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Iphis

(218 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ἶφις; Îphis). Name of a series of minor heroes (genitive Ἴφιος; Íphios) and heroines (genitive Ἴφιδος; Íphidos). The ambivalence in sex is the basis for the story in Ov. Met. 9,666-797 of the change of sex of the daughter of Lygdus and Telethusa in Phaestus, which is a poetic transformation of the aitiology related by Antoninus Liberalis 17 after  Nicander for the ritual of Ekdysia in the cult of Leto at Phaestus, where the heroine is called Leucippe [1]. In addition, several Argive heroes, an Argonaut, a comrade of the Seven Against Thebes and a female sla…

Cerdo

(43 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Κερδώ, Kerdṓ, the ‘purveyor of gain’). The wife of the Argival primordial man  Phoroneus; she has a tomb (and therefore a cult) on the agora of  Argos, next to the shrine of  Asclepius (Paus. 2,21,1). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)

Aglaea

(73 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
(Ἀγλαΐα, ep. -η; Aglaía/-ē, ‘festive radiance’). [German version] [1] Youngest of the Charites Youngest of the  Charites, married to Hephaestus (Hes. Theog. 945; Pind. Ol. 14,10). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Figure from Greek myth: Spouse of Charopus Spouse of Charopus, mother of  Nireus of Syme, according to Achilles, he was the most handsome of the men at Troy (Hom. Il. 2,671-5; Diod. Sic. 5,53). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)

Epione

(172 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ἠπιώνη; Ēpiṓnē). Wife of  Asclepius, with whom she had the daughters  Hygieia, Aceso, Panacea, and Aegle, and the sons  Machaon and  Podalirius (in great detail in the epigraphical paeans of Macedonius, the so-called Erythraean paean, and of Dion, CollAlex 136-139 Powell); she was reputedly a daughter of  Heracles. In contrast with the sons who in Homer are frequently referred to solely as sons of Asclepius, i.e. only indirectly linked to her, there is a close and direct link with…

Echidna

(247 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ἔχιδνα; Échidna). Primeval female creature in the shape of a snake, introduced into Greece due to the influence of Near East narrative art and iconography (Iluyanka for the Hittites, Tiamat in Mesopotamia). In Hesiod, E. is the daughter of the sea creatures Phorcys and Ceto (Theog. 295-303) and, together with  Typhon who also often occurs in the body of a snake, mother of a series of monsters ─ of Orthrus the dog of the triple-bodied  Geryoneus, of  Cerberus, of  Hydra, of  Chimaera, of the  Sphinx (Φίξ; Phíx in Hesiod) and of the lion of  Nemea. Later authors add…

Alexanor

(98 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ἀλεξάνωρ; Alexánōr). Healing hero with suggestive name (‘Protector of Men’, cf.  Alcon), who together with the healing god Euhamerion was venerated in the Asclepieum of Sicyon (Titane). He is included in north-eastern Peloponnesian healing mythology: the local myth made him a son of  Machaon son of Asclepius, and founder of the Sicyonian sanctuary with its ancient cult image (Paus. 2,11,5-7). In Argus he was regarded as a brother of Sphyrus (founder of the Argive Asclepieum: Paus.…

Aegialeus

(178 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
(Αἰγιαλεύς; Aigialeús). [German version] [1] Figure from Greek myth, Son of Adrastus Son (or father) of   Adrastus the Argive, the only epigone at Thebes who fell in battle. Father or brother of   Aegialea. A. was venerated as a hero in Pagae in Megaris (Pind. Pyth. 8,53-55; Apollod. 1,103 and passim; Hyg. Fab. 71) [1]. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Eponymous hero of Aegialea, name of part of Sicyon. also other name for Achaia Indigenous inhabitant who founds the oldest part of Sicyon, Aegialea, and gives the name Aegialus to the entire Peloponnese (Pau…

Cres

(100 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Κρής). Eponym of the island of  Crete. The contradictory myths mirror the island's various archaic institutions and mythologems. C. is regarded as the son of Zeus and an Idaeic nymph, but also as the protector of newborn Zeus (in this context he is addressed as Curete or as the King of the  Curetes); his son is  Talos. He is an autochthonous king and the bringer of culture, but also a lawmaker like  Minos, who influenced the late Spartan lawmaker  Lycurgus as well (Ephoros, FGrH 145; Diod. Sic. 5,64,1; Steph. Byz. s.v. Κρήτη). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)

Dido

(379 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] Mythical founder of  Carthage; called Elissa by Phoenicians, Theiosso by Greeks, and Deido by Africans because of her wanderings (so Timaeus in FGrH 566 F 82; but see Serv. auct. Verg. Aen. 1,340). The myth to be lastingly established by Virgil (Aen. 1 and 4) is in its outlines present already in Timaeus; a far more detailed pre-Virgilian version is to be found in Pompeius Trogus (Just. Epit. 18,4-6), but as in Timaeus without mention of  Aeneas. Her father, king of Tyre, was variously called Mutto (Ti…

Carcabus

(58 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Καρκάβος, Καρνάβας [ Karkábos, Karnábas] in Eust. at Hom. Il. 4,88). Founder of Zelia at Cyzicus, son of  Triopas and father of  Pandarus. He kills his cruel father and flees to Tros, the king of the Dardani, who expiates him and gives him the land of Zelia (schol. Hom. Il. 4,88). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)

Alcyone

(196 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
(Ἀλκυόνη; Alkyónē). Name of heroines attested numerous times; for instance, the wife of Meleager (Hyg. Fab. 174,7), the mother of Elephenor (Apollod. 3,11) or the sister of Eurystheus (Apollod. 2,53). In each of these cases it is unclear to what extent Alcyone coincides with either of the two well-attested figures. [German version] [1] Daugher of Atlas Daughter of Atlas, one of the Pleiades (from Hes. fr. 169). She is seduced by Poseidon, which is depicted already on the Cypselus chest (Paus. 3,18,10). The eponyms of various cities arise from the con…

Alcimedon

(141 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
(Ἀλκιμέδων, Alkimédōn). [German version] [1] Arcadian hero Arcadian hero, after whom a plateau at Mantinea is named, father of Phealo, whom Hercules made pregnant. A. exposed her with her child Aechmagoras; through a jay ( kíssa), which imitated the whimpering of the child, Hercules was led to them both, recognized the son and named the spring nearby Kissa (‘Jay spring’; Paus. 8,12,2). Also used elsewhere as a hero-name appropriate for the hexameter: Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Figure of the Iliad: chariot-driver Son of Laerces, leader of the Myrmidons, char…

Alectryon

(78 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
(Ἀλεκτρυών, ‘Rooster’). [German version] [1] Ares' minder during his meetings with Aphrodite Ares' minder during his meetings with Aphrodite. When A. slept late one morning, Helios discovered the lovers and betrayed them to Hephaestus. Ares turned A. into a rooster (Lucian. Gallus 3; Auson. 26,2,27) [1]. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] An Argonaut Father of Leitus (Hom. Il. 17,602), an Argonaut (Apollod. 1,113). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) Bibliography 1 C. Robert, Alektryon, in: Hermes 37, 1902, 318-320.

Ampyx, Ampycus

(59 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ἄμπυξ, Ἄμπυκος; Ámpyx, Ámpykos). Son of Tita(e)ron, the eponym of a Thessalian city (Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1,65). Seer, married to Chloris, the daughter of Orchomenus, father of the seer Mopsus (Hygin. fab. 14,5; Paus. 5,17,10). Titaresius (Hes. sc. 181) and Titaironeus (Tzetz. in Lycophrontem 881) are thus epithets of Mopsus. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)

Clyti(a)dae

(77 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Κλυτιάδαι, Κλυτίδαι; Klytiádai, Klytídai). Family, which together with the Iamidae ( Iamus) provided the seers in Olympia; through  Clytius [2], grandson of Amphiaraus, who is in turn the great-grandson of Melampus, the C. can be traced back to two of the central seers in Greek myth (Paus. 6,17,6). In the pre-Imperial period only Theogonus and his son Eperastus are known, by means of a statue in Olympia (Paus. loc. cit.). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)

Hero cult

(1,922 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
Hero cult (HC) is the cult worship of a particular group of superhuman beings whom the Greeks describe as heroes from the time of Homer (ἥρωες, hḗrōes); the etymology of the word is unclear, and the modern link with  Hera is problematical [1]. The HC uses both the form of the common Olympian sacrifice as well as more specific cult forms. In the course of the development of Greek religion, various groups have been subsumed under the category of heroes, from original gods to real deceased people [2]. [German version] A. The myths In Bronze Age Greece, heroes are perhaps presupposed by the ti-rise-r…

Initiation

(1,237 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] A. General Initiation refers a) in a perspective limited to Greek and Roman religion, to ritual inauguration into a mystery cult, b) in additional ethnological and socio-anthropological terminology, to the complex of rites with which in ancient society adolescents of both sexes are accepted into the society of adults (in German scholarship formerly referred to also as puberty ceremony). For the former function, corresponding ancient terminology exists (Greek μύησις; mýēsis, more rarely τελετή; teletḗ, Latin initia n.pl.), but not for the latter. This doe…

Antiades

(21 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ἀντιάδης; Antiádēs). Son of Hercules and Aglaea, the daughter of Thespius (Apollod. 2,162). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)

Acmon

(143 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
(Ἄκμων; Ákmōn, ‘anvil’). [German version] [1] One of the Idaeaic dactyls in the  Phororonis One of the Idaeaic dactyls in the  Phororonis (fr. 2,3 PEG), matching the dactyls as deities of the blacksmith's forge: the stem of the name is also found with those other divine blacksmiths, the Cyclops (Pyracmon, ‘Fire anvil’ Verg. Aen. 8,425; Acmonides, ‘son of the anvil’ Ov. Fast. 4,288) Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] In an early Greek theogony son of Gaia, father of Uranus In an early Greek theogony son of Gaia, father of Uranus (Hes. fr. 398; Alcman fr. 61). The…

Acrisius

(185 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ἀκρίσιος; Akrísios). Argive, son of Abas and Aglaea (Apollod. 2,24; Schol. Eur. Or. 965; Ocaleia), spouse of Aganippe (Eurydice Paus. 3,13,8), father of Danae. A. expelled his twin brother Proetus from the land; however, with the help of his father-in-law, the Lycian Iobates (Amphianax), Proetus compelled A. to share his kingdom with him; Proetus received Tiryns, A., Argus. Because of a prophecy that a descendant would cause his death [1], A. locked Danae in a subterranean iron va…
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