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Cerrinius

(94 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
Roman gentilicium (also Cerinius) of Oscan origin, derived from Ceres; frequently attested in Pompeii and the surrounding area [1. 467f.]. [German version] [1] Initiates in the Bacchic mysteries, 2nd cent. BC According to Liv. 39,13,9, Minnius and Herennius Cerrinii were the first men to be initiated into the Bacchic mysteries, by their mother, a priestess of Dionysus. After the Senate, seeing the cult as a conspiracy, had banned the so-called  Bacchanalia in 186 BC (CIL I2 581), Minnius, as its leading figure, was arrested in Ardea (Liv. 39,17,6; 19,2). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibl…

Hipponicus

(147 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἱππόνικος; Hippónikos). Son of  Callias and  Elpinice, the (half)sister of  Cimon, rich Athenian (And. 1,130; Lys. 19,48) from the family of the Kerykes, in the office of dadoûchos in Eleusis like his father ( Mysteria). As stratēgós in 427/6 BC, he led the successful campaign against the Tanagraeans alongside Eurymedon [4] (Thuc. 3,91,4f.; And. 1,115; Diod. Sic. 12,65,3ff.). He died shortly before 422. In her first marriage, his wife was married to  Pericles (Plut. Pericles 24,8, where it is falsely assumed that …

Hellanodikai

(252 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἑλλανοδίκαι; Hellanodíkai, also Ἑλληνοδίκαι; Hellēnodíkai), the supervisors and judges at the competitions of Olympia, Nemea (IG IV 587) and the Asclepiea in Epidaurus (IG IV 946; 1508). The hellanodikai of the Olympic Games were chosen in Elis from the local aristocracy for one festival in each case. The office (official oath: Paus. 5,24,10), the sacred components of which are still reflected in a cleansing ritual of the hellenodikai (Paus. 5,16,8), probably involved large financial outlays. The number of hellenodikai was initially restricted to one or tw…

Canidius

(126 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] C. Crassus, P., of unknown descent. In 43 BC, he served as legate of  Lepidus in Gaul (Cic. Fam. 10,21,4). Probably holder of a command position under M.  Antonius [I 9] in the Perusine War (App. B Civ. 5,50; MRR 2,373). Cos. suff. at the end of 40 BC; from 36 BC, he fought successfully in Armenia and in the Caucasus, and took part in Antony's Parthian campaigns. In the winter 33/32 BC, he returned to Antony from a command in Armenia, was in charge of the land forces at Actium; after the defeat, he fled to join Antony in …

Damippus

(106 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Δάμιππος; Dámippos). Spartan in the service of Hieronymus of Syracuse to whom he gave the advice of adherence to the alliance with Rome in 215 BC (Pol. 7,5,3). Later he also served Epicydes; in 212 he was sent as envoy to Philip V of Macedonia, and in the process fell into the hands of the Romans. The negotiations for his release, in the course of which M. Claudius [I 11] Marcellus noticed a tower that was only poorly guarded by the Syracusans, ultimately led to the successful Roman attack on Epipolae (Liv. 25,23,8ff.; Plut. Marcellus 18; Polyaenus, Strat. 8,11). Meier, Mischa…

Hegesidamus

(22 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἡγησίδαμος; Hēgēsídamos). In the Suda s.v. Ἱππίας/ Hippías named as the teacher of  Hippias of Elis. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)

Euergetes

(325 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (εὐεργέτης; euergétēs, ‘benefactor’). An honorary title bestowed by Greek communities upon people who rendered particularly outstanding services to them. There is evidence of this term with this meaning from the 5th cent. BC (cf. Hdt. 8,136), but euergesia as an aspect of the ideal of generosity of the Greek aristocracy can be traced back to the Homeric period ( Euergetism). In Athens the work of individual citizens for the polis in the 5th cent. was still primarily regulated by  liturgies and it was expected of on…

Amphidamus

(71 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἀμφίδαμος, Ἀμφιδάμας; Amphídamos, Amphidámas) Captain of the Eleans. In 218 BC A. was imprisoned by Philip V, but was released without payment of ransom after he promised to press the Eleans to form an alliance with Philip. His efforts failed, however; suspected of betrayal, A. had to flee Elis and returned to Philip (Pol. 4,75,6; 84-86).  Philippus Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibliography F. W. Walbank, Philip V of Macedon, 1967, 48 f.

Epeunaktai

(148 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἐπευνακταί; Epeunaktaí). Literally ‘bedfellows’. According to Theopomp (FGrH 115 F 171 in Ath. 6,271c-d), Helots who during the 1st Messenian War were set free by the Spartans and received citizenship; they were supposed to unite with the widows of those who had fallen (cf. also Just. Epit. 3,5,6, who however dates the events in the second Messenian War). According to this, the E. would have been the fathers of the so-called  Partheniai, who appear in tradition as the founders of …

Aneristus

(100 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(Ἀνήριστος; Anḗristos). [German version] [1] Spartan (beginning of 5th cent. BC) Spartan. After the murder of the Persian envoy in Sparta, his son  Sperthias went willingly to atone for this debt to the great king, but was let go there (Hdt. 7,134 ff.). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Spartan, died 430 BC Spartan, son of Sperthias. According to Hdt. 7,137 A. conquered Halieis. In 430 BC he fell into the hands of the Athenians as a member of a Peloponnesian delegation on the way to the great king and was killed (Hdt. 7,137; Thuc. 2,67). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)

Eteonicus

(121 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἐτεόνικος; Eteónikos). Spartan, campaigned under Astyochus against Lesbos in 412 BC (Thuc. 8,23); as  harmost of Thasos he was forced out by an anti-Spartan faction in 410 (Xen. Hell. 1,1,32). After the Spartan defeat at Arginusae in 406, E. took his ship and troops safely to Chios and stationed them there until Lysander's arrival (Xen. Hell.1,6,26; 35-38; 2,1,1-6; 10; Diod. Sic. 13,97,3; 100,5). He held a command at Aigospotamoi (405) (Diod. Sic. 13,106,5; Paus. 10,9,10). E. late…

Kalokagathia

(309 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (καλοκἀγαθία; kalokagathía). ‘Excellence’, a combination of kalós k(aì) (‘and’) agathós, where kalós means ‘beautiful’, and agathós ‘good’. Because since Homeric times Greek aristocrats had been defining themselves with these two adjectives [1. 8f.], kalokagathia was thought to be an expression of aristocratic self-representation in the Homeric tradition (cf. e.g. [2]). However, this has proven to be false [3. vol. 1, 611ff.]: kalokagathia is not recorded as a set expression until the 2nd half of the 5th cent. BC (evidence: [4. 1054ff.; 107…

Archinus

(89 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἀρχῖνος; Archînos). Athenian, around 404 BC initially an adherent of the political group around  Theramenes (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 34,3). Together with  Thrasyboulus in 404/3 he launched the struggle against the 30 Tyrants ( Triakonta) from  Phyle (Dem. Or. 24,135). After the victory he was a proponent of preserving the general amnesty and opposed to expanding Athenian citizenship (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 40,1 f.). The Ionian alphabet was introduced in Athens at his suggestion in 403/2 (Theop. FGrH 115 F 155; PA, 2526; Traill PAA, 213880. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)

Gundicharius

(146 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Gundahar, Gundihar, Guntiar). Traditionally the son of Gibica; king of the Burgundians. In AD 411 with the king of the Alanians Goar, G. elevated the Gaulish senator  Jovinus in Mainz to the status of emperor (Olympiodorus FHG 4, 61 fr. 17). After the latter's death in 417, he entered into a   foedus with  Honorius (Chron. min. 1,467; 2,155 Mommsen), but in 435 invaded the province of Belgica I where  Aetius [2] defeated him (Sid. Apoll. Carm. 7,234f.). In 436 G., allegedly with 20,000 Burgundians, was killed in…

Anaxander

(132 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(Ἀνάξανδρος; Anáxandros). [German version] [1] Spartan king at the time of the second Messenian war According to Paus. 3,3,4 and 4,15,3 Spartan king at the time of the second Messenian war, Agiad, son of Eurycrates (Hdt. 7,204). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Leader of the Thebans at  Thermopylae (480) According to Aristophanes of Boeotia (FGrH 379 F 6) leader of the Thebans at  Thermopylae (480). Cf. Hdt. 7,233, who names Leontiades in this position. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [3] Theban, mercenary commander in the Peloponnesian War Theban, 411 BC m…

Anaxandridas

(126 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(Ἀναξανδρίδας; Anaxandrídas). [German version] [1] Son of the Spartan king Theopompus According to Hdt. 8,131 son of the Spartan king Theopompus, Eurypontid; his historicity is doubtful. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Spartan king around the middle of the 6th cent. BC Spartan king around the middle of the 6th cent. BC, Agiad. Under the reign of A. and of Ariston Tegea formed an alliance with Sparta. A report, according to which Aeschines, the tyrant of Sicyon, was expelled by A. and  Chilon when the latter was ephor (556…

Chersicrates

(50 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Χερσικράτης; Chersikrátēs). Corinthian; descendant of the Bacchiads (Timaeus FGrH 566 F 80). According to Str. 6,2,4 C. was left behind by  Archias, founder of Syracuse, on the way to Sicily, and settled Corcyra. The credibility of these inherently contradictory statements must be doubted. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)

Agasicles

(97 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(Ἀγασικλῆς; Agasiklês), Ion. Hegesicles. [German version] [1] Spartan king (1st half of 6th cent. BC) Spartan king, Eurypontid, father of Ariston. During the basileia of A. and of Leon (first half of the 6th cent. BC) the Spartans suffered a defeat against Tegea (Hdt. 1,65; otherwise Paus. 3,7,6, who claims that A. did not wage any wars). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Son of Scythes (4th cent. BC) Son of Scythes, achieved Attic citizenship through bribery.  Dinarchus directed a speech against him (Dion. Hal. Dein. 10; cf. also Hyp. Eux. 3). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)

Othryadas

(169 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ὀθρυάδας/ Othryádas, Ὀθρυάδης/ Othryadēs). When, during their conflict over the territory of Thyreatis around 550 BC, the Argives and Spartans had agreed to hold a decisive battle with 300 selected warriors on either side, O. was the only Spartiate to survive. While the two Argive survivors were reporting the outcome in their homeland, O. robbed his fallen enemies of their weapons. Both sides claimed victory, so that a great battle did nonetheless take place, in which Sparta was vic…

Anaxibius

(75 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] Spartan nauarchos in Byzantium, when in 400 BC the remains of the army of the younger Cyrus entered Bithynia. Recalled from there in 400/399, A. was sent as harmost to Abydus in 389 to secure the Spartan position in the northern Aegean against Athens, but he fell in 388 in a battle against the Athenians under Iphicrates (Xen. An. 5,1,4; 6,1,16; 7,1.2; Diod. Sic. 14,30,4; Xen. Hell. 4,8,32 ff.). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
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