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Kalos inscriptions

(715 words)

Author(s): Scheibler, Ingeborg (Krefeld)
[German version] The Greek custom of publicly praising someone's beauty using the epithet kalós (καλός, masc. = ‘beautiful’), less commonly kalḗ (καλή, fem.) is particularly evident in Attic vase inscriptions - made before the firing of the vessels - from the 6th and 5th cents. [1; 5]. Spontaneous graffiti [3] on vases can also be found, as well as other public kalos inscriptions (KI) [4. 22, 46-65] (schol. Aristoph. Vesp. 98). They stem from an interest in beautiful youths, also expressed in early Greek lyric poetry, and in the pederastic conventions of the time, but also in the ideal of kalo…

Loutrophoros

(398 words)

Author(s): Scheibler, Ingeborg (Krefeld)
[German version] (ἡ λουτροφόρος; hē loutrophóros). Container for, or carrier of, bathing water. Mentioned by Dem. Or. 44,18 as a structure on top of a tomb showing the unmarried status of the deceased. Only late ancient and Medieval authors go into details about the loutrophoros as a wedding vessel and about the antique custom of erecting a monument ( mnḗma) in the form of a loutrophoros for the unmarried deceased ( ágamoi). This was apparently intended as a symbolic reconstruction of the bridal bath and wedding ( Wedding customs and rituals). The loutrophoros is d…

Stamnos

(163 words)

Author(s): Scheibler, Ingeborg (Krefeld)
[German version] (στάμνος/ stámnos). Storage jar for wine, oil, etc.; mercantile inscriptions point to the pelike (Pottery, shapes and types of, fig. A 8); today an archaeological term for a bulbous lidded vessel with a recessed neck and handles on the shoulders (Pottery, shapes and types of, fig. C 6). First instances in Laconia and Etruria in the Archaic Period, adopted in Athens around 530 BC, in the 5th cent. almost exclusively exported from there to Etruria. Depictions on red-figured stámnoi show it as a central wine vessel in a Dionysian women's festival, though th…

Lekythos

(391 words)

Author(s): Scheibler, Ingeborg (Krefeld)
[German version] (ἡ λήκυθος; hē lḗkythos). Greek generic term for ointment and oil vessels of various shapes and sizes with a narrow opening, also comprising the alabastron and aryballos ; based on schol. Pl. Hp. mi. 368C, today in particular a term for Attic funerary vessels from the 6th and 5th cents. BC that contained aromatic oil donations and were a popular gift for the dead ( Vessel, shapes and types of fig. E 3). As the white-ground lekythoi grew bigger, small insets for saving oil became common in the 5th cent. Around 400 BC, a group of Attic monumental clay lekythoi obviously formed th…

Vase painters

(697 words)

Author(s): Scheibler, Ingeborg (Krefeld)
[German version] The collective term 'vases' for Greek painted pottery (II. A.) as a special sub-genre of ceramics characterized by its often rich decoration emerged in the 18th cent. when the first vasi antichi were discovered in Campania and Etruria. Since their decoration was the task of the potter, no ancient word exists for the profession of vase painters (VP), although they could mark their work with the signature ἔγραψεν/ égrapsen ('has painted'). The first signatures of VP appear on early archaic, Cycladic and Corinthian pottery. In Athens, the earliest example is Sophil…

Askos

(157 words)

Author(s): Scheibler, Ingeborg (Krefeld)
(ἀσκός; askós). [German version] [1] Wineskin Leather wineskin. Scheibler, Ingeborg (Krefeld) [German version] [2] Vessel type Collective archaeological term for closed vessels with stirrup handle and spout ( Vessel forms). Larger ‘sack pots’ as early as the Bronze Age; askoi in the form of birds and ducks mainly in the 8th cent. BC, also present in Etruria. Loops handles suggest flasks, pictorial representations, drinking vessels. The small, black-varnished or red-figured askoi of the 5th-4th cents. BC in the form of skins, or lenticular or ring-shaped, probably…

Figurine vases

(418 words)

Author(s): Scheibler, Ingeborg (Krefeld)
[German version] Vases worked three-dimensionally using a combination of techniques; figurine vases made by coroplasts, often originating from the same moulds as the statuettes (terracottas). Precursors in Anatolia, Egypt and the Ancient Orient. Greek figurine vases of clay (birds, cattle, horses) in greater numbers from the 14th cent. BC. [1]. Vast production of ointment vessels with glazed clay painting in the 7th-6th cents. BC e.g. in Corinth [2], Rhodes [3] and Boeotia: complete figures, busts…

Krater

(388 words)

Author(s): Scheibler, Ingeborg (Krefeld)
[German version] (ὁ κρατήρ/ ho kratḗr from κεράννυμι, keránnymi, ‘to mix’; Linear B: acc. ka-ra-te-ra). Wide-mouthed vessel for mixing water and wine, used at banquets (Hom. Od. 1,110), as well as in sacrificial rites (Hom. Il. 3,269) and religious festivals (Hdt. 1,51). Gyges, Alyattes and Croesus are supposed to have donated splendid large kraters of precious metal to Delphi. Their capacity was given in amphorae (Hdt. 1,51; 70; cf. Hom. Il. 23,741; Amphora [2]), their value measured according to weight (Hdt. 1,14; cf. Plin. HN 33,15). Supports for kraters ( hypokratērídia, hypóstata…

Phiale

(338 words)

Author(s): Scheibler, Ingeborg (Krefeld)
[German version] (φιάλη; phiálē). In Homeric times, the term for a kettle (Lebes), basin, vessel in general. Later it was used only for a bowl without a foot and handle, which - in contrast to the Ancient Near Eastern model - was equipped with an omphalos, for better handling. An omphalos was a central concavity of the base into which a finger could be inserted from below. The use of the term phiale to indicate this shape is attested as early as the 7th cent. BC. According to literary and pictorial…

Lagynos

(104 words)

Author(s): Scheibler, Ingeborg (Krefeld)
[German version] (ὁ/ἡ λάγυνος; ho/ hē lágynos). Wine bottle with handle, wide flat body, high narrow neck and sealable mouth (see Vessels, shapes and types of, fig. B 10). A Hellenistic type of vessel prevalent up to and into the Imperial period. Every participant in the lagynophória (λαγυνοφόρια), a Dionysiac street festival in Alexandria, brought along a lagynos for his share of wine (Ath. 7,276a-c). Scheibler, Ingeborg (Krefeld) Bibliography G. Leroux, L., 1913 F. v. Lorentz, s.v. L., RE Suppl. 6, 216f. R. Pierobon, L. Funzione e forma, in: Riv. Studi Liguri 45, 1979, 27-50 S. I. Rotro…

Pottery, shapes and types of

(2,241 words)

Author(s): Scheibler, Ingeborg (Krefeld)
[German version] A. Forms, functions, names The variety of ancient pottery (ἀγγεῖον/ angeîon; vas) results primarily from the diversity of uses, such as transport, storage, scooping, pouring, mixing of solid or fluid contents (functional shapes) and secondarily from differences of form determined by period and region (types). The functional shape indicates only the basic functional structure, which is given its concrete expression only by a type. The fixed functional characteristics of an amphora (cf. fig. A…

Potters

(912 words)

Author(s): Scheibler, Ingeborg (Krefeld)
[German version] I. Introduction, origins, social position The potter (κεραμεύς/ kerameús, Lat. figulus) carried out his artistic work at the potter's wheel and in the creation of clay patrices (prototypes), models and sculptural ornamentation, though the profession included production processes such as mining and preparing the clay, painting, firing and selling the products. Despite at times enjoying good economic circumstances, the potter’s position in society remained modest; in Athens he was ranked amongst the thêtes , zeugîtai or metics ( métoikos

Pottery trade

(535 words)

Author(s): Scheibler, Ingeborg (Krefeld)
[German version] In Antiquity, manufacturers of simple utilitarian pottery generally met only the local demand of their region, while finer, decorated ceramics were also intended for the transregional market. However, the latter could also stimulate the export of poorer goods. The distribution of pottery finds in many cases indicates corresponding trade links, but there are also other factors to consider: the extended find radius of Mycenaean pottery is more a reflection of the presence of Mycenae…

Pyxis

(244 words)

Author(s): Scheibler, Ingeborg (Krefeld)
[German version] (ἡ πυξίς; hē pyxís). Box, round container with a lid; the Hellenistic name is derived from πύξος/ pýxos (‘box tree wood’), from which pyxides were often fashioned; the older Attic name is probably κυλιχνίς/ kylichnís. Pyxides are predominantly preserved as ceramics, more rarely made of wood, alabaster, metal or ivory. Among other things, pyxides were used for storing cosmetics and jewellery, so they were part of the life of women, the preferred motive in the red-figured style being portrayals of women's rooms; the…

Kylix

(303 words)

Author(s): Scheibler, Ingeborg (Krefeld)
[German version] (ἡ κύλιξ; hē kýlix). General ancient term for a wine goblet; mentioned in inscriptions are both goblets and skyphoi as well as flat drinking bowls. As a technical term, kylix is today only used for the latter. As a bowl, made of clay, with high foot and two horizontal handles, the kylix originated in the 6th cent. BC, probably derived from Laconian examples. It could be handled particularly well when lying down; it is no coincidence that it follows Oriental banquet customs. Early forms from the 8th and 7th cents., with a low foot,…

Lebes

(219 words)

Author(s): Scheibler, Ingeborg (Krefeld)
(ὁ λέβης). [English version] [1] Großer Kessel Großer Kessel, seit myk. Zeit zum Erhitzen von Wasser und Kochen von Speisen bezeugtes Br.-Gefäß, bei Homer neben Phiale und Dreifuß ein beliebter, auch in Edelmetall gefertigter Kampfpreis (Hom. Il. 9,122; 23,267; 613; 762). Der Zusatz ápyros (ἄπυρος) bezeichnet entweder neuwertige oder als Kratere dienende lébētes. Mit Protomen verzierte, vom Ständer abnehmbare Br.-Kessel des 7.-6. Jh.v.Chr. gehen auf oriental. Vorbilder zurück (Greifenkessel). Neben diesen Prunkkesseln entsteht eine kleinere, glat…

Lagynos

(86 words)

Author(s): Scheibler, Ingeborg (Krefeld)
[English version] (ὁ/ἡ λάγυνος). Weinflasche mit Henkel, breitem, flachem Körper, hohem, engem Hals und verschließbarer Mündung (Gefäßformen Abb. B 10). Bis in die Kaiserzeit reichender hell. Gefäßtypus. An den lagynophória (λαγυνοφόρια), einem dionysischen Straßenfest in Alexandreia, brachte jeder Festteilnehmer eine L. für seinen Weinanteil mit (Athen. 7,276a-c). Scheibler, Ingeborg (Krefeld) Bibliography G. Leroux, L., 1913  F. v. Lorentz, s.v. L., RE Suppl. 6, 216f.  R. Pierobon, L. Funzione e forma, in: Riv. Studi Liguri 45, 1979, 27-50  S.I. Rotroff, Hellenistic Pot…

Choenkannen

(121 words)

Author(s): Scheibler, Ingeborg (Krefeld)
[English version] Weinkannen des Typus 3 (Gefäßformen; Chus), in Athen beim Wettrinken am Choentag der Anthesterien verwendet. Nicht sicher identisch mit bemalten Tonkannen gleicher Größe, deren Bildthemen frei gewählt sind. Besser abzugrenzen die um 400 v.Chr. zahlreich produzierten kleinen Ch. (H 5-15 cm). Ihre Kinderbilder weisen auf Quellen, die von den Choen als wichtigem Einschnitt im Leben des Kindes sprechen (IG II/III2 13139, 1368 Z. 127-131). Einige Festszenen deuten zudem auf Kinderriten am Choentag. Kleine Ch. dienten wohl als Kindergabe zum …

Kylix

(236 words)

Author(s): Scheibler, Ingeborg (Krefeld)
[English version] (ἡ κύλιξ). Allg. ant. Bez. für Weinkelch; inschr. benannt sind sowohl Kelche und Skyphoi wie flache Trinkschalen; t.t. ist K. h. nur für letztere. Die getöpferte Schale mit hohem Fuß und zwei Horizontalhenkeln entstand im 6. Jh.v.Chr., wohl nach lakon. Vorbildern. Sie ließ sich bes. gut im Liegen handhaben und folgt nicht zufällig der Verbreitung oriental. Gelagesitten. Vorformen des 8. und 7. Jh. mit niedrigem Fuß sind att. spätgeom. Tierfriesschalen sowie ostion. früharcha. Kel…

Figurengefäße

(369 words)

Author(s): Scheibler, Ingeborg (Krefeld)
[English version] In kombinierten Techniken plastisch gearbeitete Gefäße; F. von Koroplasten, oft aus gleichen Matrizen wie die Statuetten stammend (Terrakotten). Vorläufer in Anatolien, Ägypten und im Alten Orient. Griech. F. aus Ton (Vögel, Rinder, Pferde) vermehrt seit dem 14. Jh. v.Chr. [1]. Reiche Produktion von Salbgefäßen mit Glanztonbemalung im 7.-6. Jh. v.Chr. u.a. in Korinth [2], Rhodos [3] und Böotien: ganze Figuren, Büsten, Köpfe, Glieder, Tiere, Tierprotomen, Mischwesen, Früchte [4]. …
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