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Catugnatus

(69 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Κατούγνατος; Katoúgnatos). Celtic name compound ‘for battle born, well acquainted with battle’ [1. 168]. Leader of the  Allobroges who plundered Gallia Narbonensis in 61 BC. C. was able for a long time successfully to hold his ground against the Romans and also to save himself when they seized the town of Solonum which he was defending (Cass. Dio 47,1-48,2; Liv. per. 103). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schmidt.

Deiotarus

(682 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Δηιόταρος; Dēiótaros). Φιλορώμαιος (regarding Celtic composite name cf. [4. 190; 5. 155]). Born at the end of the 2nd cent. BC the son of Sinorix (IG III2 3429); husband of Berenice; tetrarch of the Tolistobogii, king of the Galatians; died c. 40 BC. D. was a semi-Hellenized client prince of the Romans, and practised an energetic and unscrupulous form of power politics. He was one of the three Galatian tetrarchs who in 86 BC escaped the assassination attempts of Mithridates of Pontus. From then on he fought as an all…

Domnilaus

(82 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Δομνέκλειος; Domnékleios). Celtic name; tetrarch of the Trocmi, the son and successor of Brogitarus [1. 1303; 2. 155]. D. was killed on Pompey's side at Pharsalus in 49 BC. After the death of Deiotarus his territory was awarded to his son Adiatorix by Antony but Augustus had him executed after the battle of Actium (Caes. B Civ. 3,4,5; Str. 12,3,6).  Antonius [I 9];  Brogitarus;  Deiotarus;  Trocmi Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Holder, vol. 1 2 L. Weisgerber, Galatische Sprachreste, in: Natalicium. FS J. Geffken 1931.

Connacorix

(44 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Κοννακόριξ; Konnakórix). Galatian with a Celtic name [1. 182; 2. 155], in 73 BC a commander of  Mithridates in  Heraclea (Memnon 29,4; 34,4; 35,1-4; 7; 36=FGrH 3 no. 434). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schmidt. 2 L. Weisgerber, Galatische Sprachreste, in: Natalicium. FS J. Geffken, 1931.

Brittomaris

(68 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Leader of the  Senones, is alleged to have had Roman envoys murdered (App. Sam. 6 and Celt. 11). The Senones, together with the Etruscans, were defeated in 283 BC at the Vadimonian Lake by Consul P.  Cornelius Dolabella and driven out of Italy. The character of B. is perhaps a fabrication of the later  Annalists. Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography E. Klebs, s.v. B., RE 3, 882.

Ambigatus

(83 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Ambicatos). Celtic compound name with ambi- ‘around’ [5. 122-123, 215; 1. 134-135; 4. 708]. According to Livy the  Biturigan A. during the reign of  Tarquinius Priscus in Rome was king of all Celts (Liv. 5,34,2). Because of overpopulation, he is supposed to have, under the leadership of his nephew  Segovesus, caused the first Celtic immigration to the Po Plain (Liv. 5,34,3-9). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans 2 Holder, vol. 1, 120 3 E. Klebs, s. v. A. RE 1, 1798 4 R. M. Ogilvie, Comm. on Livy, 1965 5 Schmidt.

Eporedorix

(222 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
Celtic composite name: ‘king of the riders?’ (cf. also Plut. Mor. 259A; C (Πορηδόριξ MS]. [German version] [1] Before Caesar's arrival the leader of the Haedui against the Sequani E. was the leader of the Haedui against the Sequani prior to Caesar's arrival,. In 52 BC, he fell into Roman captivity at Alesia (Caes. B Gall. 67,7).  Alesia;  Haedui;  Sequani Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) [German version] [2] Young equestrian leader of the Haedui Young equestrian leader of the Haedui, of noble descent. With Caesar's help, E. and Viridomarus had risen to highest office.…

Tasgetius

(81 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Prominent pro-Roman Celt [1. 378] whose ancestors were kings of the  Carnutes. Installed by Caesar in 56 BC as the king of this tribe, he was killed in the third year of his reign by his own people (Caes. B. Gall. 5,25; 5,29,2). Coin minting [2. 442 f.]. Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans 2 J.-B. Colbert de Beaulieu, Les monnaies gauloises au nom des chefs mentionnés dans les Commentaires de César, in: M. Renard (ed.), Hommages à A. Grenier, vol. 1, 1962, 419-446.

Ducarius

(44 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic compound name formed from -caro- ‘dear’. Knight, in a unit of Insubres in Hannibal's army, who in the battle at Lake Trasimene in 217 BC killed the consul C.  Flaminius (Liv. 22,6,3-5; Sil. Pun. 5,644-658).  Hannibal Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)

Vertiscus

(52 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Remian noble and army leader (Remi). In 51 BC, as commander of a tribal contingent fighting on the side of Caesar, which he was leading in spite of his great age, V. fell in a cavalry battle with the  Bellovaci (Caes. Gall. 8,12). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography Evans, 386.

Acco

(48 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic name of uncertain origin [1]. Leader (?) of the  Senones, who in 53 BC called for an unsuccessful uprising against the Romans and was thereafter executed (Caes. B Gall. 6,4; 44). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans, 297 f. E. Klebs, s. v. A., RE 1, 151.

Belgius

(61 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Βόλγιος; Bólgios). Celtic name, cf. Irish Bolg ‘lightning’ [1.88], leader of the Galatian Celts. He invaded Macedonia in late 280 and early 279 BC and destroyed the small army of King  Ptolemaeus Ceraunus, who was killed in the process (Just. Epit. 24,4-5; Paus. 10,19,5-7). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 H. Rankin, Celts and the Classical World, 1987. Holder, 1, 384.

Surus

(47 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] A Haedui nobleman with a name which is probably Celtic [1.472f.; 2.1678-1682], enemy of the Romans. In 51 BC he was taken prisoner by T. Labienus in a cavalry skirmish in Treveri territory (Caes. B Gall. 8,45,2). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans 2 Holder 2.

Adiatunnus

(224 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Adietuanus, Adiatonnus, Adcatuannus, Adsatuannus). Celtic compound name from ad-ia(n)tu- ‘zealously striving (for rulership)’ [3. 45-47; 5. I 41,42; III 507]. Commander of the tribe of the Sotiates based in Gallia  Aquitania, who in 56 BC defended the oppidum of the tribe, Sot(t)ium, against P. Licinius Crassus. After a failed sortie attempt with 600 of his comrades ( soldurii), A. had to capitulate to the Romans (Caes. B Gall. 3,22,1; 3,22,4). A. is also mentioned in a fragment by Nicolaos of Damascus (Ἀδιάτομος; Adiátomos) (FGrH II A 80 [89]) recorded by At…

Vertico

(43 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Nervian noble (Nervii) who defected to the Roman side and helped Q. Tullius [I 11] Cicero during the siege of his winter camp  in 54 BC to send reports to Caesar (Caes. Gall. 5,45; 5,49). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography Evans, 385 f.

Druids

(554 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Druides, Druida). Latinization of the Celtic stem *drui(d), ‘the very wise’; the ambiguity with the Greek δρῦς ( drys) ‘oak’ was apparently intentional (cf. Plin. HN 16,249) [1. 1321f.; 2. 430]. They were first referred to by the Peripatetic Sotion 200/170 BC (Diog. Laert. 1,1,6f.), later references are based at least in part on the lost historical work by Posidonius. According to them, the druidae formed, together with the bardi and   vates , a hierarchically organized branch of the Celtic priestly caste, with an orally-transmitt…

Brennus

(270 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
(Βρέννος; Brénnos). Celtic titular name, from the Breton brennin ‘King’ [1. 105-108]. [German version] [1] Gallian prince, defeated the Romans at the Allia, 390 BC In the Roman annalistic tradition, prince of the Gallic  Senones, who in 390 BC decisively defeated the Romans at the Allia and occupied and pillaged Rome. When the Romans besieged on the Capitol tried to negotiate the withdrawal of the Gauls for 1,000 pounds of gold, B. threw his sword on the scales as well, saying vae victis (Liv. 5,38-49; Plut. Camillus 18-30). Rome's destruction created the bogey of ‘barbaric …

Casticus

(79 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic compound name from -ico- [1. 330-331]. Son of Catamantaledes, king of the Sequani, ‘the one who defeats the enemy in battle’ [1. 66-69; 2. 166-167]. C. was persuaded by  Orgetorix in 59 BC to seize royal power in his house as his father had apparently died. The triple alliance between C., Orgetorix and  Dumnorix failed because of the death of Orgetorix (Caes. B Gall 1,3,4). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans. 2 Schmidt. H. Bannert, s.v. C., RE Suppl. 15, 84-87.

Adgandestrius

(53 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Compound name of unclear origin with the Celtic prefix Ad-. Prince of the Chatti, who in a letter to the Roman senate offered to poison  Arminius (Tac. Ann. 2,88). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography Evans, 128-130. E. Koestermann, Tac. ann. 1, 1963 A. v. Rhoden, s. v. A. RE 1, 359 Schmidt, 112.

Ambiorix

(196 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic compound name (‘rich in land’?) [1. 48-49; 2. 124]. Prince of the  Eburones, freed by Caesar from the rule of the  Aduatuci and at first ally of the Romans. In 54 BC he destroyed together with Catuvolcus 15 newly recruited Roman cohorts under the legates Q. Titurius Sabinus and L. Aurunculeius Cotta on the march to the encampment of Q. Tullius  Cicero by convincing Sabinus to leave the secure winter encampment in the Eburonian territory (Caes. B Gall. 5,27,2-11). A. therefo…
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