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Censorship

(1,640 words)

Author(s): Binder, Gerhard (Bochum) | Binder
[German version] I. Definition Censorship -- from Lat. censura (‘examination’, Middle Latin ‘supervision, reprimand’) -- describes the control (preventative or pre-censorship) and/or the suppression (repressive or post-censorship) of written records, esp. literary ones. In antiquity, censorship was unknown in the sense of a set institution, such as existed later in the age of Absolutism or, if more concealed, in the totalitarian systems of the modern age; however, at certain times and places, it was exe…

Staphylus

(175 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
(Στάφυλος/ Stáphylos from σταφυλή/ staphylḗ, 'grape'; Σταφυλίτης/ Staphylítēs and Εὐστάφυλος/ Eustáphylos are epithets of Dionysus). [German version] [1] Son of Dionysus and Ariadne Son of Dionysus and Ariadne (Apollod. 1,9), brother of Oenopion, Thoas and Peparethus, husband of Chrysothemis [1], father of Rhoeo, Molpadia [1] and Parthenus (Diod. 5,62,1), considered the inventor of viticulture (EM 742,48). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of the Silen Son of the Silen; inventor of the custom of mixing wine and water (Sall. fr. inc. 87 Dietsch; Plin HN 7,199). Binder…

Rhomaioi

(443 words)

Author(s): Binder, Vera (Gießen)
[German version] (Ῥωμαῖοι). Rhōmaîos is the original Greek name for 'Romans', found in this sense especially in Greek historiographers (e. g. Polybius [2] or Dionysius [18] of Halicarnassus). As the imperial capital moved to Byzantium (Constantinople), however, Rhōmaîos came to be increasingly used for the Greek-speaking Byzantines; an initially still existing differentiation between οἱ ἐῷοι Ῥωμαῖοι/ hoi eṓioi Rhōmaîoi ('the eastern R.') and οἱ ἑσπέριοι Ῥωμαῖοι/ hoi hespérioi Rhōmaîoi ('the western R.' ) finally became obsolete with the decline of the western empire …

Kletorologion

(334 words)

Author(s): Binder, Vera (Gießen)
[German version] (κλητορολόγιον; klētorológion). Title of one of the best-known works of the genre of Taktiká, the lists of Byzantine offices and titles mainly from the 9th and 10th cents. AD that were manuals for the correct observance of court ceremonies (e.g. the seating order of dignitaries at court festivities, to be worked out by the atriklinḗs). They are an important source not only for customs and conventions at the Byzantine imperial court but also for the Byzantine administration, bureaucracy and officialdom of the period. From a linguistic…

Orthography

(1,884 words)

Author(s): Binder, Vera (Gießen)
[German version] A. Principles Orthography (Greek ὀρθογραφία/ orthographía is recorded as the title of ancient works, e.g. of the grammarian Herodianus [1], cf. also Flavius Caper, De Orthographia), 'correct' writing, i.e. that conforming to the norm, was originally not a topic of historical linguists, because for a long time they considered written language only as a more or less deficient copy of spoken 'true' language, not as a subject of study in its own right; in this respect they were able to view historical orthogr…

Tsakonian

(294 words)

Author(s): Binder, Vera (Gießen)
[German version] Modern Greek dialect spoken in a small number of villages in the eastern Parnon mountain ridge on the east coast of the Peloponnese. It is unanimously considered the only modern Greek dialect to predominantly continue an Ancient Greek dialect, Dorian Laconic, without any effects of the Koine. In other respects, it is difficult to assign Tsakonian to any dialect groupings (splitting into East or West Greek dialects according to retention/loss of final - n, respectively; splitting into North or South Greek according to the treatment of vowels following u…

Scriptorium

(940 words)

Author(s): Binder, Vera (Gießen)
[German version] The present-day use of the term scriptorium refers to the writing workshop for the production of books in the period prior to the invention of the printing press. For Antiquity, there is no evidence of the word scriptorium in this sense; the first record is Isid. Orig. 6,9,2 (in the sense of a writing stylus). However, we know that ancient libraries must have had such an establishment since the book supply for the library was not acquired from booksellers but was produced on site. In an anecdote transmitted by Galen,…

Virbius

(140 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
[German version] Male deity from the circle of Diana in the context of her little-known cult of Aricia (Serv. Aen. 5,95; 7,84); the road from Aricia to the sanctuary was also described as Clivus Virbi after V. (Pers. 6,56 with schol.). The earliest evidence for V. can be found in his identification with Hippolytus [1], the interpretation being based solely on the fact that horses were forbidden in his sanctuary in Aricia (Verg. Aen. 7,774-779; Ov. Fast. 3,266). The only piece of evidence of worship of V. outside Aricia is a burial inscription in Naples, which mentions a flamen Virbialis (CIL …

Vindemitor

(48 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
[German version] Name of a satyr, a catamite of Dionysus, after he became a star (formerly Ampelus [4]; Ov. Fast. 3,407 f.). V. has been since the time of Augustus the usual Latin translation of the star Protrygeter (Προτρυγητήρ; Protrygētḗr) (modern: ε Virginis; Vindemiatrix). Binder, Carsten (Kiel)

Agon

(1,143 words)

Author(s): Binder, Gerhard (Bochum)
(ἀγών/ agṓn). [German version] I. Term From the Homeric epics onward, agon meant a '(place of) assembly' and a '(place of) contest'. Agon as contest was not restricted to sporting and artistic competitions, but could also denote a legal battle (Dem. Or. 15,30), a difficult challenge (Soph. Trach. 159), a great effort (Hdt. 7,209) or a hazardous ordeal (Xen. Cyr. 3,3,44). Associated terms were used in corresponding ways: ἀγωνίζεσθαι ( agōnízesthai, 'to contend for a prize, to compete'), ἀγωνιστής ( agōnistḗs, 'competitor, combatant'), ἀγώνισμα ( agṓnisma, '(object/prize of) con…

Latinization

(645 words)

Author(s): Binder, Vera (Gießen)
[German version] Latinization is understood as the influencing of other languages by Latin as a result of language contact. Since the historical circumstances varied for each language contact, Latinization occurred in a number of different ways. The most drastic result of language contact is the complete eradication of languages and dialects; thus, Latin replaced related Italic dialects and languages at an early time ( Italy, languages), the most prominent victim being Etruscan. However, the Rom…

Polydora

(206 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
(Πολυδώρα/ Polydṓra). [German version] [1] Oceanid One of the Oceanids (Hes. Theog. 354). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [German version] [2] Daughter of Danaus Daughter of Danaus, by the river god Spercheius (Nicander fr. 41 Schneider) or by Peneius (Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 8); mother of Dryops. Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [German version] [3] Half-sister of Achilles Daughter of Peleus and Antigone [2], (half-)sister of Achilles [1] (Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 61; Apollod. 3,163. The river god Spercheius fathered Menesthius [2] on her, but the latter is nonetheless regar…

Peteos

(76 words)

Author(s): Binder, Gerhard (Bochum)
[German version] (Πετεώς; Peteṓs). Mythical king of Athens (Hom. Il. 4,338), son of Orneus (Paus. 2,25,6) and father of Menestheus [1] (Hom. Il. 2,552). Banished by  Aegeus from Athens, P. and inhabitants of the deme of Stiria are supposed to have founded the polis of Stiris in Phocis (Paus. 10,35,8). In the Egyptian tradition an Egyptian Petes is supposed to have been Menestheus's father and a ruler of Athens (Diod. 1,28,6). Binder, Gerhard (Bochum)

Abacus

(548 words)

Author(s): Binder, Gerhard (Bochum)
[German version] Like the Greek ἄβαξ, ἀβάκιον ( ábax, abákion), Latin abacus refers to various objects, made from a variety of materials, and which have the characteristics of a ‘platter, board, panel, or slab’: 1. the board used for board games and dice games ( Board games); 2. the platter used for serving food ( Table utensils); 3. a decorative wall panel ( Decorum, wall cladding); 4. the slab covering the capital of a column ( Column). 5. Often, abacus signifies a dresser or sideboard, most usually for the decorative display of valuable items. Thus Cicero says about Verres: abaci …

Thoon

(127 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
(Θόων; Thóōn). Name, appearing several times in Greek epics and myths: [German version] [1] Trojan, son of Phaenops Trojan, son of Phaenops [2] and brother of Phorcys [2] and Xanthus, killed by Diomedes [1] (Hom. Il. 5,152). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [German version] [2] Trojan killed by Odysseus Trojan, killed by Odysseus (Hom. Il. 11,422). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [German version] [3] Trojan killed by Antilochus Trojan, killed by Antilochus (Hom. Il. 12,140; 13,545). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [German version] [4] Phaeacian One of the Phaeaces (Hom. Od. 8,113). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) …

Salmacis

(174 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
[German version] (Σαλμακίς/ Salmakís, Lat. Salmacis). Name of a Greek nymph and a spring in Caria (Cares, Caria) not far from Halicarnassus; the city had a homonymous suburb with a sanctuary to Hermaphroditus. The name is probably derived from a local language of Asia Minor. The myth of S. is associated with a late and secondary version of the legend of Hermaphroditus: S. falls in love with the son of Hermes and Aphrodite (for the first time in this form in Diod. Sic. 4,6). He, however, resists her c…

Securitas

(108 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
[German version] Imperial Roman personification of general public and political 'security', based upon stable rule and the governing continuity of the Imperial house (frequent motif in times of domestic political crisis). Alongside the sparse literary and epigraphic attestations (Vell. Pat. 2,103,4; Tac. Agr. 3,1; CIL VI 2051,1,30), coins and medallions of the Emperor are particularly prominent sources. Earliest secure evidence: bronze coin of Nero (AD 54-68) inscribed Securitas Augusti (other customary addenda Securitas Augg., perpetua, publica, temporum etc.). Securit…

Wulfila

(519 words)

Author(s): Binder, Vera (Gießen)
[German version] ('Wolfling', Gr. Οὐλφίλας/ Oulphílas, also Οὐρφίλας/ Ourphílas), born c. 311, died 382 or 383. Bishop of the Goths (Goti), author of a Gothic translation of the Bible (Bible translations), the most important source by far for the Gothic language and the East-Germanic languages in general. Son of a Christian Greek mother (captured in a Gothic raid on Cappadocia) and a Gothic father. Probably in 341 (Auxentius of Durosturum in Maximinus [6], Dissertatio 34: triginta annorum episc opus est ordinatus), W. was consecrated 'bishop of the Christians in the land of…

Rhadine and Leontichus

(169 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
[German version] (Ῥαδίνη, Λεόντιχος; Rhadínē, Leóntichos). Unfortunate pair of lovers in a Greek folk legend, which according to our main source, Str. 8,3,20, was treated by Stesichorus (PMGF Spur. 278 Davies). As the only discussion there is of παῖδες Σάμιοι/ paîdes Sámioi ('children of Samos'), we cannot decide with certainty where the plot is set. Strabo places the legend in Triphylian Samos, but Pausanias knows of a gravestone of the lovers- a place of pilgrimage for unhappy lovers - on the Ionian island of Samos, on the route from…

Syleus

(96 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
[German version] (Συλεύς; Syleús). Son of Poseidon, who forces passing strangers in Aulis to dig his vineyards. Heracles [1], in the service of queen Omphale of Lydia, punishes him by uprooting his vines and killing him and his daughter Xenodoce (Apollod. 2,132; Diod. Sic. 4,31; Tzetz. Chil. 2,429-435). There is a deviating version in a satyr play by Euripides (TGF2 575), in which Heracles - not S., who has purchased him as a slave - appears as the actual monster (other variants: Speusippus, Epistolae Socraticorum 30; Konon FGrH 26 F 1,17). Binder, Carsten (Kiel)
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