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Hindū Kus̲h̲

(636 words)

Author(s): Yapp, M.E.
, extensive range of mountains in northern Afg̲h̲ānistān, which forms the watershed between the river systems of the Amū Daryā and the Indus [ qq.v.]. The range extends in a westerly direction from the junction of the Mustag̲h̲ and ¶ Sariḳol ranges in the region of the Pāmirs to where it is extinguished among the low hills of the Paropamisus range. The Kūh-i Bābā mountains are not so much an extension of the Hindū Kus̲h̲ as an overlapping range, separated from the Hindū Kus̲h̲ itself by the Bāmiyān valley. The o…

Mad̲j̲lis

(51,612 words)

Author(s): Ed. | W. Madelung | Rahman, Munibur | Landau, J. M. | Yapp, M.E. | Et al.
(a.), a noun of place from the verb d̲j̲alasa “to sit down” and, by extension, “to sit”, ¶ “to hold a session”; starting from the original meaning of “a place where one sits down, where one stays”, thence “a seat” (J. Sadan, Le mobilier au Proche-Orient médiéval , Leiden 1976, index), the semantic field of mad̲j̲lis is of very wide extent (see the dictionaries of Lane, Dozy, Blachère, etc.). Among the principal derivative meanings are “a meeting place”, “meeting, assembly” (cf. Ḳurʾān, LXVIII, 12/11), “a reception hall (of a ca…

Amān Allāh

(1,109 words)

Author(s): Yapp, M. E.
, Amīr of Afg̲h̲ānistan and the successor and third son of Habīb Allāh [ q.v.] by his chief wife, ʿUlyā Ḥaḍrat (d. 1965). He was born on 2 June 1892 in Pag̲h̲mān and educated at the Military Academy. Intelligent, energetic and hardworking, he was attracted to the nationalist and Islamic modernist ideas of Maḥmūd Ṭarzī (1866-1935), the editor of Sirād̲j̲ al-ak̲h̲bār , and in 1914 married Ṭarzī’s daughter, Soraya (T̲h̲urayyā) (d. 21 April 1968). At the time of his father’s murder on 20 February 1919, Amān Allāh, as Governor of Kābul, c…

Muḥammad Dāwūd K̲h̲ān

(586 words)

Author(s): Yapp, M.E.
(1909-78) first president of Afg̲h̲ānistān. His father was Sardār Muḥammad ʿAzīz, the half-brother of Muḥammad Nādir S̲h̲āh. Dāwūd was educated at Amāniyya School, Kābul, and in France. In 1931 he entered the army, was created major-general in 1932 and from then until 1947 held various military commands and provincial governorships. In 1947 he became minister of defence in the government of his uncle, S̲h̲āh Maḥmūd, resigned and returned as minister of the interior, 1949-50. From 20 September 1953 un…
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