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Segovellauni

(96 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic tribe in the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis in the area between the Rhodanus and the Druna (modern département of Drôme). With the founding of the province the S. were absorbed into the civitas Valentinorum or the colonia Valentia founded under Caesar or Augustus (Plin. HN 3,34; Ptol. 2,10,12: Σεγαλλαυνοί). Str. 4,1,11 subsumes them under the name Cavari. Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography Evans, 254-257, 272-277  J. Whatmough, The Dialects of Ancient Gaul, 1970, 80, 185  G. Barruol, Les peuples préromains du sud-est de la Gaule, in…

Andecombogius

(112 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Andocumborius, Andebrogius, Andecombo). Celtic composite of ande- and combogio: ‘He who exudes dignity’ [1. 143-144; 5. 49-51]. One of the two legates of the Remi, who offered Caesar the subjugation of their tribe in 57 BC (Caes. Gall. 2,3,1). The name Andecom(bo) appears on the silver coins of the Carnutes, which were probably dedicated to the leader of the Remi [3. 421 A. 1; 2. 78, 83, 330 fig. 264]. Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Holder, vol. 1 2 A. Blanchet, Traité monn. gaul., 1905 3 J. B. Colbert de Beaulieu, Monnaies Gauloises au nom des…

Mandubracius

(66 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] King of the Trinobantes in south-eastern Britannia, who on the occasion of the murder of his father by Cassivellaunus had fled to Caesar on the mainland. When Caesar invaded Britannia for the second time in 54 BC, M. was able to return to his tribe by providing hostages and grain (Caes. B Gall. 5,20; 22,5; Oros. 6,9,8). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography Evans, 100ff.

Catumerus

(51 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Actumerus). Celtic name -- passed down in various forms -- of a Chatti prince, grandfather of  Italicus (Tac. Ann. 11,16,1; 11,17,1). Strabo (7,1,4) calls him Οὐκρόμηρος ( Oukrómēros). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography E. Koestermann, Cornelius Tacitus Annalen, 11-13 und 57-58, 1967 A. Scherer, Die kelt.-german. Namengleichungen, in: Corolla Linguistica 1955, 199-210.

Correus

(106 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic(?) name of a chieftain of the  Bellovaci, ‘dwarf’? [1. 339-340]. In 51 BC, together with  Commius, C. led the last large revolt of several Gaulish tribes against Caesar, which was also supported by Germanic troops. After initial success in beating the Rome-friendly  Remi and by avoiding an open battle with the Romans through clever tactics, an ambush laid by C. ultimately failed. The Gauls were beaten and C. fell in battle (Caes. B Gall. 8,6-21; Oros. 6,11,12-14). The name also appears on a British gold coin [2. 1134f.; 3. 153]. Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bib…

Caesorix

(27 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celticized Germanic name ending in - rix ‘king’ [1.160]. Cimbrian chieftain ( Cimbri), captured at Vercellae in 101 BC. (Oros. 5,16,21). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schmidt.

Voccio, Voctio

(42 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] King of Noricum with a probably Celtic name [1. 478 f.]. One of V.'s sisters had married Ariovistus in Gaul, in 58 BC she and his other wife died (Caes. B Gall. 1,53,4). Caesar (C.) Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans.

Lugotorix

(38 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Lucotorix). Celtic compound name [1. 98f.]. British prince, who was taken captive in an attack on the Roman ship camp in Kent in 54 BC (Caes. B Gall. 5,22,1-2). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans.

Sido

(92 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] deposed (according to Tac. Ann. 12,29-30), together with his brother Vangio, their uncle Vannius, who - himself a Quadus - by Roman mandate ruled the kingdom of the Suebi, which neighboured the Quadi. The two brothers then ruled the Suebi state together and remained faithful to Rome. S. fought on the side of the followers of Vespasianus together with Italicus [2] and a contingent of troops on the front line in the battle of Cremona in 68/9 AD (Tac. Hist. 3,5,1; 3,21,2). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography Holder 2, 1540.

Verucloetius

(45 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic compound name ('famous far and wide' [1. 123 f.]). Leader with Nammeius of the Helvetian legation (Helvetii) that requested of Caesar in 58 BC to be allowed to march through the Roman province of Narbonensis (Caes. Gall. 1,7,3). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans.

Dumnacus

(78 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Domnacus). Celtic name; leader of the Andes (Evans, 345). In 51 BC D. besieged Duratius at Lemonum with his army. When he failed to storm the camp of the legate C. Caninius Rebilus, who had hastened to the aid of Duratius, he attempted to flee across the Loire before the advancing forces of C.  Fabius. There he was overtaken, and cut down in the subsequent battle (Caes. B Gall. 8,26-29).  Duratius Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)

Nehalennia

(264 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Germanic mother goddess, documented by more than 160 inscriptions and pictorial dedications from the 2nd/3rd cents. AD. With two exceptions from Cologne- Deutz these were all found along the Dutch estuary of the Schelde, e.g. in Domburg (Walcheren) and in a submerged temple area discovered as late as 1971/2 on Colijnsplaat (Noord-Beveland) in the Oosterschelde. Today the latter is associated with classical Ganuenta, the assumed principal settlement of the Frisiavones, whose chief …

Viridorix

(63 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic compound name [1. 126]. Chieftain of the Unelli in Venetia, who in 56 BC had a large army assembled from allied tribes and besieged the camp of the Roman legate Q. Titurius Sabinus. By means of a trick, Sabinus managed to defeat and annihilate V.' army (Caes. B Gall. 3,17-19; Cass. Dio 39,45). Caesar (I C); Veneti Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans.

Maelo

(98 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Greek Μέλωνος/ Mélōnos; Μαίλος/ Maílos). King of the Sugambri with a Celtic name [1. 374], who is supposed to have started the war against the Romans according to Str. 7,1,4; this probably refers to the defeat of M. Lollius [II 1] in 17/6 BC. After the forced relocation of the Sugambri to the left side of the Rhine (8 BC) he appears to have sought refuge with Augustus (R. Gest. div. Aug. 32). The son of his brother Baetorix, Deidorix, was carried along in the triumphal parade of Germanicus [2]. Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Holder, 2.

Waluburg

(180 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Βαλουβουργ; Baloubourg). Semnonian seer ('Sibyl'), mentioned on an AD 2nd-century óstrakon from Elephantine (in Egypt): Βαλουβουργ Σήνονι σιβύλλᾳ (SB III 6221). The inscription contains a list of people on the staff of the praefectus Aegypti ; W. was therefore in Roman service and may have been responsible for interpreting omens and soothsaying. Her name may trace back to Gothic *walus (pilgrim's/traveller's staff or magic wand). Other Germanic women seers probably also had political roles beyond their tribes, e.g. Ganna, a successor to Veled…

Catumelus

(43 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Catmelus). Celtic name compound ‘ceaseless in battle’ [1. 168]. Gallic prince who commanded a camp of relief troops on the Roman side in the campaign against the Histrians at Lake Timavus in 178 BC (Liv. 41,1,8). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schmidt.

Duratius

(42 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic composite name: ‘the unfortunate’ [1. 87]. Pro-Roman chieftain of the Pictones, besieged by Dumnacus in 51 BC. His name is attested to on silver coins [2. 431-432].  Dumnacus;  Pictones Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans 2 B. Colbert de Beaulieu see Diviciacus [1].

Vercassivellaunus

(62 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Celtic compound name, [1. 120; 2. 291]). Cousin of Vercingetorix and leader of the Arverni. V. was one of the four army leaders who commanded the Gaulish army sent to relieve Alesia in 52 BC. After the defeat of the Gauls he was captured while fleeing (Caes. B Gall. 7,76,3 f.; 7,83,6; 7,85,4; 7,88,4). Commius; Eporedorix [2]; Viridomarus Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans 2 Schmidt.

Dumnovellaunus

(105 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Dubnovellaunus; Celtic composite name: ‘he who sees the world’? [1. 196-197; 272-277]). King of some tribes in eastern Kent c. 15 BC ─ c. AD 15 [2. no. 275-291A]. Around the beginning of our era he conquered the territory of the Trinovantes north of the Thames and established himself in Camulodunum. In c. AD 10 he was driven out by Cunobellinus. It is probably this event that caused him to flee to Augustus, who mentions him in his Res Gestae (R. Gest. div. Aug. ch. 32).  Camulodunum;  Cunobellinus Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans 2 R. P. Mack, The Coin…

Cingetorix

(169 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
Celtic composite name, ‘Warrior King’ [1. 73-74; 2. 172]. [German version] [1] Pro-Roman chief of the Treveri A pro-Roman chief of the  Treveri, who fought for the tribal leadership against his father-in-law  Indutiomarus. Despite initial successes of C. and his followers, Indutiomarus was able to have him declared a public enemy in 54 BC and to confiscate his estates. After the Treveri's defeat and Indutiomarus' death in 53 BC, Caesar rewarded C. for his loyalty by granting him the highest rank in the tribe (Caes. B Gall. 5,3,2-5; 5,4,3; 5,6,3; 5,57,2; 6,8,9). Spickermann, Wolfgang …
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