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Eridanus

(207 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Ἠριδανός/ Ēridanós, Latin Eridanus). [German version] [1] Personification of a river in the west of France or Spain Mythical river in the (north) west (northern Italy, s…

Chloris

(193 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Χλωρίς, Χλῶρις; Chlōrís, Chlôris). [German version] [1] Goddess According to Ovid (Fast. 5,195ff.) the goddess  Flora was originally called C.; Zephyrus took her as his wife and made her goddess of flowers. This juxtaposition is an invention of Ovid. It was taken up by Lactantius (1,20,8) and by the Anthologia Latina (747R.). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Daughter of Niobe, the only one spared by Artemis Daughter of  Amphion [1] and  Niobe. She was the only one of the daughters of Niobe to be spared by Artemis, because she prayed to Leto. Her image stood next to that of the goddess in the temple to Leto in Argus (Paus. 2,21,9; Hyg. Fab. 9f.; Apollod. 3,46). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [3] Mother of the seer Mopsus Daughter of Orchomenus; wife of  Ampyx. Mother of the seer Mopsus (Hyginus. Fab. 14,5; Paus. 5,17,10). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [4] Wife of the Pylian Neleus Wife of the Pylian  Neleus;…

Byblis

(140 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Βυβλίς, Βιβλίς; Byblís, Biblís). Daughter of Miletus and Eidothea, the daughter of Eurytus, or of Cyane, the daughter of Maeander. Her passionate love for her twin brother  Caunus drives him into exile and h…

Educa

(107 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Edula, Edusa, Edulia). Roman ‘special deity’ ( Indigitamenta), which, according to Varro (antiquitates rerum divinarum 114 Cardauns) was named in Christian Polemic (Tert. Ad nat. 2,11,8: Edula; Aug. Civ. 4,34; 6,9) together with  Potina. According to Varro in Non. 151, E. ( Edusa) supposedly watched over the food for the children. Sacrifices were made to her when children had their first meal. In Donat. Ter. Phorm. 1,1,15, her name is Edulia.…

Euterpe

(151 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Εὐτέρπη; Eutérpē; cf. τέρπειν; térpein, ‘giver of joy’). One of the nine  Muses, the daughter of Zeus and  Mnemosyne (Hes. Theog. 77; Apollod. 1,13; Orph. H. 76,8; schol. Apoll. Rhod. 3,1 b). Later texts describe flute playing as her particular responsibility (Hor. Carm. 1,1,33; schol. Eur. Rhes. 346; schol. Hes. Theog. 76). According to Apollodorus of Athens (FGrH 244 F 146) and Heraclid. fr. 159 Wehrli, E. was impregnated by Strymon and gave birth to  Rhesus (cf. Apollod. 1,18; sch…

Pygmies

(323 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Πυγμαῖοι/ Pygmaîoi; from πυγμή/ pygmḗ, 'fist'; hence 'mittens' [1]; Lat. Pygmaei). A dwarf people, generally located by ancient ethnography at the edge of the known world, i.e. in Africa (Aristot. Hist. an. 8,12,597a), India (Ctesi…

Unicorn

(287 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (μονόκερως/ monókerōs, monoceros, unicornis). The unicorn was irrelevant to Graeco-Roman mythology; and it was not a theme in iconography (it is common, however, in mediaeval book illustration). Accounts of one-horned animals are more frequent, originating primarily from the Indian rhinoceros (Aristot. Hist. an. 2,1, 499b20; Aristot. Part. an. 3,2,663a20; Megasthenes FGrH 715 F 27b;  Ael. NA 3,41; 16,20; Plin. HN 8,76; 11,255). The main source was Ctesias of Cnidus, who was the first to describe in detail a fabulous one-horned wild ass in his Ἰνδικά ( Indiká = FGrH 688 F 45q). The animal was distinguished by a pointed horn on its forehead and by a special hock; drinking from a beaker made of its horn was supposed prevent illnesses (e.g. hierà nósos). In this way the unicorn became a typical thaumásion ('something amazing') of ancient ethnography (cf. also Caes. B Gall. 6,26). In the LXX, the Hebrew

Chryseis

(116 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Χρυσηίς; Chrysēís). Etymology ‘girl from  Chryse’ or ‘daughter of Chryses’. The daughter of the Apollo priest Chryses who was captured by  Achilles in Thebes and allotted to Agamemnon as a slave. When Chryses pleaded with Agamemnon to have C. returned, he was refused. On Chryses' prayer Apollo forced the return of C. by sending a plague. Agamemnon then demanded Achilles' captive  Briseis as a substitute and, thus, incurred his anger (Hom. Il. 1). According to schol. Il. 1,392 C. w…

Chrysippe

(23 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Χρυσίππη; Chrysíppē). Danaid who killed her spouse Chrysippus, son of Aegyptus (Apollod. 2,18; Hyg. Fab. 170). Bloch, René (Berne)

Deimos

(172 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Δεῖμος; Deîmos). Personification of fear; usually associated with  Phobos. Together with  Eris the pair urge warriors into battle (Hom. Il. 4,440), and harness the horses to  Ares's chariot (Il. 15,119f.).  Antimachus [3] misinterpreted them as the horses of Ares, descended from Thyella (‘storm’) [1]; similarly, in Val. Fl. 3,89 Terror and Pavor are the horses of Mars. According to Hes. Theog. 934, D. and Phobos are the sons of Ares and Cythereia (Aphrodite). In Semus, FGrH 396 F …

Concordia

(391 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] The personification and deification of harmony analogous to the Greek  Homonoia (Cic. Nat. D. 2,61; ThlL, Onom. 2, 555-558 s.v. C.). C. is attested on one of the pocula deorum ( Cucordia. pocolo) [1]. Worship of c. is attested in Rome from the 4th cent. BC. The decisive phases in her history are associated with the search for internal unity (cf. the concordia ordinum). A first temple was allegedly dedicated to her in the northwest corner of the Forum in 367 BC by  Camillus to celebrate the end of the ‘struggle of the orders’ (Plut. Camillus 4…

Candaules

(156 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Κανδαύλης; Kandaúlēs). According to Hdt. 1.7-12, the last ruler of the Heraclid dynasty in Lydian Sardis. The Greeks also called him Myrsilus after his father Myrsus. C. allowed his faithful retainer  Gyges [1] to see his wife naked so that he would be convinced of her beauty. He was then murdered by Gyges after C.'s wife confronted him with the choice of suicide as an alternative. A dramatic version of this material can be glimpsed from the remnants of the text (TrGF II Adespota …

Clementia

(124 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] Personification of clemency (ThlL, Onom. II, 487). Pliny (HN 2,14) names C. in a series of deified abstractions. The C. of Caesar [1; 2] was famous: the senate had a joint temple built for the Divus Iulius and the deified C. in which Caesar and the goddess were depicted extending their hands to each other (Plut. Caes. 57,4; App. B Civ. 2,106; Cass. Dio 44,6,4). On the golden shield of Augustus C. is one of the four virtues attributed to him (R. Gest. div. Aug. 34). C. is the central theme in Seneca's speculum regum ( De clementia). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 M. Treu, Zur C…

Erigone

(248 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Ἠριγόνη; Ērigónē). Name of two similar figures of Attic mythology: [German version] [1] Suicide, daughter of Icarius, welcomer of Dionysus Daughter of  Icarius, who had given Dionysus a hospitable reception and, for this, had received as a present the knowledge of making wine. When Icarius, on behalf of Dionysus, tried to introduce viticulture, he was killed by the farmers who thought they had been poisoned after they had drunk unblended wine. E. was led to her father's body by the dog Maera and thereupon hanged h…

Daunus

(175 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Δαῦνος; Daûnos). [German version] [1] Eponymous hero of the Daunians Hero who gave his name to the Daunians ( Daunia); son of  Lycaon. Of Illyrian origin (Fest. p. 69), he immigrated to Italy together with his brothers Iapyx and Peuketios. There they expelled the native Ausonians and founded three kingdoms: Messapia, Peuketia and Daunia, which together are called  Iapygia (Nik. fr. 47 = Anton. lib. 31). When  Diomedes comes to Italy, D. receives him kindly and is supported by him against the Messapians. …

Eeriboea

(70 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Ἠερίβοια; Ēeríboia). [German version] [1] Stepmother of the Aloads Stepmother of the  Aloads, who kept Ares prisoner. However, E. told Hermes the location of the prison (Hom. Il. 5,389f.). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Spouse of Telamon, mother of Ajax (also Eriboea/Periboea). The daughter of Alcathous, spouse of Telamon and mother of  Ajax [1] (Pind. Isthm. 6,45; Soph. Aj. 569; Paus. 1,42,2; Apollod. 3,162). Bloch, René (Berne)

Discordia

(148 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] The Latin equivalent of the Greek  Eris. In contrast with  Concordia, D. was never more than a literary personification, and not a cult goddess. Ennius (Ann. 225f.) has D. break down the gates of war (cf. Hor. Sat. 1,460f.). According to Hyg. Fab. praef. 1, D. is a daughter of the ‘night’ ( Nox) and of  Erebos. In Virgil (Aen. 6,280), she stands guard at the entrance to the Orcus; in Aen. 8,702 she appears ─ in a torn cloak ─ on Aeneas' shield amidst the tumult of the battle of Ac…

Euryganea

(52 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Εὐρυγάνη, -εια; Eurygánē, -eia). In the  Oidipódeia of the Cyclic Epics the second wife of  Oedipus, after  Iocaste (Epicaste) commits suicide upon discovery of her incest. From her come the children that are elsewhere ascribed to Jocasta (Oedipodea, argumentum; fr. 2 PEG I; Apollod. 3,55). Bloch, René (Berne)

Echemus

(153 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
(Ἔχεμος; Échemos). [German version] [1] King of Tegea in Arcadia King of Tegea in Arcadia, son of Aeropos, married to Leda's daughter Timandra who left him (Hes. Cat. fr. 23a, 31-35; 176,3-4; Paus. 8,5,1; Apollod. 3,126). E. won in an Olympic wrestling match (Pind. Ol. 10,66). Due to his victory in single combat against Heracles' son Hyllus, E. is said to have checked the advance of the Heraclids into the Peloponnese by 50 (Diod. Sic. 4,58,3-5) or 100 years (Hdt. 9,26). A relief fragment shows E. as an heroic fighter [1]. Paus. 8,53,10 describes the grave of E. in Tegea. Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography 1 U. Kron, s.v. E., LIMC 3.1, 676 no. 1. [German version] [2] Associated with the revenge campaign of the Dioscuri to Attica Dicaearchus (fr. 66 Wehrli) associates E. with the revenge campaign of the Dioscuri to Attica and equates him with the eponym of the academy ( Academus). Bloch, René (Berne)

Damasistratus

(26 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne)
[German version] (Δαμασίστρατος; Damasístratos). King of Plataeae who buried  Laius after he had been killed by Oedipus (Paus. 10,5,4; Apollod. 3,52). Bloch, René (Berne)
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