲ahāngīr’s reign, but returned to Persia in 1028/1618-9. Two years later, however, he migrated permanently to India. On his arrival, he sought his fortune in various ¶ provinces, including Deccan, where he attached himself to Mīr D̲j̲umla. Following Shāhd̲j̲ahān’s accession, Kalīm entered the imperia…


(51,612 words)

Author(s): Ed. | W. Madelung | Rahman, Munibur | Landau, J. M. | Yapp, M.E. | Et al.
(a.), a noun of place from the verb d̲j̲alasa “to sit down” and, by extension, “to sit”, ¶ “to hold a session”; starting from the original meaning of “a place where one sits down, where one stays”, thence “a seat” (J. Sadan, Le mobilier au Proche-Orient médiéval , Leiden 1976, index), the semantic field of mad̲j̲lis is of very wide extent (see the dictionaries of Lane, Dozy, Blachère, etc.). Among the principal derivative meanings are “a meeting place”, “meeting, assembly” (cf. Ḳurʾān, LXVIII, 12/11), “a reception hall (of a ca…

S̲h̲awkat Buk̲h̲ārī

(354 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, Muḥammad Isḥāḳ , 17th-century Persian poet, died 1107/1695-6. He spent the early part of his life in Buk̲h̲ārā, where his father worked as a moneychanger. S̲h̲awkat also took up the same profession, but then set out ¶ for K̲h̲urāsān. In 1088/1677-8 he arrived in Harāt and entered the service of the governor Ṣafī Ḳulī K̲h̲ān S̲h̲āmlū. S̲h̲awkat was also associated for a considerable time with Mīrzā Saʿd al-Dīn, vizier of K̲h̲urāsān, who treated him with great affection and kindness, but eventually he decided to sever all connectio…

Ḳāsim Arslān

(314 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
(?-995/?-1587), Indo-Muslim poet, court panegyrist of the Mug̲h̲al emperor Akbar [ q.v.] in the later 10th/16th century. Details regarding his life and career are scanty. According to Muntak̲h̲ab al-tawārīk̲h̲ , he was originally a native of Ṭūs; but most other writers refer to him as Mas̲h̲hadī, which would indicate that he might have lived in Mas̲h̲had. He was brought up in Transoxania and went to India during Akbar’s reign. It is related that he took Arslān as his pen-name because his father clalmed…


(631 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, the pen-name of K̲h̲wād̲j̲a Ḥusayn, Indo-Persian poet of the 10th/16th century, d. 996/1587-8. Born in Mas̲h̲had, T̲h̲anāʾī, writing about himself in the introduction to his dīwān , states that, despite having talent, he initially lacked perseverance and that he took up the poetic vocation following a dream which offered him the requisite guidance. He eventually found for himself a generous patron in the person of Sulṭān Ibrāhīm Mīrzā, governor of K̲h̲urāsān, who was a poet in his own right using D…


(554 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, Mīr Muḥammad Ḥusayn ʿAṭā K̲h̲ān , pioneer in Urdu prose-writing, who lived somewhere in the middle of the 18th cetury. He was a native of Etawah (It́āwa) in present-day Uttar Pradesh, and came from a middle-class family of sayyids . His ancestors reportedly migrated from Gardīz in what is now eastern Afg̲h̲ānistan, and settled in Kaŕa Mānikpūr. His father, Mīr Muḥammad Bāḳir, moved to Dihlī at an early age and was employed as commander of 3,000 ( sih hazārī ) in Awrangzīb’s administration; he is said to have been a poet writing under the pen-name S̲h…


(2,834 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de | Halman, Talat Sait | Rahman, Munibur
(p.) or S̲h̲ahrās̲h̲ūb (“upsetting the town”), a genre of short love poems on young craftsmen, often related to the bazaars of specific towns. 1. In Persian In Persian literature, the genre is usually referred to under the latter name. E.J.W. Gibb’s contention that the genre was invented by the Turkish poet Mesīḥī [ q.v.] of Edirne ( HOP, ii, 232), was challenged already by E.G. Browne who, pointing to Persian specimens mentioned by the Ṣafawid anthologist Sām Mīrzā [ q.v.], concluded that “though they were probably written later than Masíḥí’s Turkish S̲h̲ahr-angíz

Saʿīdā Gīlānī

(562 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, Indo-Persian poet of the 11th/17th century. Details are lacking regarding his early life. He went to India from his native Persia during D̲j̲ahāngīr’s reign (1014-37/1605-27), and lived on to serve under his successor S̲h̲āh D̲j̲ahān (1037-68/1628-58). Apart from poetry, he was skilled in calligraphy, engraving and assaying of precious stones. D̲j̲ahāngīr gave him the title of Bēbadal K̲h̲ān, perhaps as an appreciation of his talent since bēbadal means “matchless”. In addition, he was appointed officer-in-charge of the royal jewellery, a…


(14,948 words)

Author(s): Arazi, A. | Ben-S̲h̲ammay, H. | Rahman, Munibur | Tekin, Gönül Alpay
(a.), an Arabic term attested at a very early stage, in the ancient inscriptions of Arabia, with the meaning of message or of mission (G. Lankester Harding, An index and concordance of pre-Islamic names and inscriptions, Toronto 1971, 277). In fact, risāla has many meanings; it has signified message, missive, letter, epistle and monograph; from the 5th/11th century onwards it could also be a synonym of maḳāma (see below, section on Risāla and maḳāma). The synonyms recorded are kitāb [ q.v.], k̲h̲iṭāb (for Ps.-Ibn al-Mudabbir in the 3rd/9th century, risāla and k̲h̲iṭāb were synonyms, Ṣafw…

Ḳudsī, Muḥammad D̲j̲ān

(205 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, poet at the Mughal court in India. He was born and raised in Mas̲h̲had, from where he performed the pilgrimage to Mecca, and was then engaged in the grocery trade before he went to India. In 1041/1632 he joined the ranks of the Emperor S̲h̲āh D̲j̲ahān’s poets. Dāg̲h̲istānī, the author of the Riyāḍ al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ , states that Ḳudsī preceded Kalīm as poet-laureate to S̲h̲āh D̲j̲ahān, but this is not confirmed by contemporary sources. He died in Lahore in 1056/1646-7 and, according to Ād̲h̲ar’s Ātas̲h̲-kada , his remains were removed to K̲h̲urāsān. Ḳudsī’s poems ar…

S̲h̲ihāb Turs̲h̲īzī

(610 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, the pen-name of the Persian poet Mīrzā ʿAbd Allāh K̲h̲ān. b. probably ca. 1167/1753 (Bahār, Armag̲h̲ān , xiii/1, 37), d. 1215/1800-1. He started his poetic career in his home town of Turs̲h̲īz in K̲h̲urāsān, but left it in 1189/1775-6 for S̲h̲īrāz, the capital of Karīm K̲h̲ān Zand [ q.v.]. His ambition took him from place to place in search of suitable patronage. Finally, in 1203/1788-9, he entered the service of S̲h̲āhzāda Maḥmūd Durrānī b. Tīmūr S̲h̲āh, the Afg̲h̲ān governor of Harāt (who subsequently became ruler of Afg̲h̲ānistān); S̲h̲āh…


(865 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, the pen-name of various minor Persian poets of the 18th-19th centuries. They include: Muḥammad Amīn, b. 1110/1698-9 in Īličpūr (Eličpur) in the western Deccan, d. 1193/1779-80. His ancestors belonged to Iṣfahān, from where his father, Ḥakīm Muḥammad Taḳī K̲h̲ān, migrated to India during the reign of Awrangzīb (1658-1707), and rose to a respectable position under Nawwāb Āṣaf D̲j̲āh (d. 1748), governor of the Deccan in the time of the Mug̲h̲al Emperor Farruk̲h̲siyar (1713-19). Muḥammad A…

Nafīsī, Saʿīd

(699 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, Persian scholar, fiction writer and poet, was born on 8 June 1896 in Tehran. His family on his father’s side had a long medical tradition, which also included his father, ʿAlī Akbar Nafīsī (d. 1303/1924), who held the title of Nāẓim al-Aṭibbāʾ, and was a distinguished physician of his time. Nafīsī received his early education in Madrasayi S̲h̲araf and Madrasa-yi ʿIlmiyya, and in 1288/1909 went to Neuchâtel, in Switzerland, for further studies. His family wanted him to go into medicine. In Neuchâtel, Nafīsī j…

S̲h̲aydā, Mullā

(645 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, 17th century Persian poet of India, commonly known as Mullā S̲h̲aydā, born in Fatḥpūr Sīkrī, near Āgra, d. in 1080/1669-70. His father was a native of Mas̲h̲had, from where he migrated to India during the reign of Emperor Akbar. It is reported that S̲h̲aydā was attached initially to a nobleman who spotted his poetic talents, and eventually introduced him to the Emperor D̲j̲ahāngīr so that he became enrolled among the aḥadī s or “gentlemen troopers”, a class of servants employed mostly for household duties. Later, he decided to seek employment…


(36,781 words)

Author(s): Pedersen, J. | Makdisi, G. | Rahman, Munibur | Hillenbrand, R.
, in modern usage, the name of an institution of learning where the Islamic sciences are taught, i.e. a college for higher studies, as opposed to an elementary school of traditional type ( kuttāb ); in mediaeval usage, essentially a college of law in which the other Islamic sciences, including literary and philosophical ones, were ancillary subjects only. I. The institution in the Arabic, Persian and Turkish lands 1. Children’s schools. The subject of Islamic education in general is treated under tarbiya. Here it should merely be noted that the earliest, informal institution…

Hidāyat, Ṣādiḳ

(406 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
(b. 17 February 1903; d. 9 April 1951) was perhaps the most revolutionary of modern Persian writers. The variety of his literary output is represented by works of diverse interest, but it is essentially as a writer of fiction, especially of the short story, that he enjoys his real position. His daring experiments in technique and in thought have exercised a powerful influence on the development of modern Persian fiction. Apart from his early education, Hidāyat does not seem to have pursued any regular course of studies. He held various minor jobs at different time…


(1,651 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, Mīrzā Muḥammad ʿAlī, Persian poet of the 11th/17th century. The precise date of his birth is not known, but it is presumed that he was born around 1010/1601-2. His father, Mīrzā ʿAbd al-Raḥīm, was a leading merchant of Tabrīz. When S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās I (r. 985-1038/1587-1629) made Iṣfahān his capital he caused many merchants from Tabrīz to settle there, in the quarter named ʿAbbāsābād. At this time Ṣāʾib’s father moved to Iṣfahān, where the poet is said to have been born. In his verses, however, Ṣāʾib often …

Rās̲h̲id, N.M.

(692 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, modern Urdu poet (1910-75). His real name was Nad̲h̲ar (Nad̲h̲r) Muḥammad, but he is universally known by his literary name, Nūn Mīm Rās̲h̲id. He was born in the township of ʿAlīpūr Ćat́t́ha (formerly Akālgaŕh) in the Gūd̲j̲arānwāla district of the Pand̲j̲āb in present-day Pākistān. His father, Faḍl Ilāhī Ćis̲h̲tī, was in the provincial educational service from which he retired as District Inspector of Schools. Rās̲h̲id pursued his early education in his native town passing his high school examination in 1926. Therea…


(648 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim , Persian poet and revolutionary, was born in Kirmāns̲h̲āh on 4 December 1887, the son of a petty shoemaker. As a youth he joined the struggle for constitutionalism in Persia, and in 1908 took part in the fight against the royalist troops in Ras̲h̲t, following Muḥammad ʿAlī S̲h̲āh’s attempt to reimpose autocracy. After the restoration of the Constitution in 1909 he entered the gendarmerie and was eventually promoted to the rank of major. There, charged with subv…
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