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Menderes

(1,865 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M.
, Adnan (1899-1961), homme d’Etat turc. Né et élevé à Izmir, il fit ses études à la Faculté de Droit de l’Université d’Ankara, et prit part à la première Guerre mondiale et à la guerre d’Indépendance turque. Son activité politique commença lorsque, rejoignant en 1930 le Parti Libéral d’Ali Fethi Okyar, il en devint président à Aydin. Lorsque le Parti disparut, il rejoignit le Parti du Peuple (appelé plus tard Parti Républicain du Peuple, PRP) et fut élu à plusieurs reprises à la Grande Assemblée …

Mandats

(16,816 words)

Author(s): Landau, J. M.
Le mandat (A. intidāb; turc manda, du français) était essentiellement un système de tutelle institué par la Société des Nations, après la fin de la première Guerre mondiale, pour l’administration de certains territoires détachés d’États vaincus, principalement des empires ottoman et allemand. Le concept de mandat a été diversement interprété, soit comme un nouvel ordre mondial, soit, au contraire, comme une simple façade du néo-colonialisme, avec toute une gamme d’interprétations entre ces deux extrêmes. Essentiellement, le cho…

Ibn Dāniyāl

(662 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M.
, S̲h̲ams al-dīn Muḥammad b. Dāniyāl b. Yūsuf al-Ḵh̲uzāʿī al-Mawṣilī…

Kuttāb

(3,559 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M.
(A. pl. katātīb, mais lui-même probablement pi. de kātib «scribe»), type d’école élémentaire. Ce terme est emp…

Taʾmīm

(1,093 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M.
(a., persan millī kardan, turc devletleştirme), néologismes pour nationalisation (avec probablement en turc l’idée de Verstaatlichung

al-Naḳḳās̲h̲

(1,197 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M.
Mārūn b. Ilyās (né à Sidon le 9 février 1817, m. à Ṭarsūs le 1er juin 1855) pionnier du théâtre moderne en arabe. Maronite, il appartenait à ce groupe c…

Nis̲h̲ān

(5,351 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M. | Pellat, Ch.
(p.), insigne, bannière, sceau (de là: ¶ lettre d’un prince), ou ordre, décoration. Emprunté par le turc ottoman, ce terme signifiait fondamentalement «insigne, marque» et désignait aussi la signature de sultan, ou ṭug̲h̲ra [ q.v.] et, par extension, un document qui la portait (le scribe était alors un nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊ [ q.v], les étendards des Janissaires ou Yeni Čeri [ q.v.], les insignes portés sur les uniformes militaires et autres et, plus tard, les décorations décernées par le sultan. Aux XIXe et XXe siècles, l’arabe littéraire nis̲h̲ān (ou nīs̲h̲ān) avait essentiellement le…

Panarabisme

(2,490 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M.
, idéologie invoquant une union universelle des Arabes ( waḥdat al-ʿ Arab, al- waḥda al-ʿ arabiyya). Les idéologues du panarabisme ont constamment préconisé une telle union sur la base de plusieurs éléments de communauté: (a) la langue et la culture, considérées comme l’expression la plus parfaite de la nation arabe tout entière, et l’un de ses principaux liens avec son passé, y compris le passé islamique; beaucoup d’Arabes ont exprimé leur nationalisme en termes islamiques; (b) l’histoire, préoccupation qui permet l’immersion dans un glorieux passé commun, différent de la situation exis…

K̲h̲ayāl al-Ẓill

(810 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M.
«spectre de l’ombre», nom populaire arabe du théâtre d’ombres peut-être…

Panislamisme

(2,698 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M.
, en arabe: al- Waḥda alislāmiyya, en turc ottoman: Ittiḥād- i̊ Islām, en turc moderne: Islam ittihadi, idéologie visant à l’union de tous les Musulmans en une entité unique, qui restaurerait donc la situation telle qu’elle régnait au début de l’Islam. L’élément religieux de l’unité de tous les Musulmans a été défendu depuis l’époque du Prophète, mais ils s’y est ajouté un aspect politique important au XIXe siècle. L’expression turque a été employée d’un point de vue politique par des écrivains et des journalistes depuis les années 1860, alors que «panislamism…

Taṣwīr

(5,613 words)

Author(s): Soucek, Priscilla P. | Landau, J. M. | Naef, S.
(a.), nom verbal de la forme II du verbe ṣawwara «former, fabriquer, puis dépeindre, représenter, illustrer». C’est le principal terme utilisé en arabe pour désigner d’une part les arts figuratifs comprenant la peinture, le dessin, les croquis, la gravure et la photographie (à ce propos, voir en 2. ci-dessous) et d’autre part le procédé de leur élaboration. Il est souvent opposé à timt̲h̲āl (sculpture) et synonyme de

Abyaḍ

(680 words)

Author(s): Landau, J. M.
, Georges (né le 5 mai 1880 à Beyrouth, mort au Caire le 21 mai 1959), Syrien chrétien qui devint un des acteurs les plus en vue du théâtre égyptien moderne. Après avoir joué dans des spectacles scolaires, il commença une carrière d’employé de bureau; peu satisfait de cette existence, il partit, en 1898-9, pour l’Égypte, qui était alors le centre du jeune théâtre de langue arabe. A Alexandrie et au Caire, il assista à des représentations théâtrales, aussi bien locales qu’étrangères puis, avec un groupe d…

Masraḥ

(31,344 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M. | Bencheneb, R. | And, Metin | Bruijn, J.T.P. de | Allworth, E. | Et al.
(a.), «scène», de plus en plus employé pour désigner le «théâtre» (dans le même sens que Bühne en allemand); fréquemment synonyme de tiyātrō (de l’italien). Phénomène artistique et littéraire qui se manifesta au premier chef dans les deux derniers siècles, le théâtre arabe a ses racines dans des représentations locales de la passion de Ḥusayn [voir Ta ʿziya], les marionnettes et le théâtre d’ombres [voir Ḳaragöz], la mimique et d’autres farces populaires et a été influencé par le théâtre étranger contemporain (plutôt que classique). I. — Orient arabe. Bien que des pièces populaires de plein air en arabe aient été parfois représentées publiquement depuis le XII

Maktab

(902 words)

Author(s): Landau, J. M.
(a., pl. makātib) était l’une des appellations de l’école islamique traditionnelle, souvent nommée kuttāb [ q. v.; on trouvera sous cette rubrique un bref exposé des emplois de

Farmāsūniyya

(1,829 words)

Author(s): Landau, J. M.
(a.), franc-maçonnerie (également, en arabe Firmāsūniyya, Māsūniyya et Bināya ḥurra; en turc, Franmasonluk, Farmasonluk, Masonluk). I. — Dans l’empire ottoman et dans les États qui lui ont succédé. La franc-maçonnerie pénétra dans l’empire par l’intermédiaire de loges (arabe, maḥfil; turc, mahfel, loca) fondées par des Européens; comme beaucoup d’entre elles furent créées sans jouir de l’autorité d’une francmaçonnerie organisée, elles furent souvent éphémères. On signale plusieurs loges à Alep, Izmir et Corfou en 1738, à Alexandrette a…

Mad̲j̲lis

(53,565 words)

Author(s): Réd. | Madelung, W. | Rahman, Munibur | Landau, J.M. | Yapp, M.E. | Et al.
(a.), nom de lieu du verbe d̲j̲alasa ¶ «s’asseoir» et, par extension, «siéger», «tenir séance»; à partir du sens primitif de «lieu où l’on s’assoit, où l’on se tient», donc «siège» (J. Sadan, Le mobilier au Proche-Orient médiéval, Leyde 1976, index), le champ sémantique de mad̲j̲lis s’étend très largement (voir les dictionnaires de Lane, Dozy, Blachère, etc.). Parmi les principaux sens dérivés, on retiendra ceux de «lieu de réunion», «réunion, assemblée» (cf. Ḳurʾān, LXVIII, 12/11), «salon de réception (d’un calife, d’un haut dignitaire ou…

Abū Naḍḍāra

(399 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M.
Yaʿḳūb b. Rafāʾīl Ṣanūʿ (ou Jacques Sanua), journaliste et auteur dramatique juif égyptien à la plume prolifique (1839-1912). Il influença indirectement la révolte de ʿUrābī par son enseignement, ses conférences, ses écrits et de courtes pièces satiriques, et en lançant la publication d’ Abū Naḍḍāra Zarḳāʾ («l’homme aux lunettes vertes»), une feuille lithographiée anonyme, ornée de dessins humoristiques, dans le dialecte des fellāḥs égyptiens. Il dut quitter l’Égypte en 1878 pour avoir critiqué le khédive et ses conseillers; mais il contin…

Panturquisme

(2,062 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M.
, une de ces pan-idéologies nées à la fin du XIXe siècle, qui exprime un intérêt nationaliste très fort pour le bien-être de tous les Turcs et de tous les membres des groupes turciques, reconnaissables par l’usage de langues apparentées, une origine, une histoire et une tradition communes. Il s’adresse principalement au Turcs de Turquie, de Chypre, des Balkans, de l’ex-Union Soviétique, de Syrie, d’Irak, d’Iran, d’Afghanistan et du Turkestan oriental (ou Sinkiang). Le panturquisme doit être distingué du t…

Muʿāhada

(3,805 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M.
(a.), traité, accord. —1. Epoque ancienne: [Voir ʿAhd; Baḳṭ; Imtiyāzāt]. —2. Époque moderne, ( muʿāhede ou muʿāhedet en turc ottoman; moʿāhede, moʿāhedat en persan et en ourdou). Le terme officiel ottoman pour «traité» était soit muʿāhede, emprunté à l’arabe, soit ʿahd-nāme, emprunté au persan. A l’apogée de la puissance Ottomane, la plupart des traités consistaient dans des proclamations unilatérales, présentées comme l’exprèssion ¶ de la volonté personnelle du sultan pour accorder des privilèges à des États ou à des ressortissants étrangers. Ils étaient généralement appelés ʿa…

Pan-Turkism

(1,892 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M.
, one of the Pan-ideologies originating in the late 19th century. It expresses strong nationalist interest in the welfare of all Turks and members of Turkic groups, recognisable by kindred languages and a common origin, history and tradition. It addresses itself chiefly to those in Turkey, Cyprus, the Balkans, the former Soviet Union, Syria, ʿIrāḳ, Persia, Afg̲h̲ānistān and East Turkistan (or Sinkiang). Pan-Turkism should be distinguished from Turanism (sometimes called Pan-Turanism), a broader …

Ibn Dāniyāl

(589 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M.
, S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Dāniyāl b. Yūsuf al-K̲h̲uzāʿī al-Mawṣilī , b. ca . 646/1248, d. 710/1310, Arab writer in Egypt. Born in Mawṣil; from the age of 19, he lived in Cairo, studying and practising ophthalmology. In literary and colloquial Arabic poetry and versified prose, he wrote some of the earliest shadow-plays in mediaeval Egypt. He apparently composed some Arabic poems too, but he is mainly memorable for the keen observation reflected in his dramatic works. All three plays were actually intended for production, and the manuscripts were most probably intended to serve ¶ as gu…

Abū Naḍḍāra

(374 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M.
, YaʿḲūb b. Rafāʾīl Ṣanūʿ (also James Sanua), prolific Jewish Egyptian journalist and playwright (1839-1912). He indirectly influenced the ʿUrābī Revolt by teaching, lecturing, writing and performing short satirical plays and first starting the publication of Abū Naḍḍāra Zarḳāʾ ("the man with green spectacles"), ¶ an anonymous lithographic sheet, enlivened by cartoons, in the Egyptian fallāḥīn dialect. Because he had criticized the Khedive and his counsellors, he had to leave Egypt in 1878; but he continued to publish his newspaper in Par…

Cinema

(1,157 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M.
( sīnimā ). History. Cinema is a newly imported art into the Muslim world; as such, it is a facet of the Western impact on the inhabitants and expresses their interest in Western technical achievements and forms of entertainment. Silent films were apparently first imported into Egypt by Italians (1897), attracting considerable interest. Film shows for Allied troops, during World War I, familiarized many Near Easterners with the cinema. The influx of foreign films, the constru…

K̲h̲ayāl al-Ẓill

(717 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M.
(“Shadow fantasy”), popular Arabic name for the shadow-play, possibly brought over from South-East Asia or India and performed in Muslim lands from the 12th century A.D. to the 20th one. Although occasionally presented during the long evenings of the Ramaḍān fast, it has now virtually disappeared with the spread of education, the cinema and television. The only extant texts of medieval Arabic shadow-plays were composed in the 7th/13th century A.D. by an Egyptian ophthalmologist, Ibn Dāniyāl [ q.v.], and consist of a humorous pageant of Egyptian life under the Mamlūk ruler Baybars I [ q.v…

Kuttāb

(3,461 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M.
(a., plural katātib ), itself probably plural of kātib (“scribe”), a type of beginners’ or primary school. The term is frequently synonymous with maktab in Arabic and Persian and mektep in Turkish. In Ottoman it was also called mekteb-k̲h̲āne or mekteb-i ṣi̊byān or ṣi̊byān mektebi, (“children’s school”); later, in the Tanẓīmāt era, it was more generally referred to as ibtidāʾī mekteb (“beginner’s school”) and then as ilk mekteb (“primary school”). European writers have often called it “Ḳurʾānic school”. The kuttāb was formerly widespread in Islamic la…

Muʿāhada

(3,742 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M.
(a.) treaty, agreement: 1. In earlier times: See for this, ʿahd ; baḳṭ ; imtiyāzāt . 2. In modern times. We find muʿāhede or muʿāhedet in Ottoman Turkish: moʿāhede , moʿāhedat , in Persian and Urdu. The Ottoman official term for “treaty” was either muʿāhede, borrowed from the Arabic, or ʿahd-nāme , borrowed from the Persian. At the height of Ottoman power, most treaties constituted one-sided proclamations, phrased as expressions of the Sultan’s own will to grant privileges to foreign states or their subjects. These were generally called ʿahd-nāme [see imtiyāzāt ,…

Maktab

(931 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M.
(a.), pl. makātib , was an appellation for the Islamic traditional school frequently known also as kuttāb [ q.v.; a brief discussion of the uses of maktab will be found there]. The same applies to its equivalents in Persian, maktab, and in Turkish, mekteb . In Egypt, the Copts too used maktáb to denote their own traditional schools. Later, however, the term came also to mean “school”, more generally, as in the Ottoman Turkish mekteb-i ṣanāʾiʿ (“vocational school”) or even mekteb gemisi (“training ship”). In both Ottoman Turkish and Arabic the term was borrowed, mainly during…

Masraḥ

(31,037 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M. | Bencheneb, R. | And, Metin | Bruijn, J.T.P. de | Allworth, E. | Et al.
(a.), “scene”, increasingly employed as “theatre” (in the same sense as “Bühne” in German); frequently synonymous with tiyātrō (from the Italian). 1. In the Arab East. Primarily an artistic and literary phenomenon of the last two centuries, the Arab theatre has its roots in local performances of passion plays [see taʿziya ], marionette and shadow plays [see ḳaragöz ], mimicry and other popular farces, and was affected by the then contemporary (rather than the classical) foreign theatre as well. Although some popular open-air plays…

Pan-Islamism

(2,499 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M.
(in Arabic al-Waḥda al-Islāmiyya ; in Ottoman Turkish Ittiḥād-i̊ Islām , in modern Turkish İslam ittihadi ), the ideology aiming at a comprehensive union of all Muslims into one entity, thus restoring the situation prevalent in early Islam. The religious element of the unity of all Muslims had been advocated since the days of Muḥammad, but acquired an added political significance in the 19th century. The Turkish term was used politically by Turkish writers and journalists since the 1860s, …

Mad̲j̲lis

(51,612 words)

Author(s): Ed. | W. Madelung | Rahman, Munibur | Landau, J. M. | Yapp, M.E. | Et al.
(a.), a noun of place from the verb d̲j̲alasa “to sit down” and, by extension, “to sit”, ¶ “to hold a session”; starting from the original meaning of “a place where one sits down, where one stays”, thence “a seat” (J. Sadan, Le mobilier au Proche-Orient médiéval , Leiden 1976, index), the semantic field of mad̲j̲lis is of very wide extent (see the dictionaries of Lane, Dozy, Blachère, etc.). Among the principal derivative meanings are “a meeting place”, “meeting, assembly” (cf. Ḳurʾān, LXVIII, 12/11), “a reception hall (of a ca…

Abyaḍ

(596 words)

Author(s): Landau, J. M.
, georges (b. Beirut, 5 May 1880; d. Cairo, 21 May 1959), a Syrian Christian who became a prominent protagonist of the modern Egyptian theatre. After acting in school-plays, Abyaḍ attempted a career as a clerk; unhappy with this work, he moved in 1898-9 to Egypt, then the centre of the young theatre in Arabic. In Alexandria and Cairo, he attended theatrical performances, both local and foreign, then, with a group of Egyptian amateurs, repeatedly tried his own hand, with some success. The turning …

Nis̲h̲ān

(5,193 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M. | Pellat, Ch.
(p.), means a sign, banner, seal (and hence letter of a prince), or order/decoration. As a loanword in Ottoman Turkish, it basically denoted a sign or mark and also designated the sultan’s signature, or ṭug̲h̲ra [ q.v.] and, by extension, a document bearing it (its scribe was a nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊ [ q.v.]); the standards of the Janissaries or Yeñi Čeri [ q.v.]; the insignia on military, naval and other uniforms; and, ¶ later, decorations bestowed by the sultan. In 19th and 20th century literary Arabic, nis̲h̲ān ( also nīs̲h̲ān ), similarly a loanword, had essential…

Farmāsūniyya

(1,704 words)

Author(s): Landau, J. M.
(a.), freemasonry (also in Arabic: Firmāsūniyya , Māsūniyya and Bināya Ḥurra ; in Turkish, Franmasonluk , Farmasonluk , Masonluk ). I. In the Ottoman empire and its successor states. Freemansonry first penetrated the Empire via lodges (Arabic mahfil ; Turkish mahfel , loca ) established by Europeans. As many of the lodges were established without the authority of organised freemasonry, they were frequently short-lived. Several lodges were reported in Aleppo, Izmir and Corfu in 1738, in Alexandretta in the early 1740…

al-Naḳḳas̲h̲

(1,119 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M.
, Mārūn b. Ilyās (b. Sidon, 9 February 1817, d. Ṭarsus, 1 June 1855), pioneer of modern playwriting in Arabic. A Maronite, al-Naḳḳās̲h̲ belonged to that Christian group which had already begun to display cosmopolitan tendencies, particularly in Beirut, where he resided from 1825 onwards, eventually assuming several positions in municipal administration. He knew Arabic, Turkish, Italian and French well. As a merchant, he travelled frequently, e.g. in 1846 he visited Egypt and t…

Mandates

(16,261 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M.
The mandate (Arabic intidāb ; Turkish manda , from the French) was essentially a systemoftrusteeship, instituted by the League of Nations after the end of the First World War, for the ¶ administration of certain territories detached from the vanquished states, chiefly the Ottoman and German Empires. The concept of the mandate has been variously understood as either a new world order or, contrariwise, merely as a façade for neo-colonialism, with other interpretations ranging between these two extremes. Essentially, the option …

Pan-Arabism

(2,294 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M.
, an ideology advocating an overall union of Arabs ( waḥdat al-ʿArab , al-waḥda al-ʿArabiyya ). Ideologues of Pan-Arabism have consistently recommended such union on the basis of several elements of commonality: (a) Language and culture, considered the ultimate expression of the entire Arab nation and one of its major links with the ¶ past (including the Islamic past; many Arabs have expressed their nationalism in Islamic terms), (b) History, preoccupation with which afforded immersion in a common past glory differing from the 20th century situati…

Menderes

(1,734 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M.
, Adnan (1899-1961), Turkish statesman. Born and educated in Izmir, he studied at the Ankara University Faculty of Law, following service in the First World War and Turkey’s War of Independence. His political activity commenced upon his joining Ali Fethi Okyar’s Free Party in 1930, when he became this party’s chairman in Aydın. When the party was closed down, he joined the People’s Party (later called Republican People’s Party, RPP) and was elected repeatedly to the Grand Na…

Taʾmīm

(976 words)

Author(s): Landau, J.M.
(a., Pers. millī , kardan , Tkish. devletleştirme ), all neologisms for nationalisation (in Turkish, probably with Verstaatlichung in mind), i.e. the state’s assumption of control or ownership of natural resources, services or economic enterprises, from private individuals or corporations. The explicit or implicit reasoning offered is that nationalisation conforms with social advancement and the public good. The term was employed in 19th-century Europe, together with the political and socio…
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