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Julio-Claudian dynasty

(376 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] This term describes the first five sole rulers of Rome (including their families) after the end of the Republic and the Civil Wars: Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius [III 1], and Nero. If we begin Augustus' monarchical status with his victory at Actium ( Actium) on 2 Sept. 31 BC, the dynasty's rule lasted almost 99 years, until the suicide of Nero on 9 (?) June, AD 68. It descends from four families ( Augustus: stemma ‘The Julio-Claudian dynasty’): the familia Iulia, familia Octavia, familia Claudia and familia Domitia. But in reality the dynasty unfolded al…

Lappius

(176 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] A. Bucius L. Maximus. Senator. Legate of the legio VIII Augusta at Argentorate around AD 77/78; Proconsul of Pontus-Bithynia under Domitian [1]. Suffect consul in 86, then consular legate in Germania inferior. When Antonius Saturninus revolted against Domitian at Mainz in late 88/early 89, L. put down the rebellion with his provincial troops; L. is described on his wife's funerary inscription (CIL VI 1347 = 37049 = ILS 1006) as confector belli Germanici, indicating acceptance of the official propaganda according to which the uprising was in reality a …

Tres militiae

(276 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] A schedule of promotion for equestrians ( equites Romani ) as commanders of auxiliary units and legions developed in the Roman army from the early Imperial period. In many cases, it comprised three steps. Although Claudius [III 1] had set the sequence: praefectus cohortis - praefaectus alae - tribunus militum (Suet. Claud. 25,1), from the end of the Julio-Claudian dynasty the normal order became: praefectus cohortis (commander of a cohort of 500 men; praefectus ), - tribunus [4] militum with a legion (or a cohors civium Romanorum), and finally praefectus alae (commande…

Attia Viriola

(45 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] From a noble family, married to a senator of praetorian rank. When she was disowned by her 80-year-old father, Pliny represented her case before the centumviri (Plin. Ep. 6,33); cf. [1. 700f.]. PIR2 A 1370. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 Syme, RP 2.

Maecianus

(65 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Avidius M., son of the usurper Avidius [1] Cassius, was iuridicus Alexandriae in AD 175; killed towards the end of the revolt by the soldiers; his mother was a Maecia ( Maecius). Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography A. R. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 21987, 192 PIR2 A 1406 R. Syme, Avidius Cassius - His Rank, Age and Quality, in: Bonner Historia-Augusta-Colloquium 1984/85, 1987, 218.

Tusidius Campester

(98 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] L. (?) T. Campester. Roman senator; suffect consul under Antoninus [1] Pius in the September/October of  AD 142 together with Q. Cornelius [II 54] Senecio Annianus (see also RMD 106, fr. 37 of the Fasti Ostienses = FO2, fr. S and a new fragment of a diploma in [1]). He is without doubt identical to L. Tusidius Campester (CIL XI 5632 = ILS 2735), the son of the procurator M. Maenius [II 1] Agrippa, whose career was in the time of Hadrian. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 W. Eck, P. Weiß, T. C., in: ZPE 134, 2001, 251-260.

Cosconius

(57 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [II 0] C. Celsus Presiding procurator in Raetia until AD 139 when he was replaced by Sempronius Liberalis [1]; his name should probably also be added to RMD II 94 = AE 1984,706. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 K. Dietz, Ein neues Militärdiplom aus Alteglofsheim, Lkr. Regensburg, in: Beiträge zur Arch. in der Oberpfalz 3, 1999, 225-256.

Tattius

(48 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] C. T. Maximus. Eques. Tribune of the equites singulares in Rome, attested 142-145 AD. Recorded from 156 until 158 as praefectus [16] vigilum; in 158 he became praefectus praetorio succeeding Gavius [II 6] Maximus until his death in 160. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography R. Sablayrolles, Libertinus miles, 1996, 487 f.

Epponina

(58 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Wife of the Lingonian Iulius Sabinus, whom, following his participation in the Gallic uprising against Rome in AD 69/70, she kept hidden in a cave for nine years, during which time she bore him two sons. Following their discovery, Vespasian had her and Sabinus executed in AD 79. PIR2 E 81. Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Mussius

(158 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] L. Mussius Aemilianus, rival emperor AD 261/2. He was of equestrian rank and his career is known partly from CIL XIV 170 = ILS 1433. After the quattuor militiae he became praefectus vehiculorum in the three Gallic provinces, procurator in Alexandria [1] and procurator of the two ports in Ostia (documented in AD 247). From 257-259 he held office in Egypt in place of the prefect of the province; at the same time correctores were operating there. From 259, M. was himself then praefectus Aegypti until 261. Since 257 he had been taking brutal action against Dionysius …

Rufrius

(270 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] (P.?) R. Crispinus Praetorian prefect, AD 47-51 Roman equestrian, of whose activities prior to AD 47 nothing is known. At that date, emperor Claudius [III 1] made him Praetorian prefect, possibly prompted by Messalina [2]. As a reward for his commitment to Claudius, he was granted the rank of a praetor and 1.5 million HS by the Senate. When R. was dismissed as Praetorian prefect in 51 at the urging of Agrippina, he additionally received the insignia of a consul. Married to Poppaea [2]…

Corrector (Italiae)

(225 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] At the beginning of the 3rd cent. AD there is evidence for the senator C. Octavius Appius  Suetrius Sabinus as corrector Italiae ( CI) while iuridiciiuridicus ) still held office simultaneously: CIL X 5178 and 5398 = ILS 1159 (under Caracalla); possibly T. Pomponius [II 5] Bassus was also CI: CIL VI 3836 = 31747 = 41237 (probably in 268/9). [3. 221 ff.]. So they had not replaced the iuridici as occurred from the late 3rd cent. These correctores were special authorized representatives, as the description in CIL X 5398 = ILS 1159 for Octavius Appius Sue…

Eprius

(244 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] T. Clodius E. Marcellus. Descendant of a socially unimportant family from Capua (where the province of Cyprus later had a monument erected in his honour, ILS 992); homo novus. He probably entered the Senate under Claudius, and became praetor in AD 48. After commanding a legion, he was posted to Lycia as praetorian governor ( c. 53-56); he was charged with extortion by the province, but acquitted. Under Nero, he became proconsul of Cyprus (SEG 18, 587 [1]), and cos. suff. in 62 [2]. He excelled as an orator, and under Nero publicly accused several senators, a…

Pollenius

(343 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
(also Pollienus). [German version] [1] Tib. P. Armenius Peregrinus Consul ord. AD 244 Cos. ord. in AD 244. He may have been both praetorian proconsul of Lycia-Pamphylia as well as proconsul of Asia after the consulate. The genealogical relationships are not completely clear; probably the adopted son of P. [2]. PIR2 P 536. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] P. Auspex Consul suff., XV sacris faciundis AD 204 Cos. suff. Consular legate of Dalmatia, judge commissioned by the emperor, praefectus alimentorum viae Appiae et Flaminiae ter, proconsul of Africa. It is uncertain wh…

Passenianus

(66 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Senatorial consular governor of the province of Syria Palaestina under the Emperor Probus [1] (cf. [1. no. 13]); the nomen gentile Clod(ius) supposedly read by [2. 192 ff.] = AE 1998, 1440 cannot be confirmed on the stone. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 C. M. Lehmann, K. G. Holum, The Greek and Latin Inscriptions of Caesarea Maritima, 2000 2 F. Chausson, Trois Clodii sénatoriaux, in: Cahiers du Centre Gustave-Glotz 9, 1998, 177-213.

Vespasia Polla

(57 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] Daughter of Vespasius Pollio from Nursia. Married to Flavius [II 39] Sabinus, the father of her three children, including T. Flavius [II 40] Sabinus and the later emperor Vespasian (Vespasianus, with stemma). Since her brother had been a senator, she also moved her sons to this career (Suet. Vesp. 1,3; 2,2). Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Baebia

(44 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] B. Galla, wife of procurator Q. Licinius Silvanus Granianus, flaminica in Hispania Tarraconensis (AE 1929, 232 = RIT 321); mother of a consular by the same name who served in the year 106 (see PIR2 L 247). Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Anicetus

(172 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] (Domitius?) A. Freedman of Nero Freedman of Nero (or Agrippina?) and his tutor, who did not stand in Agrippina's favour (Tac. Ann. 14,3,3; Cass. Dio 62,13,2). As praefect of the fleet of Misenum, he tried in 59 at Nero's command to murder Agrippina during a staged shipwreck; after his efforts failed, he had her killed by the soldiers in his fleet (Tac. Ann. 14,7,5; 8,2-5; Cass. Dio 62,13,2-5). At Nero's prompting, he admitted committing adultery with Octavia; therefore he was formal…

Thyrsus

(35 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] A freed slave of Octavianus; after the Battle of Actium, sent on secret orders to Cleopatra [II 12], but sent back again by M. Antonius [I 9] (Cass. Dio 51,8,6; 51,9,5 f.). Eck, Werner (Cologne)

Burbuleius

(76 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] L.B. Optatus Ligarianus, senator. A long career led him via the prefecture of the aerarium Saturni to the suffect consulate (probably AD 135, AE 1983, 517). Finally he was legate of Cappadocia from c. 137-140 [1. 182ff.] and Syria, where he died (CIL X 6006 = ILS 1066; cf. AE 1983, 157 = [2. 121]). Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 W. Eck, Jahres- und Provinzialfasten, in: Chiron 13, 1983 2 H. Solin, Analecta Epigraphica, in: Arctos 18, 1984.
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