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Harpalus

(332 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Ἅρπαλος; Hárpalos). Son of Machatas, nephew of  Derdas [3] and  Phila from the dynasty of  Elimea (Ath. 13,557c), in his youth a friend of  Alexander [4] the Great and, in 337 BC, banned by  Philippus II together with the others. Physically unfit for active service, he became Alexander's treasurer (Arr. Anab. 3,6,6). At the end of 334, he fled to Megara for reasons unknown, but he was given back his old post by Alexander in the spring of 331. In 330, he remained in  Ecbatana for g…

Langarus

(74 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Λάγγαρος; Lángaros). King of the Agrianes, already a friend of Alexander [4] during the lifetime of Philip II. In 335 BC, L. attacked the Autariatae as Philip's ally to plunder their land and cover Alexander's rear in his campaign against Cleitus [8] and Glaucias [2]. Alexander rewarded him generously and offered him his half-sister Cyn(n)ane as wife, but L. died before the wedding (Arr. Anab. 1,5,1-5). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)

Coenus

(180 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Κοῖνος; Koînos). [German version] [1] Son of Polemocrates, took part in all of Alexander's battles Son of Polemocrates, brother of  Cleander [3], probably from  Elimea, whose platoon of  pezetairoi he commanded; he was granted land by  Philippus II.. In 335/4 BC, C. married a daughter of  Parmenion. C. took part in all of Alexander's [4] battles from Europe to the  Hydaspes and was badly wounded at  Gaugamela. In eastern Iran, C. also acted independently, i.a. in the decisive battle against  Spitamenes. Durin…

Derdas

(184 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Δέρδας; Dérdas). A common name in the royal family of Elimea. [German version] [1] Son of a princess of Elimea, 5th cent. BC Son of  Arrhidaeus [1] and a princess of  Elimea, who in alliance with Philippus, son of  Alexander [2], and with Athenian support, attacked Athens' confederate  Perdiccas (Thuc. 1,57). In a later Athenian treaty with Perdiccas (IG I3 no. 89), he, along with other Macedonian princes, swore the oath (l. 69). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography E. Badian, From Plataea to Potidaea, 1993, 172-4 S. Hornblower, Greek Historiography, 1994, 127-30 HM 2, 18, 122f. …

Pausippus

(43 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Παύσιππος; Paúsippos). Spartan, member of a delegation to Darius [3] that Alexander [4] the Great captured either in 333/2 BC near Damascus (thus Curt. 3,13,15) or in 330 after Darius' death (thus Arr. Anab. 3,24,4). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)

Stasanor

(147 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Στασάνωρ/ Stasánōr). A Greek from Soli, hetairos ( hetaíroi ) of Alexander [4] (Arr. Anab. 3,29,5; Str. 14,6,3). In 329 BC he was entrusted with taking the Satrap of Areia into custody, whom he brought to the king, and with becoming his successor (Arr. Anab. 3,29,5; 4,7,1). In the winter of 328/7, Alexander also conferred Drangiana on him (Arr. Anab. 4,18,3; Curt. 8,3,17). After Alexander's losses in Gedrosia, S. brought him camels and pack animals and then returned to …

Thymondas

(88 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Θυμώνδας; Thymṓndas). Son of Mentor [3], general of Darius [3]; in the summer of 333 BC he took the mercenary army of his dead uncle Memnon [3] to Darius (Arr. An. 2,2,1; Curt. 3,3,1). As commander of Greek mercenaries he took part in the battle of Issus (Curt. 3,9,2) and may have lost his life during the mercenaries' flight to Egypt. (Arr. An. 2,3,1-3). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography J. E. Atkinson, A Commentary on Q. Curtius Rufus Hist. Alexandri Magni, vol. 1, 1980, 206  Berve, Nr. 380.

Cassander

(933 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Κάσσανδρος; Kássandros). Son of  Antipater [1], born before 353 BC (Ath. 1,18a), sent by his father in 324 in his place to  Alexander [4] in Babylon but was mistreated by the king, which caused lifelong hatred (Plut. Alexander 74). The slander spread by the circle around  Olympias that C. and his brother  Iolaus [3] poisoned Alexander is repeated in several sources and also in the  Alexander Romance (however, see Arr. Anab. 7,27; Plut. Alexander 74). After Alexander's death (323) …

Spitamenes

(197 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Σπιταμένης/ Spitaménēs). Prince in Sogdiana, father of Apama [1] (Arr. Anab. 7,4,6), remained loyal to Bessus after the death of Darius [3] until he despaired of him and in 329 BC, in concert with Dataphernes, handed him over to Alexander [4] (thus Aristobulus [7]; Ptolemaeus [1] wrote himself into the action: Arr.  Anab. 3,30). After Alexander's departure S. triggered a partisan war, supported by Bactrian princes and Sacae tribes, who also give him sanctuary. After a temporary oc…

Autophradates

(155 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Αὐτοφραδάτης; Autophradátēs). [German version] [1] Persian naval commander against Philippus II and Alexander the Great Identical or related to the satrap of Lydia at the time of the Satraps' Revolt. As naval commander under  Memmon and then Pharnabazus against  Philippus II and  Alexander [4], he carried out successful actions in the Aegean and supported  Agis [3] both in terms of money and ships. His fleet was disbanded after the battle of  Issus. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 188. [German version] [2] Satrap of a Caspian province; fought at Gauga…

Metron

(62 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Μήτρων; Mḗtrōn). One of the basilikoi paides , responsible for the arsenal of Alexander [4] the Great in 330 BC. He heard of the conspiracy of Dimnus from Cebalinus, and reported it to Alexander (Curt. 6,7; Diod. 17,79,4-5). He is not to be identified with a trierarch of the Hydaspes fleet (Arr. Ind. 18,5). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)

Peucestas

(257 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Πευκέστας; Peukéstas). [German version] [1] Commander of the occupation of Egypt under Alexander the Great Son of Macartatus, he and Balacrus [2] were commanders of the garrison in Egypt under Alexander [4] the Great (Arr. An. 3,5,5, 331 BC). In the  Saqqara necropolis a decree by P. for the protection of a priestly estate has been found. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography E.G. Turner, A Commander-in-Chief's Order from Saqqâra, in: JEA 60, 1974, 239-342. [German version] [2] Trierarch of Alexander the Great's Hydaspes fleet Son of Alexander from Mieza, in 326 BC triera…

Alexander historians

(302 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] Collective name for the ancient authors, who wrote about the history and biography of  Alexander [4] (the Great).  Callisthenes was his court historian and fulfilled the duties expected of him until their quarrel. Many of the later histories are based on his, which was published right away (until 330 BC?). Of the eyewitnesses, only  Ptolemaeus and  Aristoboulus [7] seem to have described all campaigns; both praised Alexander. They wrote many years later, used Callisthenes and prob…

Mazarus

(67 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Μάζαρος; Mázaros). Hetaîros ( hetaîroi ) of Alexander [4] the Great. According to Arrian (Arr. Anab. 3,16,9), he was appointed fortress commander in Susa in 331/30 BC. Curtius (5,2,16) names Xenophilus instead. Since the name M. is Iranian, Arrian probably confused him with the Persian predecessor. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography A. B. Bosworth, A Historical Commentary on Arrian's History, vol. 1, 1980, 319.

Bucephalus, Bucephalas

(115 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Βουκεφάλας; Boukephálas). Thessalian warhorse, a gift to  Alexander [4] as a boy. He was allegedly the only person capable of breaking him in. He never rode any other and it is illustrated with him in heroic style on the  Alexander Mosaic and the  Alexander Sarcophagus. B. died at a great age after the battle on the Hydaspes and Alexander founded a city,  Bucephala in his honour. The life and death of B. are richly embellished in the ‘Vulgate’ ( Alexander historians) and in the  Alexander Romance. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography A. R. Anderson, Bucephalas an…

Gorgus

(126 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Γόργος; Górgos). In 324 BC, G. of Iasos ─ in the role of the ‘keeper of weapons’ ( hoplophýlax, ὁπλοφύλαξ) ─ interceded with  Alexander [4] the Great on behalf of the Samians expelled by the Athenians and tried to persuade Alexander to start a campaign against Athens (Ath. 12,538b). After the latter's death, G. had Iasos allow the return of Samians to Athens at the city's expense. The newly created community of Samos honoured him and his brother  Minnion for their merits by granting them citizenship among other things (Syll.3 312). The brothers had succeeded in obtai…

Thersippus

(102 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Θέρσιππος; Thérsippos). Participant in Alexander [4] the Great's campaign. Alexander sent him from Marathus to Darius [3] in 333/2 with a reply to his first offer of peace (Arr. An. 2,14,4; Curt. 4,1,14); perhaps identical with the T. who after Alexander's death is honoured in a decree by the Nesiotae [2] (OGIS 4) (see [1. vol. 1,369; vol. 2.2,376]). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography 1 G. A. Droysen, Gesch. des Hellenismus, 3 vols., 21877/8 (reprint of this ed. 1952/3, ed. by E. Bayer, 1980) 2 Berve, No. 368 3 E. Poddighe, Il decreto dell'isola di Nes…

Peithon

(377 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Πείθων; Peíthōn). [German version] [1] Indo- Greek satrap In 325 BC, P., son of Agenor, was appointed by Alexander [4] the Great as the satrap for the coast of India and the banks of the Indus as far as the mouth of the Acesines. He took Musicanus prisoner and brought him before the king, manned the new fortresses on the left bank of the Indus and met up with Alexander at Pattala. When Alexander had to give up a large part of India in 323 BC, he transferred P. to Gandhara (Gandaritis), a move which was…

Pythionice

(90 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] (Πυθιονίκη/ Pythioníkē). Famous hetaera (Hetaerae), probably Athenian, mocked by comedians (Ath. 8,339). Called c. 329 BC by Harpalus to Babylon, where she bore him a daughter (Plut. Phocion 22,1), he showered her with plundered treasures (Diod. Sic. 17, 108,5). After her death, Harpalus had her deified as Aphrodite P. Her grave monuments in Babylon and Athens are often mentioned (mostly with indignation) (as in Ath. 13,594d-595c; Paus. 1,37,5; Plut. Phocion 22, 1-2). They allegedly cost more than 200 talents (Theopomp. apud Ath. ibid.). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge…

Balacrus

(208 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Βάλακρος; Bálakros). Various men with this name served as officers under Alexander [4] the Great. [German version] [1] Satrap of Cilicia, after 333 BC Son of a certain Nicanor, married Phila, daughter of  Antipater [1], who bore him a son. First   somatophýlax , after the battle of Issus, was appointed satrap of Cilicia, where he fought with great success against the mountain tribes, but fell in battle shortly before Alexander's death. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 200 Heckel 260. [German version] [2] Commander of the Greek allied infantry from 334/33 BC Son of …
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