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Limenius

(56 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[English version] Ulpius L. war 342 n.Chr. proconsul von Konstantinopel. Er bewirkte nach Libanios dessen Entfernung aus der Stadt (Lib. or. 1,45-47). 347-349 war er gleichzeitig praef. praet. Italiae und praef. urbis Romae (Chron. min. 1,68 Mommsen; Cod. Theod. 9,21,6; 9,17,2). 349 bekleidete L. das Konsulat. PLRE 1,510 (Ulpius L. 2). Portmann, Werner (Berlin)

Eusebios/-us

(2,005 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Heidelberg) | Gruber, Joachim (Erlangen) | Et al.
(Εὐυσέβιος). [English version] [1] Flavius Eusebius Consul 347 n. Chr. Im Gesetz Cod. Theod. 11,1,1 von 360 n.Chr. wird auf den ehemaligen cos. et mag. equitum et peditum Eusebius Bezug genommen. Es handelt sich hierbei wohl um den cos. E. von 347, der vielleicht mit dem Vater der Kaiserin Eusebia [1] identisch ist (vgl. Iul. or. 3,107d-110d). PLRE 1, 307f. Eusebius (39). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [English version] [2] Eusebius Röm. Amtsträger um 355 n. Chr. Sohn von E. [1]. Wie sein Bruder Hypatius wurde er durch seine Schwester Eusebia [1] (vgl. Iul. or. 3,116a) gefö…

Dracontius

(600 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Smolak, Kurt (Wien)
[English version] [1] 361 n. Chr. von heidnischer Volksmenge ermordeter Christ Praepositus monetae in Alexandria. Am 24.12.361 n.Chr. wurde er als Christ von der heidnischen Volksmenge ermordet, weil er einen Altar umgestürzt hatte (Amm. 22,11,9f.; Historia acephala 8). PLRE 1, 271 D. (1). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [English version] [2] Antonius D. vicarius Africae 364-367 n. Chr. nur inschr. (ILS 758; 763 u.a.) und als Empfänger von Gesetzen (Cod. Theod. 11,7,9; 11,30,33) bezeugter vicarius Africae von 364-367 n.Chr. PLRE 1, 271f. D (3). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) …

Firmus

(277 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Köln) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[English version] [1] Senator zur Zeit Verspasians Der Senator ist in einer fragmentarischen Inschrift aus Arretium bezeugt, CIL XI 1834 = ILS 1000. Nach [1], der sich auf AE 1967, 355 stützt, soll der Name C. Petillius C. f. Pom. Firmus lauten. Als tribunus der legio IV Flavia hat er an einem Feldzug teilgenommen und dann dona militaria erhalten. Er war quaestor Vespasiani und wurde vom Senat mit ornamenta praetoria ausgezeichnet. Vielleicht ein Sohn des Petillius Cerialis [2. 81ff.]. Eck, Werner (Köln) Bibliography PIR2 F 159. 1 Bosworth, in: ZPE 39, 1980, 267ff. 2 T. Franke, Die Leg…

Anatolius

(262 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Praefectus praetorio for Illyria, AD 356-360 Lawyer from Berytus. The recipient of many letters from  Libanius. From AD 356/7 until his death (360) he was praefectus praetorio for Illyria. Prior to that he was consularis Syriae (possibly 349), vicarius Asiae (352) and procos. urbis Constantinopolitanae (354). 355 he declined appointment to the position of praefectus urbi Romae (Lib. Ep. 391). He is perhaps identical with the agrarian writer Vindonius Anatolius. Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Mag. utriusque mil. praesentalis, after AD 447 AD 433…

Evagrius

(598 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
(Εὐάγριος; Euágrios) [German version] [1] Ponticus Christian writer and monastic leader Religious writer and monastic spiritual leader (AD 345-399). Born in the Pontic Ibora, he was a pupil of  Gregorius of Nazianzus; after periods spent in Constantinople (ordination to deacon) and Jerusalem, he stayed in the Egyptian anchorite community of Kellia (Nitrian desert) from 383 as a much sought-after spiritual advisor. Posthumously condemned as an Origenist (553 Council of Constantinople), his few extant works …

Arborius

(309 words)

Author(s): Liebermann, Wolf-Lüder (Bielefeld) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Aemilius Magnus, professor of rhetoric and lawyer in Tolosa Aemilius Magnus, son of Caecilius Argicius Arborius and Aemilia Corinthia Maura, and maternal uncle of the poet D. Magnus  Ausonius, whose education and career he influenced substantially (Auson. 162, p. 30 f.; 206, p. 63 f.). He worked as a respected professor of rhetoric and advocate in Tolosa and its neighbouring provinces, and, through this, must have become friends with the half-brothers of Constantine I. It is disputed whether he also held the office of praeses of Gallia Narbonensis (but cf. …

Optatus

(565 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg)
[German version] [1] Roman cognomen Roman cognomen (“child desired by parents”), very widespread in the Imperial period; equally commonly a slave name. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Kajanto, Cognomina, 75; 77; 296 2 H. Solin, Die stadtrömische Sklavennamen, vol. 1, 1994, 110-111. [German version] [2] Flavius O. Imperial grammar teacher, 4th cent. AD Grammar teacher of the son of the emperor Licinius [II 4]. Allegedly, because of his wife's beauty he had great influence under Constantine [1] the Great and was appointed consul b…

Andronicus

(836 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Et al.
(Ἀνδρόνικος; Andrónikos). [German version] [1] from Olynthus Macedonian officer (2nd half of the 4th cent. BC) Participated in all campaigns of  Alexander [II 4]. 315 BC officer of  Antigonus [1] at Tyre, then advisor of  Demetrius [2], whom he advised 312 to decline the battle at Gaza. In the battle he commanded the cavalry at the right flank and escaped after the defeat to Tyre, where he took over command and was able to hold the city for a time. At the end, delivered by the garrison to  Ptolemaeus [1], by whom he was honoured as a friend. Diod. Sic. 19. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliograph…

Clematius

(214 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] From Alexandria, consularis Palaestinae c. 352/3 AD C. of Alexandria was the consularis Palaestinae (Lib. Ep. 693) in c. AD 352/3. In the winter of 353/4 he became the victim of an intrigue in Antioch [1] and was executed without trial (Amm. Marc. 14,1,3). PLRE 1,213 (Clematius 1). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Consularis Palaestinae 357-358 AD C. held a high office in Antioch [1] at the time of the caesar Gallus ( Constantius [5]), probably as an agens in rebus (Lib. Ep. 405, 435); in AD 357-358 consularis Palaestinae (Lib. Ep. 317). He was in clo…

Gaiso

(110 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] AD 350 possibly magister militum of the usurper Magnentius In AD 350, possibly as magister militum of the usurper Magnentius, he pursued the fleeing emperor Constans, and killed him during his arrest in the Pyrenean town of Helena ([Aur. Vict.] Epit. Caes. 41,23; Zos. 2,42,5). In 351, he was consul together with Magnentius (Chron. min. 1, 69 Mommsen). PLRE 1, 380. Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Official under Honorius AD 409 Comes sacrarum largitionum under Honorius probably in AD 409, and comes et magister officiorum in 410 (Cod. lust. 4,61,12…

Caesarius

(708 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Uthemann, Karl-Heinz (Amsterdam)
[German version] [1] Official, 4th cent. AD Hailing from Cilicia, C. was educated in Antioch (Lib. Ep. 1399). He was a brother of  Alypius (Jul. Ep. 9-10). In AD 362-363, he was possibly vicarius Asiae (Lib. Ep. 764; 1384). After the death of  Iulianus, he became comes rerum privatarum (Cod. Theod. 10,1,8) and gained great influence at the court of Valens (Lib. Ep. 1449; 1456). As praef. urbis Constantinopolitanae, C. was taken prisoner by the usurper Procopius in 365 (Amm. Marc. 26,7,4; Zos. 4,6,2) and possibly executed (Them. Or.7,92c). He was the recipient of…

Ursicinus

(128 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] High-ranking military officer under Constantius [2] II. He was magister equitum in the East from AD 349-359. On orders from Constantius [5] Gallus, he conducted trials for high treason in Antioch [1] in 354 (Amm. Marc. 14,9,1 and 3) and in 355 deposed the usurper Silvanus [3] in Gaul (Amm. Marc. 15,5,18-31). From 357 on the Persian front again, he lost his command owing to court intrigues (Amm. Marc. 18,5,4), but in 359/60 was again appointed magister peditum (Amm. Marc. 18,6) and relieved of his position once more because the loss of Amida (in 360) was im…

Sebastianus

(317 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Senior officer, 2nd half of the 4th cent. A senior officer during the 2nd half of the 4th cent. AD. From 356 to 358 as dux Aegypti he was ordered to proceed against the followers of Athanasius (Athan. Hist. Ar. 59-63; 72; cf. Lib. Ep. 318; 520). On 24 December358 he drove them from the churches (Historia acephala 2,4). From 363 to 378 he was comes rei militaris, in 363 took part in the Persian campaign of Iulianus [11] Apostata (Amm. Marc. 23,3,5), and in 368 in the operation of Valentinianus I against the Alamanni (Amm. Marc. 27,10,6). After …

Marcellus

(1,746 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Μαρκέλλος; Markéllos). [German version] [I 1] From Pergamum, orator, 2nd cent. AD, [1] Rhetor from Pergamum known solely from a brief reference in the Suda; he is said to have written a book (or several books) entitled Ἀδριανὸς ἢ περὶ βασιλείας/ Adrianòs ḕ perì basileías (‘Hadrian, or On Monarchy’). He would thus have lived in the first half of the 2nd cent.; whether Dio's [I 3] speeches perì basileías, addressed to Trajan, served as a model is uncertain. Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) [German version] [I 2] From Side, physician and poet, 2nd cent. AD M. from …

Bassianus

(184 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Originally the cognomen of  Caracalla Originally the cognomen of  Caracalla. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) [German version] [2] Originally the cognomen of the future emperor M. Aurelius  Severus Alexander Originally the cognomen of the future emperor M. Aurelius  Severus Alexander. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) [German version] [3] Caesar for Italy around 316 AD Married to  Anastasia [1], named Caesar for Italy by  Constantinus the Great shortly before the war against Licinus (AD 316), but was then spurred on by his brother Senecio to…

Mavia

(101 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] Arabic princess who undertook raids in Palestine and Phoenicia c. AD 372. In 378 she made peace with Valens and requested the hermit Moses as bishop for her people (Socr. 4,36,1-12; Sozom. Hist. eccl. 6,38,1-9; Theod. Hist. eccl. 4,23). After the battle of Hadrianopolis [3] she supported the Romans with troops (Amm. Marc. 31,16,5; Sozom. Hist. eccl. 7,1,1). She married her daughter to the magister equitum Victor (Socr. 4,36,12). According to Theophanes (annus mundi 5869 = 1,64,12 deBoor) she was a Roman by birth who had been captured by the Saracens. PLRE 1, 569. Portmann,…

Theodorus

(7,286 words)

Author(s): Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Θεόδωρος; Theódōros). [German version] [I 1] Of Samos, Greek architect, bronze sculptor and inventor, Archaic period Multitalented Greek inventor, architect, bronze sculptor and metal worker ( toreutḗs; Toreutics) of the Archaic period from Samos (for the occupational image cf. architect). His father was Telecles (Hdt. 3,41; Paus. 8,14,8; 10,38,6) or according to other sources (Diog. Laert. 2,103; Diod. Sic. 1,98) Rhoecus [3]; his name is so frequently mentioned in conjunction with the latter that …

Iovianus

(269 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] Flavius I. (Jovian), Roman emperor AD 363-364, born in Singidunum in 331, the son of the Comes Domesticorum Varronianus. His father-in-law was the Magister Militum Lucillianus, his wife was possibly called Charito (cf. Zon. 13,14). He served as Protector Domesticus under Constantius [2] II (Amm. Marc. 21,16,20), and under Julian [11] as Primicerius Domesticorum (Amm. Marc. 25,5,4). The day after Julian's death in battle against the Persians, I. was proclaimed emperor on 27 June 363, while still on Persian territory. He ended the P…

Taurus

(850 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Lakmann, Marie-Luise (Münster) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Southern Anatolian coastal mountain range Southern Anatolian coastal mountain range, today the Toros Dağları; it extends from Caria and Lycia in the west (Western T. with the Bey Dağları, 3086 m), through Cilicia (Middle T. with the Kalı Dağ, 3734 m), from where the Amanus branches off to the south-east and the Anti-T. to the north, while the main range stretches north-east to the Ararat highlands (Inner and Central Eastern T. with Ararat, 5165 m), beyond which a further Anti-T. (Ou…
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