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(260 words)

Author(s): Yapp, M.E.
( Helmand ), name of a river (the Etymandrus of Arrian, the Erymanthus of Polybius, the Haētūmat of the Avesta, the Hid̲h̲mand of the Ḥudūd al-ʿālam ) which, with its five great tributaries (K̲h̲ūd Rūd, Tirīn, Arg̲h̲andāb, Tarnak, Arg̲h̲asān) drains all south-west Afg̲h̲ānistān (see map at i, 222 above). Rising in a valley at the convergence of the Kūh-i Bābā and Sangak̲h̲ ranges, the river flows in a southwesterly direction through Hazārad̲j̲āt and Dihrāwat to K̲h̲wād̲j̲a ʿAlī, where it turns westward, and finally north, to lose itself in the lakes of Sīstān. It is na…


(51,612 words)

Author(s): Ed. | W. Madelung | Rahman, Munibur | Landau, J. M. | Yapp, M.E. | Et al.
(a.), a noun of place from the verb d̲j̲alasa “to sit down” and, by extension, “to sit”, ¶ “to hold a session”; starting from the original meaning of “a place where one sits down, where one stays”, thence “a seat” (J. Sadan, Le mobilier au Proche-Orient médiéval , Leiden 1976, index), the semantic field of mad̲j̲lis is of very wide extent (see the dictionaries of Lane, Dozy, Blachère, etc.). Among the principal derivative meanings are “a meeting place”, “meeting, assembly” (cf. Ḳurʾān, LXVIII, 12/11), “a reception hall (of a ca…

Amān Allāh

(1,109 words)

Author(s): Yapp, M. E.
, Amīr of Afg̲h̲ānistan and the successor and third son of Habīb Allāh [ q.v.] by his chief wife, ʿUlyā Ḥaḍrat (d. 1965). He was born on 2 June 1892 in Pag̲h̲mān and educated at the Military Academy. Intelligent, energetic and hardworking, he was attracted to the nationalist and Islamic modernist ideas of Maḥmūd Ṭarzī (1866-1935), the editor of Sirād̲j̲ al-ak̲h̲bār , and in 1914 married Ṭarzī’s daughter, Soraya (T̲h̲urayyā) (d. 21 April 1968). At the time of his father’s murder on 20 February 1919, Amān Allāh, as Governor of Kābul, c…

Muḥammad Dāwūd K̲h̲ān

(586 words)

Author(s): Yapp, M.E.
(1909-78) first president of Afg̲h̲ānistān. His father was Sardār Muḥammad ʿAzīz, the half-brother of Muḥammad Nādir S̲h̲āh. Dāwūd was educated at Amāniyya School, Kābul, and in France. In 1931 he entered the army, was created major-general in 1932 and from then until 1947 held various military commands and provincial governorships. In 1947 he became minister of defence in the government of his uncle, S̲h̲āh Maḥmūd, resigned and returned as minister of the interior, 1949-50. From 20 September 1953 un…
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