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Lāhūtī

(648 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim , Persian poet and revolutionary, was born in Kirmāns̲h̲āh on 4 December 1887, the son of a petty shoemaker. As a youth he joined the struggle for constitutionalism in Persia, and in 1908 took part in the fight against the royalist troops in Ras̲h̲t, following Muḥammad ʿAlī S̲h̲āh’s attempt to reimpose autocracy. After the restoration of the Constitution in 1909 he entered the gendarmerie and was eventually promoted to the rank of major. There, charged with subv…

ʿUnwān, Muḥammad Riḍā

(240 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, also known by his surname Čalabī, 17th century Persian poet, died probably between 1078/1667 and 1083/1672. Luṭf ʿAlī Beg Ād̲h̲ar, in his tad̲h̲kira , includes the poet among those of Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān, and refers to him as a native of Tabrīz ( Ātas̲h̲kada , i, ed. Ḥasan Sādāt Nāṣirī, Tehran 1336/1957, 132). Muḥammad Ṭāhir Naṣrābādī reports having met ʿUnwān in Mas̲h̲had, where the latter’s father, Muḥammad Ṣāliḥ Tabrīzī, a wealthy individual, had sought residence ( Tad̲h̲kira-yi Naṣrābādī , ed. Waḥīd Dastgirdī, Tehran 1361/1982, 396-7). Not much i…

S̲h̲ūrīda, Muḥammad Taḳī

(499 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, Persian poet, b. S̲h̲īrāz, according to most accounts, in 1274/1858, d. 6 Rabīʿ II 1345/14 October 1926. His father ʿAbbās was an artisan by trade. S̲h̲ūrīda’s ancestry, from what is known, reached back to the poet Ahlī S̲h̲īrāzī (d. 942/1535-6), author of the mat̲h̲nawī Siḥr-i ḥalāl “Legal magic”. When he was seven years old he was struck blind by small-pox. Some two years later his father died, after which he came under the care of his maternal uncle. In 1288/1871-2 he accompanied his uncle in…

S̲h̲āʿir

(23,851 words)

Author(s): Fahd, T. | Moreh, S. | Ben Abdesselem, A. | Reynolds, D.F. | Bruijn, J.T.P. de | Et al.
(a.), poet. ¶ 1. In the Arab world. A. Pre-Islamic and Umayyad periods. Among those endowed with knowledge and with power in ancient Arabia stands the figure of the s̲h̲āʿir , whose role is often confused with that of the ʿarrāf ( s̲h̲aʿara and ʿarafa having the same semantic value: cf. I. Goldziher, Abhandlungen , i, 3 ff.) and of the kāhin [ q.v.]. They were credited with the same source of inspiration, the d̲j̲inns (Goldziher, Die Ǧinnen der Dichter , in ZDMG, xlv [1891], 685 ff.). However, the s̲h̲āʿir was, originally, the repository of magical rather than divinatory knowledge; …

T̲h̲anāʾī

(631 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, the pen-name of K̲h̲wād̲j̲a Ḥusayn, Indo-Persian poet of the 10th/16th century, d. 996/1587-8. Born in Mas̲h̲had, T̲h̲anāʾī, writing about himself in the introduction to his dīwān , states that, despite having talent, he initially lacked perseverance and that he took up the poetic vocation following a dream which offered him the requisite guidance. He eventually found for himself a generous patron in the person of Sulṭān Ibrāhīm Mīrzā, governor of K̲h̲urāsān, who was a poet in his own right using D…

Taḥsīn

(554 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, Mīr Muḥammad Ḥusayn ʿAṭā K̲h̲ān , pioneer in Urdu prose-writing, who lived somewhere in the middle of the 18th cetury. He was a native of Etawah (It́āwa) in present-day Uttar Pradesh, and came from a middle-class family of sayyids . His ancestors reportedly migrated from Gardīz in what is now eastern Afg̲h̲ānistan, and settled in Kaŕa Mānikpūr. His father, Mīr Muḥammad Bāḳir, moved to Dihlī at an early age and was employed as commander of 3,000 ( sih hazārī ) in Awrangzīb’s administration; he is said to have been a poet writing under the pen-name S̲h…

S̲h̲ahrangīz

(2,834 words)

Author(s): Bruijn, J.T.P. de | Halman, Talat Sait | Rahman, Munibur
(p.) or S̲h̲ahrās̲h̲ūb (“upsetting the town”), a genre of short love poems on young craftsmen, often related to the bazaars of specific towns. 1. In Persian In Persian literature, the genre is usually referred to under the latter name. E.J.W. Gibb’s contention that the genre was invented by the Turkish poet Mesīḥī [ q.v.] of Edirne ( HOP, ii, 232), was challenged already by E.G. Browne who, pointing to Persian specimens mentioned by the Ṣafawid anthologist Sām Mīrzā [ q.v.], concluded that “though they were probably written later than Masíḥí’s Turkish S̲h̲ahr-angíz

Saʿīdā Gīlānī

(562 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, Indo-Persian poet of the 11th/17th century. Details are lacking regarding his early life. He went to India from his native Persia during D̲j̲ahāngīr’s reign (1014-37/1605-27), and lived on to serve under his successor S̲h̲āh D̲j̲ahān (1037-68/1628-58). Apart from poetry, he was skilled in calligraphy, engraving and assaying of precious stones. D̲j̲ahāngīr gave him the title of Bēbadal K̲h̲ān, perhaps as an appreciation of his talent since bēbadal means “matchless”. In addition, he was appointed officer-in-charge of the royal jewellery, a…

Risāla

(14,948 words)

Author(s): Arazi, A. | Ben-S̲h̲ammay, H. | Rahman, Munibur | Tekin, Gönül Alpay
(a.), an Arabic term attested at a very early stage, in the ancient inscriptions of Arabia, with the meaning of message or of mission (G. Lankester Harding, An index and concordance of pre-Islamic names and inscriptions, Toronto 1971, 277). In fact, risāla has many meanings; it has signified message, missive, letter, epistle and monograph; from the 5th/11th century onwards it could also be a synonym of maḳāma (see below, section on Risāla and maḳāma). The synonyms recorded are kitāb [ q.v.], k̲h̲iṭāb (for Ps.-Ibn al-Mudabbir in the 3rd/9th century, risāla and k̲h̲iṭāb were synonyms, Ṣafw…

Ḳudsī, Muḥammad D̲j̲ān

(205 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, poet at the Mughal court in India. He was born and raised in Mas̲h̲had, from where he performed the pilgrimage to Mecca, and was then engaged in the grocery trade before he went to India. In 1041/1632 he joined the ranks of the Emperor S̲h̲āh D̲j̲ahān’s poets. Dāg̲h̲istānī, the author of the Riyāḍ al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ , states that Ḳudsī preceded Kalīm as poet-laureate to S̲h̲āh D̲j̲ahān, but this is not confirmed by contemporary sources. He died in Lahore in 1056/1646-7 and, according to Ād̲h̲ar’s Ātas̲h̲-kada , his remains were removed to K̲h̲urāsān. Ḳudsī’s poems ar…

S̲h̲ihāb Turs̲h̲īzī

(610 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, the pen-name of the Persian poet Mīrzā ʿAbd Allāh K̲h̲ān. b. probably ca. 1167/1753 (Bahār, Armag̲h̲ān , xiii/1, 37), d. 1215/1800-1. He started his poetic career in his home town of Turs̲h̲īz in K̲h̲urāsān, but left it in 1189/1775-6 for S̲h̲īrāz, the capital of Karīm K̲h̲ān Zand [ q.v.]. His ambition took him from place to place in search of suitable patronage. Finally, in 1203/1788-9, he entered the service of S̲h̲āhzāda Maḥmūd Durrānī b. Tīmūr S̲h̲āh, the Afg̲h̲ān governor of Harāt (who subsequently became ruler of Afg̲h̲ānistān); S̲h̲āh…

Wafa

(865 words)

Author(s): Rahman, Munibur
, the pen-name of various minor Persian poets of the 18th-19th centuries. They include: Muḥammad Amīn, b. 1110/1698-9 in Īličpūr (Eličpur) in the western Deccan, d. 1193/1779-80. His ancestors belonged to Iṣfahān, from where his father, Ḥakīm Muḥammad Taḳī K̲h̲ān, migrated to India during the reign of Awrangzīb (1658-1707), and rose to a respectable position under Nawwāb Āṣaf D̲j̲āh (d. 1748), governor of the Deccan in the time of the Mug̲h̲al Emperor Farruk̲h̲siyar (1713-19). Muḥammad A…
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