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Dumnorix

(218 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Dubnoreix; Celtic composite name: ‘world king’ [1. 85-86]). Prince of the Haedui, brother of Diviciacus and son-in-law of Orgetorix, with whom he is supposed to have planned the conquest of the whole of Gaul (Caes. B Gall. 1,3). D. was the most powerful man in the tribe; he possessed his own mounted troop, and by means of gifts and matrimonial connections enjoyed great influence among foreign tribes, so that in 58 BC he was able to help the Helvetii to cross the territory of the S…

Albruna

(127 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Albrinia, Aurinia). Germanic compound name (‘the one furnished with the secret knowledge of the albs’?) [1. 553], probably not a personal name, but rather a designation for a visionary woman. According to Tac. Germ. 8, A. was worshipped almost as a god by the Germans together with others even before  Veleda. Several such visionaries are transmitted in literature; thus Ganna,  Waluburg and other women who are not named (Suet. Vit. 14; Cass. Dio 55,1). Their meaning is often overstated; they had sooner a low function in cult and in society [2. 151-162]. Spickermann, Wol…

Boduognatus

(58 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celt whose name is a compound from boduo and -gnatus ‘he who was born of the battle crow’ [1.461; 2.60; 3.152]. Commander-in-chief of the Nervii in the Belgian tribes' battle against Caesar in 57 BC (Caes. B Gall. 2,23,4). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Holder, 1 2 Evans 3 Schmidt E. Klebs, s.v. B., RE 3, 594 Whatmough, 214.

Mal(l)orix

(68 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic name compound with mall-, ‘slow [1. 236]. Together with Verritus, M. asked in Rome in AD 58 as king (?) of the Frisii for permission to resettle the tribe in Roman territory, took a seat in the theatre of Pompey among the senators and was given presents by Nero along with citizenship (Tac. Ann. 13,54; Suet. Claud. 25). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schmidt.

Druids

(1,802 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) [German version] A. Druids in History (CT) The druid figure best known at present, Getafix (Fr. Panoramix; Ger. Miraculix), is distinguished by the fact that he does not divulge any of his secret teachings. And not only that - - apart from the traditional cutting of mistletoe with a golden sickle passed down to us in Pliny (nat. 16,95) - - Getafix is never observed indirectly or directly during a cult activity, nor does he function as a judge in his village. Clad in white an…

Cassignatus

(61 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic composite name of uncertain origin [1. 167-171; 2. 165]. Galatian prince, in 180 BC ini- tially rejected by  Eumenes II, but later the leader of two alae of Galatian cavalry on the side of Pergamum and Rome against  Perseus. C. fell 171 BC in the battle by the Callinicus (Pol. 24,8; Liv. 42,57,7-9). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans 2 Schmidt.

Cerethrius

(31 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Κερέθριος; Keréthrios). Leader of one of the three parts of the Galatian army who plundered Thrace in 280 BC (Paus. 10,19,7).  Belgius;  Brennus [2] Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)

Indutiomarus

(170 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Leader of a delegation of the Allobroges, 1st cent. BC Celtic compound name from -marus ‘great’ [1. 96-98]. Leader of a delegation of the  Allobroges, who accused M.  Fonteius [I 2] in 69 BC in repetundae proceedings ( Repetundarum Crimen). Cicero defended him, evidently with success ( Pro M. Fonteio) [2. 83-104]. Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans 2 B. Kremer, Das Bild der Kelten bis in augusteische Zeit, 1994. [German version] [2] Prince of the Treveri, besieged Labienus in 54 BC Prince of the  Treveri, father-in-law and opponent of …

Teutoboduus

(77 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] The name is probably partly Celtic and partly Germanic [1. 202; 2. 277]. King of the Teutoni, who were annihilated in 102 BC by C. Marius [I 1] at Aquae [III 5] Sextiae. T. was captured in flight and in 101 handed over to Marius, who paraded him in his triumphal procession (Flor. Epit. 1,38; Eutr. 5,1,4; Oros. 5,16,11). Germani, Germania; Cimbri Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 A. Scherrer, Die keltisch-germanischen Namensgleichungen, in: H. Krahe (ed.), FS F. Sommer, 1955, 199-210 2 Schmidt.

Teutomalius

(38 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] ( Toutomotulus). King of the Celtic Salluvii, who fled to the Allobroges in 121 BC. They supported him against his tribe, but were defeated by Cn. Domitius [I 3] Ahenobarbus (Liv. Per. 61). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)

Cimberius

(77 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic (?) name of a leader of the Suebi who commanded a large tribal army together with his brother  Nasua in 58 BC [1. 438-440]. The attempt to cross the Middle Rhine and to aid  Ariovistus against Caesar failed because Ariovist was defeated in Alsace and subsequently fled across the Rhine (Caes. B Gall. 1,37,3; 1,54,1). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans. H. Bannert, s.v. C., RE Suppl. 15, 88-89 G. Walser, Caesar und die Germanen, 1956, 49.

Cotuatus

(57 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
Celtic composite name from cot -- ‘old’ (Evans, 340-342). [German version] [1] Leader of an army of Carnutes Leader of an army of Carnutes, who in 52 BC attacked and murdered Roman merchants in Cenabum together with Conconnetodumnus. As a deterrent, Caesar had him cruelly executed (Caes. B. Gall. 7,3; 8,38). Conconnetodumnus Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)

Brogitarus

(143 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Βρογίταρος; Brogítaros). Celtic compound name from brogi ‘land’ and taros ‘bull’ [1. 276f.; 2. 159]. Tetrarch of the Galatian  Trocmi (OGIS 349), husband of Adobogiona II, daughter of  Deiotarus I. P. In 58 BC, as people's tribune,  Clodius [I 4] Pulcher sold him for a great deal of money the priestly office of Magna Mater of  Pessinus and the title of king, which he had accepted in a plebiscite (Cic. Sest. 26,56; Har. resp. 28-29; Dom. 50,129; Ad Q. fr. 2,7 (9); Str. 12,5,2). The title …

Magalus

(47 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Greek Μάγιλος; Mágilos). Celtic name from maglo-, ‘prince’ [1. 234]. Chief of the Boii who offered himself to Hannibal [4] in 217 BC as an ally and leader for the crossing of the Alps (Pol. 3,44,5; Liv. 21,29,6). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schmidt.

Cavarillus

(61 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic name compound from cavar ‘powerful, strong’ [1. 331-332]. Noble Aeduan, as a successor of  Litaviccus in 52 BC commander of an infantry contingent of his tribe for Caesar. C. defected to Vercingetorix and was captured in battle together with Cotus and  Eporedorix (Caes. B Gall. 7,67,7). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Evans. H. Bannert, s.v. C., RE Suppl. 15, 87-88.

Leonnorius

(231 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] (Λεωννώριος/ Leōnnṓrios; Λεωννόριος/ Leōnnórios; Latin Lonorius). Galatian tribal prince; his name is Celtic. As leader of the Tolistobogii along with Lutarius, L. led a nomadic group of c. 20,000 people, who had broken away from the army of Brennus [2] in 279/278 and moved through Thrace and the Propontis and pressed Byzantium. The Celts were able to force many of the cities of the Propontis and the Thracian Chersonesus [1] to pay tributes, but were then taken on as mercenaries by Nicomedes I of Bithyni…

Cavarinus

(62 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic name compound (see Cavarillus). King of the Senones, appointed by Caesar as a successor to his brother Moritasgus. In 54 BC, condemned to death by his own tribe, he had to flee. A year later he did, however, again lead a Senonian cavalry contingent on Caesar's side against  Ambiorix (Caes. B Gall. 5,54,2; 6,5,2). Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)

Self-Romanization

(255 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] SR is the English term for the Romanisation of German scholarship, whereas in its original sense English Romanization is Romanisierung in German. While the latter emphasizes an active and intentional policy of the Romans in respect of peoples they ruled over, SR describes a dynamic process also implying that socially significant groups in Roman provinces have the desire to adopt the Latin language and the culture, lifestyles and religious practices of the Romans [1. 147 ff.]. The concept of SR refl…

Mariccus

(44 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] A Boian; in AD 69, as ‘self-styled saviour and divine protector’ of Gaul, he instigated an uprising in the territory of the Haedui; this was put down by Vitellius. M. was executed (Tac. Hist. 2,61). Haedui; Boii Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)

Segovesus

(105 words)

Author(s): Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic name containing the morpheme sego-, 'power, strength, audacity' (cf. also CIL II 2871: Secovesus [1. 254-255; 2. 1452]). Brother of Bellovesus and son of Ambigatus' sister. According to the Celtic migration legend recorded in Livy (5,34,3-6), it fell to S.' lot to advance with his group eastwards into the Hercynian Forest (Hercynia silva) in about 600 BC. According to ancient tradition, modern southern Germany was as a consequence settled by Celts. The historical content of this legend is highly disputed. Celts Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) Bibliography…
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