[German version] Ancient authors applied the name C. variously: either to the inhabitants of Scotland north of a line from the Forth to the Clyde (Tac. Agr. 25), or to a tribe in the region of the Great Glen (Ptol. 2,3,8), or to a group of tribes in northern Scotland (Cass. Dio 76,12). The reference to
Caledonia in Tac. Agr. 27 and to
silvae Caledoniae in Plin. HN 4,102 suggests that the C. settled across a large area of eastern Scotland. Almost unknown prior to the Roman invasion, they offered fierce resistance to it, before they were decisively defeated by Agricola at Mons Graupius in AD 84 (Tac. Agr. 10f.; 25-31). Archaeological evidence leads to the assumption of a military aristocracy with several local power bases. There was no kingship; Calgacus, who led the C. at Mons Graupius, was an elected military leader. Various forms of settlements, hill-forts, enclosed farmsteads,
brochs (stone towers) and
crannogs (lakeside dwellings). The use of pottery and metal objects was not particularly common. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography I. A. Richmond (ed.), Roman and Native in North Britain, 1958 G. and A. Ritchie, Scotland, 1981 M. MacGregor, Early Celtic Art in North Britain, 1976.