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Theoxene

(101 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Θεοξένη; Theoxénē) from the Ptolemaic royal house married c. 295 BC Agathocles [2], who sent her and her two sons ( parvuli, Just. Epit. 23,2,6-8) with her dowry back to Egypt shortly before his death in 289. The political purpose of the marriage is unclear. Because of her dowry ( regale instrumentum) T. is considered to be the daughter of Ptolemaeus [1] I and Eurydice [4], but she may have been the daughter of Berenice [1] and the sister of Magas [2] and hence his step-daughter. PP VI 14511. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography W. Huß, Ägypten in hellenistischer Zeit, 20…

Magas

(587 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Μάγας; Mágas). [German version] [1] Father of Berenice Father of Berenice [1]. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography Geyer, s.v. M., RE 14, 292f. [German version] [2] Administrator of Cyrenaea, 3rd cent. BC M. was born no later than 320 BC as the son of Philippus and Berenice [1], perhaps the brother of Theoxene (PP VI 14511), who married Agathocles [2] after 300 (there was no adoption by Ptolemy I: SEG 18, 743; on a house belonging to him in Alexandria cf. [1. 287]). M. reconquered the seceded Cyrene for Ptolemaeus I shortly …

Galestes

(100 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Γαλέστης; Galéstēs). Son of the Athamanian king  Amynander, fled to Pydna to Ptolemy VI, whose phílos (φίλος) he became. In 150 BC G. led an expeditionary corps against Demetrius [7] I, and in 145 against Alexander [13] Balas. In 144 Ptolemy VIII took his dōreaí (δωρεαί, ‘benefices’; i.a. in Herakleopolites) away from him; G. fled to Hellas and gathered exiles; he died in an attempt to return to Alexandria and enthrone an alleged son of Ptolemy VI. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography W. Schäfer, PKöln V 223/4 L. Criscuolo, L'archivo di Philô (PKöln V 222-225), in…

Philopator

(139 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Φιλοπάτωρ/ Philopátōr, literally 'father lover'). Cultic epithet of Hellenistic rulers, first borne by Ptolemaeus IV, then by his wife Arsinoe [II 4] III  ( theoì philopátores). The epithet P. was also used outside the Ptolemaic dynasty (e.g. Mithridates [4] IV, Ariarathes V, Demetrius [9] III, Antiochus [13] XII). It describes somebody his father designated as his successor during his lifetime. Co-regency could, but did not have to, be connected with the title. The Egyptian background, which the title …

Thraseas

(148 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Θρασέας/ Thraséas). Son of Aëtus [1], father of Ptolemaeus [29] and Apollonius (187-175 probably his brother's successor as Seleucidian governor, cf. 2 Macc 3:5), citizen of Aspendus, Alexandria [1] and Athens (after 224; T. is honoured for obtaining copious gifts [1. 46 f. no. 17 E]); like his father strategos of Cilicia under Ptolemaeus [6] III (after 238), strategos of Syria and Phoenicia under Ptolemaeus [7] IV (between 217 and 204). His homonymous son (PP VI 14977) worked as a high official from Cyprus and hosted Delphic theōroí (Theoria) in Tamassus [4. 12328]…

Tryphe

(133 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (τρυφή; tryph ). A specifically Ptolemaic ruler ideal (cf. the epithet Trýphōn, Trýphaina), arising out of the cult of the victorious Dionysus and his celebrations. Thryphe meant rule providing splendour and brilliance, wealth and fortune. Since it also included the fertility of the land, it could be linked to perceptions of the activities of the pharaoh. On the other hand, as a Greek term for luxus with negative connotations, thryphe was connected, e.g. under the influence of Stoicism, with (particularly 'oriental') softness and effeminacy (Latin luxuria, effemi…

Nesysti

(222 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] [1] N. I High priest of Ptah, at the turn of the 4th to the 3rd cent. BC Also called Anemher I. Father of N. [2] II, high priest of Ptah (Phthas) in Memphis at the turn of the 4th to the 3rd cent. BC. PP III/IX 5365. Ameling, Walter (Jena) [German version] [2] N. II High priest of Ptah, 1st half of the 3rd cent. BC Also called Petobastis I, high priest of Ptah in Memphis in the 1st half of the 3rd cent. BC, in addition prophet  of Arsinoë [II 3] II and prophet of Philotera; son of N. [1] I, father of Anemher [2] II, ancestor of Petobastis III. PP III/IX 5361; 5362; 5364 (cf. [1]). Ame…

Amenothes

(28 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] Son of Horus, c. 170-116 BC, παρασχίστης ( paraschístēs) and ‘capo ritualista’ in the necropolis of Djem. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography P. W. Pestman, L'archivio di Amenothes, 1981.

Peteharsemtheus

(102 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] Egyptian, born in c. 139 BC, owner of a family archive stretching back over five generations. The family is an example of the occasional integration of Greeks into Egyptian families. Several brothers of P. served in the army, as did members of earlier generations; P. himself appears to have managed the family's affairs; documents concerning him come from the years 114-88 BC. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography P.W. Pestman, in: Papyrologica Lugduno-Batava 14, 1965, 47ff.  N. Lewis, Greeks in Ptolemaic Egypt, 1986, 139ff.  J. Bingen, Vente de terre par Pétéharsem…

Crocus, [1]

(42 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Κρόκος). Stratēgós ( autokrátōr;  Lochos) of Cyprus during the Egyptian civil war 131-124/3 BC. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography R. Bagnall, The Administration of the Ptolemaic Possessions outside Egypt, 1976, 259 L. Mooren, The Aulic Titulature in Ptolemaic Egypt, 1975, 191f. no. 0354.

Lochus

(181 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] Son of Callimedes; syngenḗs of Ptolemy VIII and Cleopatra [II 6] III. in 127 BC ( Court titles B. 2.). L. acted as a benefactor for Roman merchants in the conquest of Alexandria by Ptolemy (IDélos 1526; cf. IDélos 1536?) and was perhaps even the commanding general on this occasion (then in Diod. Sic. 34/5,20 L. should likewise be read instead of Hegelochus [2]). Between 128/7 and 118 L. was the stratēgòs autokrátōr (‘Commander in chief’) of the Thebaid, an office that cannot have differed very greatly from that of epistrátēgos (UPZ II 187; [1. 19]; [2. 51f.]); between …

Sibling Marriage

(189 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] There had been sibling marriage among the pharaohs in Egypt since ancient times, albeit not between full siblings; it was an imitation of marriage between gods. Outside the royal house marriage between half-siblings was unusual. Marriage between full siblings was later practiced by a number of Ptolemies (Ptolemaeus II, IV, VI, VIII, IX, XII, XIII?, XIV). Zeus and Hera, Isis and Osiris were invoked as parallels for their subjects, thus seeking sacred reinforcement so as to reduce f…

Cilles

(45 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Κίλλης; Kíllēs). Macedonian, phílos and stratēgós of Ptolemy I, C. was able to drive Demetrius [2] from Syria after the battle of Gaza in 311 BC but was captured by him and sent back to Ptolemy. PP II/VIII 2164. Ameling, Walter (Jena)

Philotera

(125 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Φιλωτέρα; Philōtérā). Daughter of Ptolemy I and Berenice [1]; the year of her birth is unknown; d. after 276 BC and shortly before her sister Arsinoe [II 3] II. Not long afterwards she received a Greek cult (cf. Callim. fr. 228,40-58) and was probably worshipped with her sister in the Arsinoeion (for their Egyptian cult see Nesysti [2]). Two villages in Arsinoitis, a deme in Ptolemais and towns on the Red Sea, in Lycia and Israel are named after her. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography P. Fraser, Ptolemaic Alexandria, 1972, vol. 1, 668f.; Bd. 2, 373 n. 282; 377 n. 314  G. Webe…

Pasicrates

(234 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Πασικράτης/ Pasikrátēs). [German version] [1] King of Curium on Cyprus Son of Aristocrates, king of the city of Curium on Cyprus who is mentioned, together with other Cyprian kings (SEG 36, 331), on a Nemaean list of thearodochs (Theoria). The text confirms C. H. Dörner's emendation of Arr. Anab. 2,22,2: P. took part with a fleet in the siege of Tyre on the side of Alexander [4] the Great. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography Berve 2, Nr. 609. [German version] [2] King of Soli on Cyprus (P. according to literary sources; Στασικράτης/ Stasikrátēs: SEG 36, 331 A10). King of Soli on Cypr…

Mnasiades

(46 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Μνασιάδης/ Mnasiádēs). Son of Polycratus, from Argos, athlete, eponymous priest of Alexander in 218/7 BC, father of Polycrates (PP II 2172, VI 15065). PP IX 5200b. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography W. Clarysse, G. van der Veken, The Eponymous Priests of Ptolemaic Egypt, 1983, 15.

Ananias

(49 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] Son of Onias IV, brother of Chelcias. 105-101 BC commander of the army of Cleopatra III; is supposed to have dissuaded Cleopatra from annexing Judea as a province. PP 2, 2149; 6, 15173. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography I. Michaelidou-Nicolaou, Prosopography of Ptolemaic Cyprus, 1976, 33 no. 34.

Hacoris

(51 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] Son of Herieus, father of Euphron (Greek for Herieus) (OGIS 94; PKöln 4,186). Commanded troops under Comanus against Anchwennefer in 187 BC, probably as the strategos of Hermopolites or Cynopolites. Appellation of the town of Acoris [1]. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography W. Clarysse, Hakoris, in: AncSoc 22, 1991, 235ff.

Eiras

(46 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Εἰράς; Eirás). Sometimes also called Náeira; lady-in-waiting of Cleopatra VII who in Octavian's propaganda was attributed decisive political influence. E. died together with the queen. PP 6,14720. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography H. Heinen, Onomastisches zu E., Kammerzofe Kleopatras VII, in: ZPE 79, 1989, 243-247.

Motes

(49 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Μότης; Mόtēs). Ptolemaic strategos of Caria 248/7 BC who, together with the oikonómos Diodotus, intervened in the administration of the town of Kalynda (PCZ 59341). Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography R. Bagnall, The Administration of the Ptolemaic Possessions Outside Egypt, 1976, 99f., 216, 245  PP VI 15058.
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