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Hidāyat, Ṣādiḳ

(406 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
(b. 17 February 1903; d. 9 April 1951) was perhaps the most revolutionary of modern Persian writers. The variety of his literary output is represented by works of diverse interest, but it is essentially as a writer of fiction, especially of the short story, that he enjoys his real position. His daring experiments in technique and in thought have exercised a powerful influence on the development of modern Persian fiction. Apart from his early education, Hidāyat does not seem to have pursued any regular course of studies. He held various minor jobs at different time…

Ṣāʾib

(1,651 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, Mīrzā Muḥammad ʿAlī, Persian poet of the 11th/17th century. The precise date of his birth is not known, but it is presumed that he was born around 1010/1601-2. His father, Mīrzā ʿAbd al-Raḥīm, was a leading merchant of Tabrīz. When S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās I (r. 985-1038/1587-1629) made Iṣfahān his capital he caused many merchants from Tabrīz to settle there, in the quarter named ʿAbbāsābād. At this time Ṣāʾib’s father moved to Iṣfahān, where the poet is said to have been born. In his verses, however, Ṣāʾib often …

Rās̲h̲id, N.M.

(692 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, modern Urdu poet (1910-75). His real name was Nad̲h̲ar (Nad̲h̲r) Muḥammad, but he is universally known by his literary name, Nūn Mīm Rās̲h̲id. He was born in the township of ʿAlīpūr Ćat́t́ha (formerly Akālgaŕh) in the Gūd̲j̲arānwāla district of the Pand̲j̲āb in present-day Pākistān. His father, Faḍl Ilāhī Ćis̲h̲tī, was in the provincial educational service from which he retired as District Inspector of Schools. Rās̲h̲id pursued his early education in his native town passing his high school examination in 1926. Therea…

Lāhūtī

(648 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim , Persian poet and revolutionary, was born in Kirmāns̲h̲āh on 4 December 1887, the son of a petty shoemaker. As a youth he joined the struggle for constitutionalism in Persia, and in 1908 took part in the fight against the royalist troops in Ras̲h̲t, following Muḥammad ʿAlī S̲h̲āh’s attempt to reimpose autocracy. After the restoration of the Constitution in 1909 he entered the gendarmerie and was eventually promoted to the rank of major. There, charged with subv…

ʿUnwān, Muḥammad Riḍā

(240 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, also known by his surname Čalabī, 17th century Persian poet, died probably between 1078/1667 and 1083/1672. Luṭf ʿAlī Beg Ād̲h̲ar, in his tad̲h̲kira , includes the poet among those of Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān, and refers to him as a native of Tabrīz ( Ātas̲h̲kada , i, ed. Ḥasan Sādāt Nāṣirī, Tehran 1336/1957, 132). Muḥammad Ṭāhir Naṣrābādī reports having met ʿUnwān in Mas̲h̲had, where the latter’s father, Muḥammad Ṣāliḥ Tabrīzī, a wealthy individual, had sought residence ( Tad̲h̲kira-yi Naṣrābādī , ed. Waḥīd Dastgirdī, Tehran 1361/1982, 396-7). Not much i…

S̲h̲ūrīda, Muḥammad Taḳī

(499 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, Persian poet, b. S̲h̲īrāz, according to most accounts, in 1274/1858, d. 6 Rabīʿ II 1345/14 October 1926. His father ʿAbbās was an artisan by trade. S̲h̲ūrīda’s ancestry, from what is known, reached back to the poet Ahlī S̲h̲īrāzī (d. 942/1535-6), author of the mat̲h̲nawī Siḥr-i ḥalāl “Legal magic”. When he was seven years old he was struck blind by small-pox. Some two years later his father died, after which he came under the care of his maternal uncle. In 1288/1871-2 he accompanied his uncle in…

T̲h̲anāʾī

(631 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, the pen-name of K̲h̲wād̲j̲a Ḥusayn, Indo-Persian poet of the 10th/16th century, d. 996/1587-8. Born in Mas̲h̲had, T̲h̲anāʾī, writing about himself in the introduction to his dīwān , states that, despite having talent, he initially lacked perseverance and that he took up the poetic vocation following a dream which offered him the requisite guidance. He eventually found for himself a generous patron in the person of Sulṭān Ibrāhīm Mīrzā, governor of K̲h̲urāsān, who was a poet in his own right using D…

Taḥsīn

(554 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, Mīr Muḥammad Ḥusayn ʿAṭā K̲h̲ān , pioneer in Urdu prose-writing, who lived somewhere in the middle of the 18th cetury. He was a native of Etawah (It́āwa) in present-day Uttar Pradesh, and came from a middle-class family of sayyids . His ancestors reportedly migrated from Gardīz in what is now eastern Afg̲h̲ānistan, and settled in Kaŕa Mānikpūr. His father, Mīr Muḥammad Bāḳir, moved to Dihlī at an early age and was employed as commander of 3,000 ( sih hazārī ) in Awrangzīb’s administration; he is said to have been a poet writing under the pen-name S̲h…

Naẓīrī

(823 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, the pen-name of the Indo-Muslim Persian poet, Muḥammad Ḥusayn, who flourished during the 10th/16th and early 11th/17th centuries, d. 1021/1612-13. He belonged originally to Nīs̲h̲āpūr, from where he went to Kās̲h̲ān during his youth. There he participated in poetical contests with the leading local poets of the day. He was among the first Persian poets who migrated from their native land ¶ during the Ṣafawid period to seek their fortune at the Mug̲h̲al court. On his arrival in India ( ca. 993/1585-6), he attached himself to ʿAbd al-Raḥīm K̲h̲ān-i K̲h̲ānān [see k̲h̲ān k̲h̲ānān …

Surūs̲h̲

(488 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, Muḥammad ʿAlī K̲h̲ān , prominent Persian poet of the Ḳād̲j̲ār period. He was born around 1228/1813 in Sidih, a district of Iṣfahān. His ancestors were artisans and farmers, and his father was reportedly a butcher by trade (see Dīwān , i, introd., 2). About 1243/1827 Surūs̲h̲ moved to Iṣfahān after his father’s death. There he completed his education and also discovered his poetic vocation. In 1247/1831 he left Iṣfahān to find suitable patronage, ¶ and travelled to various cities. Finally, he settled down in Tabrīz, where he gained access to the heir-apparent, Nāṣir …

S̲h̲aybānī

(609 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, Abū Naṣr Fatḥ Allāh K̲h̲ān , 19th century Persian poet, born around 1241/1825 in Kās̲h̲ān, died 20 Rad̲j̲ab 1308/1 March 1891. He came from a noble family claiming descent from the S̲h̲aybānī tribe, from which he took his pen name. His grandfather held the governorship of Naṭanz, Kās̲h̲ān, D̲j̲aws̲h̲aḳān and Ḳum during Āg̲h̲ā Muḥammad K̲h̲ān’s reign (1193-1212/1779-97), whilst his father, Muḥammad Kāẓim K̲h̲ān, was employed under Muḥammad S̲h̲āh (r. 1250-64/1779-97) and later served as financial agent of the govern…

Tug̲h̲rā, Mullā

(477 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, 17th-century Indo-Persian poet, died ca. 1078/1667 (see Rieu, Catalogue of Persian manuscripts in the British Museum , ii, Add. 16,852). According to most accounts, he was a native of Mas̲h̲had, but Ṭāhir Naṣrābādī, who was his contemporary, mentions him as a Tabrīzī, stating at the same time that he heard the poet being called Mas̲h̲hadī ( Tad̲h̲kira-yi Naṣrābādī , ed. Waḥīd Dastgirdī, Tehran 1361/1982, 339). Tug̲h̲rā went” to India towards the end of D̲j̲ahāngīr’s reign or in the beginning of S̲h̲āh D̲j̲ahān’s time. His first e…

Mus̲h̲āʿara

(875 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
(a.), “poetical contest”, in Urdu usually pronounced mus̲h̲āʿira , has come to be applied in its wider aspect to denote an assembly where Urdu poets come together to recite their compositions. Its origin in the Indo-Muslim cultural tradition can only be guessed. According to a statement by S̲h̲iblī Nuʿmānī, one may assume that the institution of the mus̲h̲āʿara must have appeared on the Persian literary scene in India by the beginning of the 10th/16th century. S̲h̲iblī points out that from the time of the poet Fig̲h̲ānī [ q.v.], who died in 925/1519, there grew up the custom of holding mus̲h̲…

Ṣabā

(1,104 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, Fatḥ ʿAlī Ḵh̲ān , Persian poet, was born in Kās̲h̲ān, probably in 1179/1765, and died in 1238/1822-3. His people belonged originally to Ād̲h̲arbayd̲j̲ān. and came from the Dunbalī stock, a tribe of Kurds settled in the region of Ḵh̲ūy. Members of his family held jobs as governors and administrators under the Zand and Ḳād̲j̲ār rulers. His father, Āḳā Muḥammad, was governor of Kās̲h̲ān under the Zands, and his eldest brother, Muḥammad ʿAlī Ḵh̲ān, was minister to the Zand ruler Luṭf ʿAlī Ḵh̲ān ( r. 1203-9/1789-94). Ṣabā also seems to have been identified with this monarch, and i…

K̲h̲ayāl

(304 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, the most important song form in the classical repertoire of north Indian music, is regarded by some to have been invented by Amīr K̲h̲usraw (651-725/1253-1325) and attributed by others to Ḥusayn S̲h̲āh S̲h̲arḳī (862-934/1458-1528), the ruler of Ḏj̲awnpūr. who was dispossessed by Buhlūl Lodī in ca. 1476. Whatever its genesis, there is little doubt that it saw its greatest development during the Muslim period of Indian history and that its major exponents have generally been Muslims. It arose as a reaction to the traditional composition dhrupad , whose rigid …

Ras̲h̲īd Yāsimī

(582 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, modern Persian poet and scholar, born on 4 December 1896 at Kirmāns̲h̲āh and died in 1951. His real name was G̲h̲ulām Riḍā, but he is popularly known as Ras̲h̲īd Yāsimī in literary and intellectual circles. He came from a cultured and well-educated family, which counted as one of its respected members the author of the novel S̲h̲ams u ṭug̲h̲rā , namely Muḥammad Bāḳir Mīrzā K̲h̲usrawī (1849-1950), who was his maternal uncle. After completing his early education in his native town, Ras̲h̲īd Yāsimī proceeded to Tehran in 1333/1914-15…

Salīm, Muḥammad Ḳulī

(769 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, an Indo-Persian poet of the 11th/17th century, died 1057/1647-8. He originated from the S̲h̲āmlū tribe of the Turks and was a native of Tehran, but details regarding his life are scanty. In Persia he served under Mīrzā ʿAbd Allāh Ḵh̲ān, governor of Lāhīd̲j̲ān [ q.v.] in Gīlān. During this time he married and had a son. Among the eminent personalities to whom he addressed his poems in the beginning were the Ṣafawid rulers S̲h̲āh ʿAbbās I (r. 996-1038/1588-1629) and his successor S̲h̲āh Ṣafī I (r. 1038-52/1629-42). Perhaps his failure to f…

Ṭālibūf

(551 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
( Talibov ), ʿAbd al-Raḥīm , Persian writer and intellectual of the 19th century (b. Tabrīz 1250/1834, d. 1329/1911). At ca. sixteen, he left for Tiflis (Tbilisi) in Transcaucasia, where he learned the Russian language and was exposed to the writings of Russian writers as well as to Western political ideas. Subsequently, he settled in Tamir K̲h̲ān S̲h̲ūra (present-day Buynaksk), capital of Dāg̲h̲istān. In ca. 1306/1888 he joined Sayyid Muḥammad S̲h̲abistarī (afterwards editor of Īrān-i naw ) ¶ in starting in Istanbul the paper S̲h̲āhsawan , of which only on…

Surūrī Kās̲h̲ānī

(527 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, the pen-name of Muḥammad Ḳāsim, Persian lexicographer of the 10th-11th/16th-17th century. His father, Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Muḥammad, is said to have been a shoemaker. Surūrī, during his early youth, practised the same profession but, later turned to ¶ scholarship. According to a tradition, he was endowed with a prolific memory and could recite thirty thousand verses by heart. He chose to reside in Iṣfahān, and there he is reported to have met the traveller Pietro de la Valle, who visited the city in 1032/1622-3. Surūrī made a journey to …

Nafīsī, Saʿīd

(699 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, Persian scholar, fiction writer and poet, was born on 8 June 1896 in Tehran. His family on his father’s side had a long medical tradition, which also included his father, ʿAlī Akbar Nafīsī (d. 1303/1924), who held the title of Nāẓim al-Aṭibbāʾ, and was a distinguished physician of his time. Nafīsī received his early education in Madrasayi S̲h̲araf and Madrasa-yi ʿIlmiyya, and in 1288/1909 went to Neuchâtel, in Switzerland, for further studies. His family wanted him to go into medicine. In Neuchâtel, Nafīsī j…
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