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Lysimachus

(2,226 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Λυσίμαχος; Lysímachos). [German version] [1] Athenian, 5th cent. BC Athenian, son of Aristides [1], born around 480 BC, is a dialogue partner in Plato's Láchēs (178ff.), where he is represented as the prototype of the unsuccessful son of a celebrated father. A decree mentioned by Demosthenes (20,115; cf. Plut. Aristides 27), according to which L. is said to have been granted support from the state because he was penniless after the death of his father, is probably a construction from the 4th cent. Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) Bibliography Davies 1695 III-IV. [German version] [2] G…

Nicanor

(1,649 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
(Νικάνωρ; Nikánōr). [German version] [1] Military official under Alexander the Great, died 330 BC Second son of Parmenion. Under Alexander [4] the Great he led the hypaspistaí of the hetaîroi in the major battles. During the pursuit of Darius [3], Alexander commanded him to pursue the Persian king with a group of riders who had given up their horses and the Agrianes under Attalus [2] as fast as possible (Arr. Anab. 3,21,7-8). He died soon after (330 BC). His brother Philotas stayed behind with an escort for his funeral. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 554. …

Andronicus

(836 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Et al.
(Ἀνδρόνικος; Andrónikos). [German version] [1] from Olynthus Macedonian officer (2nd half of the 4th cent. BC) Participated in all campaigns of  Alexander [II 4]. 315 BC officer of  Antigonus [1] at Tyre, then advisor of  Demetrius [2], whom he advised 312 to decline the battle at Gaza. In the battle he commanded the cavalry at the right flank and escaped after the defeat to Tyre, where he took over command and was able to hold the city for a time. At the end, delivered by the garrison to  Ptolemaeus [1], by whom he was honoured as a friend. Diod. Sic. 19. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliograph…

Antigonus

(1,768 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Et al.
(Ἀντίγονος; Antígonos). [German version] [1] Monophthalmus Diadoch (‘The One-eyed’), 382-301 BC.  Hetairos of  Philippus and  Alexander [4], married to  Stratonice, was the father of  Demetrius. During Alexander's invasion of Asia, commander of the Greek hoplites, satrap of Greater Phrygia from 333 until Alexander's death [323]. He defeated rebels and remnants of Persian troops, he gained Lycaonia and in 331 he received in addition the administration of Lycia-Pamphylia. In Priene he was honoured for an achievement, the nature of which is unknown. (IPriene 2). After Alexander's…

Neoptolemus

(2,308 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
(Νεοπτόλεμος; Neoptólemos). [German version] [1] Son of Achilles and Deidamia The son of Achilles [1] and Deidamia, the daughter of king Lycomedes [1] of Scyros. Rare but explainable variants of the mother's name are Pyrrha (Heliodorus 3,2 = Anth. Pal. 9,485,8) and Iphigenia (Duris of Samos FGrH 76 F 88; on this FGrH 2 C 130). Homer only knows the name N., and Pyrrhus probably only becomes more common in the 4th cent. (first Theopompus FGrH 115 F 355) because of dynastic considerations of the Epirote king…

Pausanias

(3,302 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Donohue, Alice A. (Bryn Mawr) | Et al.
(Παυσανίας; Pausanías). [German version] [1] Spartiate from the house of the Agiads Spartiate from the house of the Agiads, son of Cleombrotus [1], after whose death (480/479 BC) he became guardian for his cousin Pleistarchus [1] and 'regent' (Hdt. 9,10; Thuc. 1,132,1; Paus. 3,4,9), father of the later king Pleistoanax (Thuc. 1,107,2). In 479, P. led the contingent of the Hellenic confederacy of 481 to victory over the Persians at Plataeae (Persian Wars), where at first the Greeks almost suffered a catastro…

Clearchus

(1,254 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Et al.
(Κλέαρχος; Kléarchos). [German version] [1] Bronze sculptor from Rhegion Bronze sculptor from Rhegion. Because of his statue of Zeus Hypatus in Sparta, a   sphyrelaton according to the description, C. was wrongly considered the inventor of bronze statues by Pausanias. According to tradition he was a student of  Dipoenus and Scyllis or of  Daedalus as well as the teacher of  Pythagoras and, therefore, was active in the 2nd half of the 6th cent. BC. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck No. 332f., 491 P. Romanelli, in: EAA 4, 365f. J. Papadopoulos, Xoana e sphyrelata, 1980, 82 F…

Attalus

(2,358 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Dingel, Joachim (Hamburg) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Et al.
(Ἄτταλος; Áttalos). [German version] [1] Friend of  Philippus, rival of Alexander the Great at the court of his father Friend of  Philippus who did not punish him for an insult inflicted on Pausanias. At the wedding of his niece Cleopatra (II) to Philippus (337 BC) he called  Alexander [4] the Great a nothos (illegitimate son) and was attacked by him, whereupon Alexander and Olympias were banned (Plut. Alex. 9 among others). With his father-in-law (Curt. 6,9,18) Parmenion, he commanded the invading army in Asia. After Philippus' death, Alexander …

Polyclitus

(1,987 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Et al.
(Πολύκλειτος/ Polýkleitos). [German version] [1] Greek bronze sculptor from Sicyon, 5th or 4th cent. BC the Greek bronze sculptor Polyclitus. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) [German version] I. General Bronze sculptor from Sicyon, pupil of Ageladas in Argos. Biographical detail on P. is scanty. His sons were regarded as less successful. P. [2] may, judging by his name, have been a nephew, and Naucydes thus P.'s brother. Six pupils, with mostly unrevealing names, are recorded. However, various family and artistic lineages have b…

Archelaus

(1,291 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Pietsch, Christian (Mainz) | Et al.
(Ἀρχέλαος; Archélaos). [German version] [1] Macedonian king (ca. 413-399 BC) Son of  Perdiccas, king of Macedonia about 413-399 BC, who according to Plato's spiteful representation (Gorg. 471) was the son of a slave woman and had ascended to the throne by murder. However, he appeared about 415 in a contract with Athens in third place after Perdiccas and his brother Alcetas, i.e. as legitimate (IG I3 89,60). Murdering other pretenders to the throne was not uncommon among the  Argeads, who had no firm rule of succession. He was on a good footing with the Atheni…

Philocles

(895 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Volkmann, Hans (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Et al.
(Φιλοκλῆς; Philoklês). [German version] [1] Athenian demagogue Athenian demagogue, elected to the office of stratēgós in 406/5 BC and dispatched with the fleet to Conon [1] at Samos, both of whom thereupon were in command of the fleet in the Hellespont. Re-elected as a stratēgós, and subsequently partially to blame for the defeat in 405 BC at Aigos Potamos, P. was captured and executed by Lysander [1] for having had the crews of two captured Spartan triremes thrown into the sea (Xen. Hell. 1,7,1; 2,1,32f.; Diod. Sic. 13,104,1f.; Paus. 9, 32,9; Plut. Lysander 13,1f.; Plut. Sulla 42,8). Schmi…

Agathokles

(1,456 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Et al.
(Ἀγαθοκλῆς) [English version] [1] aus Athen Archon 357/56 v. Chr. Archon 357/56 v. Chr. (Demosth. or. 47,44; Diod. 16,9). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [English version] [2] Tyrann König von Syrakus (316-288 v. Chr.) später König von Syrakus, geb. 361/0 v. Chr. im sizilianischen Thermai als Sohn des aus Rhegion verbannten Karkinos, der unter Timoleon in Syrakus das Bürgerrecht erhalten hatte und eine keramische Großmanufaktur betrieb. A. verbrachte eine abenteuerliche Jugend, beteiligte sich an mehreren kriegerischen Unternehmung…

Archelaos

(1,199 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Pietsch, Christian (Mainz) | Et al.
(Ἀρχέλαος). [English version] [1] Maked. König (ca. 413-399 v. Chr.) Sohn des Perdikkas, König von Makedonien ca. 413-399 v. Chr., nach Platons gehässiger Darstellung (Gorg. 471) Sohn einer Sklavin und durch Mord auf den Thron gekommen; doch erscheint er um 415 in einem Vertrag mit Athen nach Perdikkas und dessen Bruder Alketas an dritter Stelle, also als legitim (IG I3 89,60). Die Ermordung anderer Thronanwärter ist bei den Argeadai, die kein festes Nachfolgerecht kannten, nicht ungewöhnlich. Mit den Athenern stand er auf gutem Fuß, lieferte ihnen Holz…

Neoptolemos

(2,084 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Engels, Johannes (Köln) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
(Νεοπτόλεμος). [English version] [1] Sohn des Achilleus und der Deidameia Sohn des Achilleus [1] und der Deidameia, der Tochter des Königs Lykomedes [1] von Skyros. Seltene und erklärbare Varianten für den Namen der Mutter sind Pyrrha (Heliodoros 3,2 = Anth. Pal. 9,485,8) und Iphigeneia (Duris von Samos FGrH 76 F 88; dazu FGrH 2 C 130). Homer kennt nur den Namen N., erst mit dem 4. Jh.v.Chr. (zuerst Theopompos FGrH 115 F 355) wird Pyrrhos häufiger, wohl aus dynastischen Rücksichten auf die epeirotischen K…

Lysimachos

(1,897 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Köln) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Λυσίμαχος). [English version] [1] Athener, 5. Jh. v.Chr. Athener, Sohn des Aristeides [1], geb. um 480 v.Chr., ist ein Dialogpartner in Platons Láchēs (178ff.), wo er als Prototyp des erfolglosen Sohnes eines ruhmreichen Vaters dargestellt ist. Ein von Demosthenes (20,115; vgl. Plut. Aristeides 27) erwähntes Dekret, das dem nach dem Tode des Vaters mittellosen L. Unterstützung durch den Staat zuerkannt haben soll, ist wohl eine Konstruktion aus dem 4. Jh. Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Köln) Bibliography Davies 1695 III-IV. [English version] [2] General Alexanders, 4. Jh. v.Chr. Gene…

Dioskurides

(1,368 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Διοσκουρίδης). [English version] [1] Sohn von Polemaios, Flottenkommandeur 314-313 v. Chr. Sohn von Polemaios, Neffe von Antigonos [1] Monophthalmos. Als Flottenkommandeur 314-13 v.Chr. erzielte er einige Erfolge. Sein weiteres Schicksal ist unbekannt. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography R.A. Billows, Antigonus the One-Eyed, 1990, 381f. [English version] [2] Polyhistor, 4. und 3. Jh. v. Chr. Polyhistor des 4. und 3. Jh.v.Chr., Schüler des Isokrates (Athen. 1,18,11 A). Von seinen Werken kennen wir folgende Titel (vgl. FGrH 3 B 594): 1. Apomnēmoneúmata (‘Denkwürdigke…

Kleopatra

(4,005 words)

Author(s): Prescendi, Francesca (Genf) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Stegmann, Helena (Bonn) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
(Κλεοπάτρα, lat. Cleopatra). I. Mythologie [English version] [I 1] Tochter des Boreas und der Oreithyia Tochter des Boreas und der Oreithyia, erste Gattin des Phineus. Wegen Idaia [3], die Phineus als zweite Frau heiratet, wird K. verstoßen; ihre Söhne werden geblendet (Apollod. 3,200; Hyg. fab. 18). Prescendi, Francesca (Genf) [English version] [I 2] Tochter des Idas und der Marpessa Tochter des Idas und der Marpessa, Gattin des Meleagros. Nach dem Raub durch Apollon wird sie wegen der Klage ihrer Mutter auch “Alkyone” …

Nikanor

(1,546 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Eck, Werner (Köln) | Et al.
(Νικάνωρ). [English version] [1] mil. Funktionsträger unter Alexandros d.Gr., gest. 330 v.Chr. Zweiter Sohn des Parmenion, führte unter Alexandros [4] d.Gr. die hypaspistaí der hetaíroi in dessen großen Schlachten. Bei der Verfolgung des Dareios [3] befahl ihm Alexandros, diesem mit einer Gruppe von Reitern, die die Pferde aufgegeben hatte, und mit den Agrianes unter Attalos [2] so schnell wie möglich zu folgen (Arr. an. 3,21,7-8). Bald darauf starb er (330 v.Chr.). Sein Bruder Philotas blieb mit einer Eskorte zu seiner Bestattung zurück. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliograp…

Antipatros

(1,889 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Et al.
[English version] [1] Makedon. Reichsverweser (320-319 v. Chr.) Sohn des Iolaos,  399/8 v. Chr., unter Philippos und wohl schon unter dessen Vater Amyntas und Brüdern mil. und diplomatisch aktiv. Er war Alexandros [4] bes. verbunden und sicherte ihm nach Philippos' Ermordung den Thron. Bei Alexandros' Invasion in Asien blieb er mit der Hälfte des maked. Heeres als Statthalter von Europa zurück. Er überwachte Griechenland und sandte während des ersten Jahres des Feldzugs dem König Söldner und maked. Auf…

Nikaia

(1,336 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basel) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Mailand) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Et al.
(Νίκαια). [English version] [1] Naiade Naiade, Tochter des phrygischen Flußgottes Sangarios und der Göttin Kybele. Als Jägerin verschmäht N. die Liebe und bleibt Jungfrau. Bei Memnon von Herakleia wird Dionysos von ihr nicht erhört, so daß er zu einer List greift und die Quelle, aus der N. zu trinken pflegt, in Wein verwandelt. Sie wird betrunken und schläft ein. Dionysos überwältigt sie im Schlaf und zeugt mit ihr ‘Satyrn und andere’ (Memnon FGrH 434 F 41, 8f.). Bei Nonn. Dion. 15,169-16,405 ist der…
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