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Tilenus

(150 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[English Version] Tilenus, Daniel (4.2.1563 Goldberg, Schlesien – 1.8.1633 Paris), ref. Theologe, wurde nach Studien in Deutschland 1602 zum Prof. der Theol. an die Akademie von Sedan berufen. In der Auseinandersetzung mit P. Du Moulin über das Verständnis der unio hypostatica warf er diesem vor, die Ubiquität zu vertreten. Im Vorfeld der Dordrechter Synode verteidigte T. die Position der Remonstranten gegen J. Camero und verlor daraufhin 1618 seine Professur. Gegen die Presbyterianer hob er den We…

Pajon

(160 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[English Version] Pajon, Claude (1626 Romorantin, De´partement Loir-et Cher – 27.9.1685 Carre´ bei Orle´ans), wurde nach dem Theologiestudium in Saumur 1650 Pastor in Marchenoir und nach 1666 Theologieprof. in Saumur. Als Schüler von M. Amyraut und J. Camero vertrat er deren Auffassungen in der Gnaden- und Prädestinationslehre und suchte der Lehrverurteilung durch die Übernahme eines Pfarramts in Orle´ans 1668 zu entkommen. P. hat sich frühaufklärerischer Mittel bedient, um die ref. Lehre – teilwei…

Valesius

(88 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[English Version] Valesius, Heinrich (Henri de Valois; 10.9.1603 Paris – 7.5.1676 ebd.), Philologe, war nach dem Jurastudium in Bourges 1622–1624 als Parlamentsadvokat in Paris tätig, widmete sich aber seit 1630 philol. Arbeiten. 1634 erschien eine erste Edition griech. Kirchenväter, seit 1650 arbeitete er im Auftrag des franz. Episkopats an der Edition der griech. Kirchenhistoriker (Eusebius von Caesarea, 1659; Sokrates und Sozomenus, 1668; Theodoret von Cyrus und Evagrius Ponticus, 1673). Christoph Strohm Bibliography A.de Valois, De vita Henrici Valesii histori…

Vossius

(150 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[English Version] Vossius, Gerardus Joannis (März/April 1577 Heidelberg – 17.3.1649 Amsterdam), Philologe und ref. Theologe, wurde nach Studium der Philos. und Theol. in Leiden 1600 Rektor der Lateinschule in Dordrecht und 1615 mit Hilfe seines Freundes H. Grotius Regens des theol. Staaten-Kollegiums in Leiden. Wegen seiner Kontakte zu den Remonstranten (Remonstration) verlor er 1619 dieses Amt, erhielt dann aber 1622 die neugeschaffene Professur für Eloquenz und Gesch. in Leiden und 1631 die Profes…

Sibel

(72 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[English Version] Sibel, Kaspar (9.6.1590 Gut Bardt bei Elberfeld – 1.1.1658 Deventer), ref. Theologe, wurde nach dem Studium in Herborn, Siegen und Leiden 1609 Pfarrer in Randerath (Jülich) und 1617 in Deventer. Als Teilnehmer der Dordrechter Synode 1618/19 vertrat S., der auch an der niederländischen NT-Übers. mitgearbeitet hat, eine gemäßigte Orthodoxie (: II.,2., b). Christoph Strohm Bibliography J. Reitsma, Geschiedenis van de Hervorming en de Hervormde kerk der Nederlanden, 51949.

Placeus

(165 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[English Version] (de la Place), Josue´ (1596 Saumur – 1655/56 ebd.), wurde nach dem Studium der Theol. in Saumur bei J. Camero 1621 Prof. für Philos. und Gesch. ebd., 1625 Pfarrer in Nantes und 1633 Prof. für Theol. wiederum in Saumur. Mit den befreundeten M. Amyraut und L. Cappellus milderte er den strengen Calvinismus durch die Hervorhebung ethischer und allgemeinmenschlicher Aspekte, so z.B. in der Modifikation der Lehre von der Erbsünde. Mit Berufung auf Calvin und aus Interesse an der moralisch…

Scholten

(134 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[English Version] Scholten,  Johann Heinrich (17.8.1811 Vleuten bei Utrecht – 10.4.1885 Leiden), 1837 Prediger in Meerkerk, 1840 Prof. in Franeker, 1843 a.o. Prof. und 1845 o. Prof. für NT und Dogmatik in Leiden, seit 1877 für Religionsphilos. Sch. hat unter dem Einfluß der Tübinger Schule (Tübingen: I.) einschlägige Werke zur Gesch. der urchristl. Lit. vf. und dabei hist.-krit. Zugänge apologetischen Zwecken dienstbar gemacht. Bedeutsamer für die »moderne« Richtung der niederländischen Theol. sind…

Vorstius

(142 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[English Version] (Vorst), Konrad (19.7.1569 Köln – 29.9.1622 Tönning), arminianischer Theologe, studierte 1589–1593 in Herborn bei J. Piscator, 1593–1594 in Heidelberg sowie in Basel und Genf und wurde 1596 Prof. der Theol. am Gymnasium Illustre in Steinfurt, 1611 in Leiden. Schon früh des Sozinianismus beschuldigt, wurde er 1619 durch die Dordrechter Synode verurteilt und aus den Niederlanden ausgewiesen. Mit anderen Remonstranten (Remonstration) fand er zuletzt Zuflucht in Holstein. Neben mehrer…

Wolzogen, Ludovicus

(121 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (1633, Amersfoort – Nov 13, 1690, Amsterdam), Reformed theologian. After studying at Utrecht, Groningen, and Geneva, he became pastor of the Walloon congregation in Groningen in 1658 and Middelburg in 1662; in 1664 he was also appointed pastor and professor of church history in Utrecht and in 1670 in Amsterdam. He opposed Spinozism (B. Spinoza), but as a supporter of Cartesianism he was himself exposed to constant charges of deficient orthodoxy by the adherents of G. Voetius. Christoph Strohm Bibliography Works include: De scripturarum interprete contra exercit…

Trelcatius

(173 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] 1. Lucas the Elder (1542, Erin, near Douai – Aug 28, 1602, Leiden), Reformed theologian. After studying at Paris and stays in London, Lille, Brussels, and Antwerp, in 1585 he was appointed pastor of the French congregation in Leiden; in 1587 he was also appointed professor of theology at the University of Leiden. Christoph Strohm Bibliography Works: see 2 below. On Trelcatius: A. Eekhof, De theologische faculteit te Leiden in de 17de eeuw, 1921 (Dutch) H.L. Clotz, Hochschule für Holland. Die Universität Leiden im Spannungsfeld zwischen Provinz, Stadt und K…

Scholten, Johannes Henricus

(153 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Aug 17, 1811, Vleuten, near Utrecht – Apr 10, 1885, Leiden), preacher in Meerkerk in 1840, professor in Franeker in 1840, associate professor of New Testament and dogmatics in Leiden in 1843, promoted to full professor in 1845; from 1877 professor of the philosophy of religion. Influenced by the Tübingen (I) school, Scholten wrote topical studies on the history of early Christian literature, putting historical-critical insights to use for apologetic purposes. More important for t…

Mestrezat, Jean

(178 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (1592, Geneva – May 2, 1657, Paris), became pastor of the Reformed congregation in Paris after studying at the Huguenot Academy of Saumur and was president of the national synod at Charenton in 1631. His ability to formulate knowledgeable as well as reasonable argumentation on issues of controversial theology, which he amply demonstrated in debates and in publications, made him one of the main pillars of French Protestantism in the first half of the 17th century (Controversial the…

Perrot, Charles

(181 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (1541 – Oct 15, 1608, Geneva), son of a Paris conseiller du Parlement, Perrot probably studied law at Bourges; in 1564 he studied theology at Geneva. He served as pastor in Moens (Ain) and Genthod until 1567, when he moved to Geneva. From 1570 to 1572 and from 1588 to 1592, he was rector of the Geneva Academy and frequently substituted for T. Beza as teacher of theology; in 1598 he was appointed professor of theology. Irenically inclined, his demand for toleration and especially for abolishing the mandatory signing of the Formula confessionis fidei by the students drew cr…

Reina, Cassiodoro de

(105 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (c. 1520, Seville [?] – Mar 15, 1594, Frankfurt am Main). On account of his Protestant views, in 1557 he fled from Spain to the Netherlands, England, and finally Frankfurt am Main. From 1559 to 1563 he served as pastor to the Spanish Protestant community in London and from 1578 to 1585 as pastor to the Lutheran community in Antwerp. Later he spent most of his time in Frankfurt. His most important work, a Spanish translation of the Bible, was published in Basel in 1569. Christoph Strohm Bibliography A.G. Kinder, Cassiodoro de Reina: Spanish Reformer of the 16th Century, 1975

Chamier, Daniel

(141 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (1565, in the Dauphiné – Oct 17, 1621, Montauban) studied theology in Geneva (1583–1589) and, after serving as pastor in various congregations, he became his father's successor in Montélimar (c. 1595). In the negotiations about the promulgation of the Edict of Nantes (France, Huguenots), Chamier took a hard line and soon played a prominent role ¶ at several synods in France. In 1603, he became chair of the national synod in Gap, which added an article to the creed that described the pope as the Antichrist prophesied in th…

Orangeois

(162 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] In the southern French principality of Orange, which by inheritance had come to belong to the house of Nassau-Orange, the Reformation had taken an early hold. Orange, however, lost its sovereignty in the War of the Spanish Succession, and in 1703 Louis XIV issued a decree banning the Reformed church there. Those exiled for their faith, called Orangeois, mostly settled in Brandenburg-Prussia (Burg, Halberstadt, Magdeburg and Halle), after a temporary stay in Geneva or elsewhere in …

Groningen, University of

(341 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] The Rijksuniversiteit Groningen was established by the provinces on Nov 26, 1612 as the third university in the northern Netherlands following Leiden (1575) and Franeker (1585) and was opened on Aug 23, 1614 in a former monastery. It included chairs for theology, law, medicine, philosophy, history and mathematics. The first rector was the Calvinist East-Frisian historian, Ubo Emmius (1547– 1625). Through many foreign students and outstanding scholars, the university gained a lofty…

Pajon, Claude

(164 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (1626, Romorantin, Département Loir-et-Cher – Sep 27, 1685, Carré, near Orléans). After studying theology at Saumur, Pajon was appointed pastor in Marchenoir in 1650; in 1666 he became professor of theology at Saumur. A pupil of M. Amyraut and J. Cameron, he supported their views concerning the doctrine of predestination and grace; he sought to escape condemnation by taking a pastorate in Orléans in 1668. Pajon made use of early Enlightenment tools to elucidate Reformed doctrine, …

Dohnanyi, Hans von

(196 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Jan 1, 1902, Vienna – Apr 9/17, 1945, Sachsenhausen). The jurist Hans v. Dohnanyi's almost uninterrupted career at the Reich Ministry of Justice began in 1929. From 1934 to 1938, he served as head of its Bureau of Ministry. In this position of trust, he was able to furnish the Confessing Church with important information about the church policies of the National Socialists …

Haemstede, Adriaen Cornelisz van

(161 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (c. 1525, Zierikzee/Zeeland [?] – c. 1562, Emden) studied law in Leuven, was ordained priest in 1552, and assumed leadership of the Reformed congregation in Antwerp in dangerous circumstances in 1556. Having sojourned in Aachen and Emden, Haemstede pastored the expatriate Dutch congregation in London from 1559. Here, he was excommunicated by archbishop Grindal in 1560 because of his tolerant attitude toward the Anabaptists. Finally expelled from England in 1562, he again worked in…

Salmasius, Claudius

(276 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Claude de Saumaise; Apr 15, 1588, Semur-en-Auxois, Burgundy – Sep 3, 1653, Spa), philologist and jurisprudent. Salmasius studied with I. Casaubonus in Paris and Dionysius Gothofredus (1549–1622) in Heidelberg. He quickly began publishing annotated editions and works on the history of the Early Church, rejected the papal claim of primacy, and disputed critically with the Jesuits. Since his Calvinist beliefs appeared to rule out his planned career as a civil servant in Dijon, he de…

Sibel, Kaspar

(84 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Jun 9, 1590, Gut Bardt, near Elberfeld – Jan 1, 1658, Deventer), Reformed theologian. After studying in Herborn, Siegen, and Leiden, in 1609 he was appointed pastor in Randerath (Jülich) and in 1617 in Deventer. As a participant in the Synod of Dort in 1618/1619, Sibel advocated moderate orthodoxy (II, 2.b). He also assisted in the Dutch translation of the New Testament. Christoph Strohm Bibliography J. Reitsma, Geschiedenis van de hervorming en de hervormde kerk der Nederlanden, 1899, 51949 (Dutch).

Claude, Jean

(139 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (1619, La-Sauvetat-du-Dropt – Jan 13, 1687, The Hague). After studying at Montauban, Claude became a pastor in St. Affrique and, from 1654, in Nîmes. In 1661, he was forbidden to preach after plans to reunify the Protestants with the Catholic Church were rejected by a provincial synod over which he presided; in 1662, he became pastor and professor in Montauban, and in 1666 pastor in Charenton, near Paris. Following the revocation of the Edict of …

Ruchat, Abraham

(168 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Sep 15, 1678, Vevey, Vaud – Sep 28, 1750, Lausanne). After studies in Bern, Berlin, and Leiden, Ruchat was appointed pastor in Aubonne in 1709, then in Rolle in 1716. In 1721 he was appointed professor of literature and in 1733 professor of theology in Lausanne. In 1727/1728 he published a Histoire de la réformation de la Suisse (6 vols., covering 1516–1536). His life work, an Histoire générale de la Suisse (to 1516), was never published. His works, based on meticulous archival research but still written with an apologetic aim, made him the father …

Franeker

(328 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] Franeker, principal town in the district of Franekeradeel in the Dutch province of Friesland. In 1585, the governor of Friesland, Count William Louis of Nassau, founded the second university in the northern Netherlands (after Leiden, 1575) with faculties of theology, law, the arts, and (from 1589) medicine. As a result of the attendance of numerous students from western Germany, Hungary, and the Scandinavian countries, the university attained European stature during the 17th centu…

Quesnel, Pasquier (Paschasius)

(329 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Jul 14, 1634, Paris – Dec 2, 1719, Amsterdam). After studying theology, Quesnel joined the Oratorians in 1657. Ordained to the priesthood in 1659, he became director of the order’s school in Paris. His early Réflexions morales sur le Nouveau Testament (1668; ET: The New Testament, with Moral Reflections upon Every Verse, 1719–1725), a major work that appeared in various editions and was also widely read in Germany, already showed his Jansenist leanings (Jansenism) and aroused much hostility. His defense of Gallican liberties (Gal…

Vossius, Gerardus Joannis

(170 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Mar/Apr 1577, Heidelberg – Mar 17, 1649, Amsterdam), philologist and Reformed theologian. After studying philosophy and theology at Leiden, he was appointed rector of the Latin ¶ school in Dordrecht in 1600; in 1615, with the help of his friend H. Grotius, he was appointed dean of the theological college in Leiden. He lost that position in 1619 on account of his contacts with the Remonstrants (Remonstration), but in 1622 he was installed in the newly created chair of rhetoric and history at Leiden. In 1631…

Maccovius, Johannes

(172 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Makowski; 1588, Lobzenic, Poland – Jun 24, 1644, Franeker, the Netherlands) attended secondary school in Danzig and studied in various places including Heidelberg. In 1614 in Franeker he became a doctor of theology, and already in 1615 was appointed there to the post of professor of theology and physics. By his Aristotelian teaching he made a significant contribution to the development of Reformed orthodoxy (II, 2.b). His supralapsarian teaching on predestination (Predestination:…

Rabaut, Paul

(313 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Jan 29, 1718, Bédarieux, Département Hérault – Sep 25, 1794, Nîmes). At an early age, he joined with Jean Bétrine (1718–1756) and for four years shared with him the dangerous life of an itinerant preacher of the “church in the desert.” In 1738 he was formally admitted as a preacher in Nîmes; in 1740/1741 he studied with A. Court for six months at the theological seminary in Lausanne. During the following 40 years of his ministry as a pastor of the persecuted Reformed Church in Fr…

Junius, Franciscus, the Elder

(217 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (du Jon; May 1, 1545, Bourges – Oct 13, 1602, Leiden). After studying law in Bourges and theology in Geneva with T. Beza, Junius became the French preacher in Antwerp in 1565 and in the Electoral Palatinate in 1567. There, from 1573 onward, he collaborated with I. Tremellius on a Latin translation of the Old Testament. In 1576, he became professor of theology in Neustadt an der Haardt, in ¶ 1584 in Heidelberg and in 1592 in Leiden. With his Eirenicum de pace ecclesiae catholicae (first in Fr., 1593), written for Henry IV of France, which proposed a Gallican model…

Marsay, Charles Hector de

(178 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (1688, Paris – Feb 2, 1753, Ampleben, near Wolfenbüttel). Influenced by the writings of the quietist mystic A. Bourignon, Marsay, of a noble Huguenot family, left military service in 1711 to retire from the world and lead a contemplative life with the colony of exiles on the property of the countess of Wittgenstein at Schwarzenau, near Berleburg. After 1712 Marsay, in a spiritual marriage with Clara Elisabeth v. Callenberg, lived an unsettled life in various places as a spiritual …

Lubbertus, Sibrandus

(160 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (c. 1555 Langwarden, Butjadingen, Lower Saxony – Jan 10, 1625, Franeker, The Netherlands). After studying at Wittenberg, Geneva, Marburg, and Neustadt an der Haardt and a brief ministry in Emden from 1582 to 1584, Lubbertus was appointed the first professor of theology at the newly founded university of Franeker. After receiving his Dr.theol. from Heidelberg in 1587, he wrote numerous works to secure the heritage of the Reformation against the Socinians ( De Jesu Christo servatore, 1611), the Remonstrants (Arminians), and especially Catholic theologians …

Leiden, University

(559 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] Wishing that the formation of pastors and jurists should not be left to the Catholic University of Leuven, William of Orange founded the first university of the northern Netherlands in Leiden in 1575. In addition to the theological and juridical fields of study, departments of philosophy and literature as well as medicine were also planned. From the very beginning, the university was characterized by a strong orientation to Humanism (III) and Calvinism. The Humanist philologists J…

Charron, Pierre

(253 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (1541, Paris – Nov 16, 1603, Paris). After studying law, Charron became an advocate in Paris in 1571; soon, however, he entered the clergy and became a successful preacher in southern France, in part as court preacher to Queen Marguerite of Angoulême, and was a canon at Bordeaux. His Des trois vérités (1594), which led the bishop of Cahors to appoint him vicar-general, is an apology for the existence of God against atheists, for the Christian religion against Muslims and Jews, and for the Roman Catholic Church…

Lausanne, University

(555 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] A year after the annexation of Vaud in 1536, the Bernese council established an academy in Lausanne, whose primary purpose was the training of Reformed clergy for the Francophone territories under Bernese rule. Until the Academy of Geneva (II) was founded in 1559, Lausanne was the only school of Protestant theology in the Francophone region, in which theology was taught along with the propaedeutic philosophical and humanistic subjects. At the outset, P. Viret taught theology and K…

Spanheim

(560 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] 1. Friedrich, the Elder ( Jan 1, 1600, Amberg – May 14, 1649, Leiden), Reformed theologian. He was appointed professor of theology in Geneva in 1626 and professor of theology in 1631; from 1633 to 1637 he served as rector of the university. He was appointed professor of theology in Leiden in 1642 and in 1648 he became pastor of the Walloon congregation there. He was a champion of strict Reformed orthodoxy as defined by the Synod of Dort, rejecting such theological positions as M. Amyraut’s doctrine of grace. Christoph Strohm Bibliography C. Borgeaud, Histoire de l’univers…

Sedan

(225 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] In the Middle Ages, this city in the Ardennes was in the borderland between the French kingdom and the German Empire; in the late 16th century, it became an important haven for persecuted Protestants. In 1601 the sovereign Henri de la Tour elevated a school founded in 1579 to the status of a Reformed academy, with faculties of philosophy, theology, and law. After sovereignty passed to Louis XIII in 1642, its work was increasingly hampered in the 1670s; a decree of Louis XIV shut i…

Le Maistre Family

(187 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] The three Le Maistre brothers were Jansenist theologians (Jansenism). The oldest, Antoine (May 2, 1608, Paris – Nov 4, 1658, Port Royal), was a successful lawyer in Paris and came under the influence of J. Duvergier de Hauranne, one of the first hermits in Port-Royal Abbey. Known for his piety, Antoine wrote apologies and, among other writings, also a biography of Bernard of Clairvaux. He began a Bible translation that was continued by the youngest brother, Isaac Louis (Mar 29, 1613, Paris – Jan 4, 1684, Pomponne; called Le Maistre de Sacy), who was the mo…

Witsius, Herman

(142 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Wits; Feb 12, 1636, Enkhuizen – Oct 22, 1708, Leiden), Reformed theologian. After studying at Utrecht and Groningen, he served as pastor in Westwoud, Wormer, Goes, and Leeuwarden from 1657 to 1675, then as professor of theology at Frankener (1675–1680), Utrecht (1680–1698), and Leiden (1698–1707). Influenced by G. Voetius, he developed a federal theology, more biblically oriented than that of J. Cocceius. Witsius opposed Cartesianism as well as the separatist followers of J. de L…

Valesius, Henricus

(104 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Henri de Valois; Sep 10, 1603, Paris – May 7, 1676, Paris), philologist. After studying law in Bourges from 1622 to 1624, he worked as a parliamentary lawyer in Paris, but from 1630 on he devoted himself to classical philology. In 1634 he published a first edition of several Greek church fathers. In 1650 he was commissioned by the French episcopate to work on an edition of the Greek church historians (Eusebius of Caesarea, 1659; Socrates Scholasticus and Sozomen, 1668; Theodoret of Cyrrhus and Evagrius Ponticus, 1673). Christoph Strohm Bibliography A. de Valois, De vita …

Place, Josué de la

(172 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Placeus; 1596, Saumur – 1655/ 1656, Saumur). After theological studies under J. Cameron in Saumur, Place became professor of philosophy and history in Saumur in 1621, pastor in Nantes in 1625, and professor of theology in Saumur in 1633. Along with his friends M. Amyraut and L. Cappellus, he moderated strict Calvinism by emphasizing ethical and general human aspects, for example, in modifying the doctrine of original sin. With reference to Calvin, and on account of his interest i…

Cloppenburch, Johannes

(153 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Cloppenburg; May 13, 1592, Amsterdam – Jul 30, 1652, Franeker) studied theology in Leiden under F. Gomarus and Johannes Polyander, as well as at several foreign universities, notably in Heidelberg, Basel and Geneva. He became pastor in Heusden (1618), Amsterdam (1621) and Brielle (1629). In 1640, he was appointed professor of theology in Harderwijk and, in 1643, in Franeker. The literary oeuvre of this staunch Calvinist is dominated by disputes with Mennonites, Arminians and Socinians. His Disputationes de foedere Dei et testamento veteri et novo (1643) prepared…

Saurin, Jacques

(162 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Jan 6, 1677, Nîmes – Dec 30, 1730, The Hague), Reformed preacher and theologian. After fleeing from France in 1686 following the revocation of the Edict of Nantes (Huguenots: I, 1) and studying in Geneva, he became a pastor of refugee congregations in London, then after 1705 in The Hague. He gained a reputation as an outstanding preacher and used it in support of persecuted coreligionists. Moderately orthodox and totally averse to polemic, his biblical interpretations were primarily in the service of apologetic and ethical goals. Christoph Strohm Bibliography Works i…

Geuzen

(247 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Fr. gueux, “beggar”), originally a taunt, soon the self-designation of Dutch aristocracy who opposed Spanish domination and Catholic persecutions of believers in the last third of the 16th century. The designation probably originated when one of the advisers of the Governor General, Margareta of Parma, upon being presented with a petition concerning, inter alia, the abolition of the Inquisition on Apr 5, 1566, cried out: “Voilà des beaux gueux.” The aristocracy and soon also other champions of freedom adopted this designation as ho…

Du Moulin, Pierre

(158 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Molinaeus; Oct 16 or 18, 1568, Castle Buhy en Vexin – Mar 10, 1658, Sedan) studied at the Protestant academy in Sedan; became a tutor in England in 1588; was professor of Greek language and philosophy in Leiden, 1592–1598; and pastored the Reformed congregation in Charenton near Paris, 1599–1620. From 1621 until his death, he was preacher and …

Nijmegen, University of

(254 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange, took the city in 1591. In the 17th century, it was already home to a Latin school and a Calvinist academy, founded in 1655, at which noted theologians like C. Wittig and J. Braun taught. In 1679 the chaos of war forced the academy to close. Attempts to reestablish it in the 18th century failed. Not until 1923, after almost 20 years of efforts on the part of the Sankt Radboud Foundation, was the Catholic University of Nijmegen founded as a count…

Cameron, John

(283 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (1579, Glasgow – Nov 27, 1625, Montauban) went to France around 1600 and was initially active as a teacher in the vicinity of Humaniora. After studying in Paris, Geneva, and Heidelberg, he became pastor in Bordeaux in 1608, professor of theology at the Protestant academy in Saumur in 1618 and in Montauban in 1624. In the disputes with the Arminians, Cameron defended the Calvinist doctrine of predestination, but modified it by emphasizing …

Sartorius, Jakob

(84 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Schröder; c. 1560, Schönfließ, Brandenburg – 1626, Großen-Englis, Hesse), Reformed theologian. Pastor in Rietberg since 1585, he was expelled by Paderborn Jesuits in 1607 and later became pastor in Ropperhausen (Hesse). His 1606 Brennende Fackel attacking the Jesuits has not survived. His Kurzer, doch gründlicher Bericht, published in 1612, describes his shift from Lutheranism to Calvinism, although he is at pains to point out what they have in common. Christoph Strohm Bibliography F. Flaskamp, “Jakob Sartorius,” AKuG 45, 1963, 313–333.

Goulart, Simon

(165 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Oct 20, 1543, Senlis, Picardy – Feb 3, 1628, Geneva). After studying law and converting to Protestantism, Goulart moved to Geneva in 1566 and became pastor in the nearby municipalities of Chancy and Cartigny. In 1571, he assumed the pastorate in Genève-St. Gervais. Apart from brief pastoral activities in French congregations, he officiated there until the end of his life. After the death of T. Beza in 1605, he chaired the Vénérable Compagnie des pasteurs for seven years. Goulart was less an inventive thinker than an editor, translator and collector. Hi…

Braun, Johannes

(136 words)

Author(s): Strohm, Christoph
[German Version] (Braunius; 1628, Kaiserslautern – 1708, Groningen) studied under J. Cocceius in Leiden. After preaching in Zeeland, Delft, and, from 1661, in Nijmegen, Braun became professor there in 1665 and professor of theology and Hebrew in Groningen in 1680. The further development of Cocceius's federal theology by incorporating Cartesian philosophy brought him into conflict with his colleague Johannes à Marck, who accused him, among other things, of Sabellianism (Sabellius/Sabellians). In the work La véritable religion des Hollandois (1675) Braun defended …
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