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(5,289 words)

Author(s): Soucek, Priscilla P. | Landau, L. M. | Naef, Silvia
(a.), verbal noun from the form II verb ṣawwara “to form, fashion”, then “depict, represent, illustrate”. It is the principal term used in Arabic for both the representational arts including painting, drawing, sketching, engraving and photography (on which see 2. below) and the process of their creation. It is often contrasted to timt̲h̲āl (sculpture) and synonymous with ṣūra and the rarer taṣwīra or their respective plural forms ṣuwar and taṣāwīr . Other synonyms of taṣwīr widely used in Persian texts are naḳs̲h̲ (A.) and nigār (P.). Although in the usage…


(46,620 words)

Author(s): Yarshater, Ehsan | Khorramshahi, Bahaʾ-al-Din | Bruijn, J.T.P. de | Correale, D. Meneghini | Meisami, Julie Scott | Et al.
Celebrated Persian lyric poet (ca. 715-792/1315-1390).A version of this article is available in printVolume XI, Fascicle 5, pp. 461-507 HAFEZ (Ḥāfeẓ), ŠAMS-AL-DIN MOḤAMMAD of Shiraz (ca. 715-792/1315-1390), celebrated Persian lyric poet.HAFEZ i. AN OVERVIEWHafez is the most popular of Persian poets. If a book of poetry is to be found in a Persian home, it is likely to be the Divān (collected poems) of Hafez. Many of his lines have become proverbial sayings, and there are few who cannot recite some of his lyrics, partially or totally, by heart. His Divān is widely used in bibliomancy ( fāl; …
Date: 2021-04-28