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Lamis

(131 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Λάμις; Lámis). From Megara, leader of a party of Megarian colonists who, probably together with settlers from Chalcis [1], went to Sicily around 730 BC. There the Megarians separated from the Chalcidians, and, the latter already having occupied the most favourable locations (Naxos, Catana, Leontini), founded Trotilum. They accepted an invitation from Leontini to drive out the Sicels ( Siculi) and live in the polis, but they were soon driven out themselves, founding Thapsus (moder…

Euergetes

(325 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (εὐεργέτης; euergétēs, ‘benefactor’). An honorary title bestowed by Greek communities upon people who rendered particularly outstanding services to them. There is evidence of this term with this meaning from the 5th cent. BC (cf. Hdt. 8,136), but euergesia as an aspect of the ideal of generosity of the Greek aristocracy can be traced back to the Homeric period ( Euergetism). In Athens the work of individual citizens for the polis in the 5th cent. was still primarily regulated by  liturgies and it was expected of on…

Amphidamus

(71 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἀμφίδαμος, Ἀμφιδάμας; Amphídamos, Amphidámas) Captain of the Eleans. In 218 BC A. was imprisoned by Philip V, but was released without payment of ransom after he promised to press the Eleans to form an alliance with Philip. His efforts failed, however; suspected of betrayal, A. had to flee Elis and returned to Philip (Pol. 4,75,6; 84-86).  Philippus Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibliography F. W. Walbank, Philip V of Macedon, 1967, 48 f.

Epeunaktai

(148 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἐπευνακταί; Epeunaktaí). Literally ‘bedfellows’. According to Theopomp (FGrH 115 F 171 in Ath. 6,271c-d), Helots who during the 1st Messenian War were set free by the Spartans and received citizenship; they were supposed to unite with the widows of those who had fallen (cf. also Just. Epit. 3,5,6, who however dates the events in the second Messenian War). According to this, the E. would have been the fathers of the so-called  Partheniai, who appear in tradition as the founders of …

Aneristus

(100 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(Ἀνήριστος; Anḗristos). [German version] [1] Spartan (beginning of 5th cent. BC) Spartan. After the murder of the Persian envoy in Sparta, his son  Sperthias went willingly to atone for this debt to the great king, but was let go there (Hdt. 7,134 ff.). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Spartan, died 430 BC Spartan, son of Sperthias. According to Hdt. 7,137 A. conquered Halieis. In 430 BC he fell into the hands of the Athenians as a member of a Peloponnesian delegation on the way to the great king and was killed (Hdt. 7,137; Thuc. 2,67). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)

Eteonicus

(121 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἐτεόνικος; Eteónikos). Spartan, campaigned under Astyochus against Lesbos in 412 BC (Thuc. 8,23); as  harmost of Thasos he was forced out by an anti-Spartan faction in 410 (Xen. Hell. 1,1,32). After the Spartan defeat at Arginusae in 406, E. took his ship and troops safely to Chios and stationed them there until Lysander's arrival (Xen. Hell.1,6,26; 35-38; 2,1,1-6; 10; Diod. Sic. 13,97,3; 100,5). He held a command at Aigospotamoi (405) (Diod. Sic. 13,106,5; Paus. 10,9,10). E. late…

Kalokagathia

(309 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (καλοκἀγαθία; kalokagathía). ‘Excellence’, a combination of kalós k(aì) (‘and’) agathós, where kalós means ‘beautiful’, and agathós ‘good’. Because since Homeric times Greek aristocrats had been defining themselves with these two adjectives [1. 8f.], kalokagathia was thought to be an expression of aristocratic self-representation in the Homeric tradition (cf. e.g. [2]). However, this has proven to be false [3. vol. 1, 611ff.]: kalokagathia is not recorded as a set expression until the 2nd half of the 5th cent. BC (evidence: [4. 1054ff.; 107…

Archinus

(89 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἀρχῖνος; Archînos). Athenian, around 404 BC initially an adherent of the political group around  Theramenes (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 34,3). Together with  Thrasyboulus in 404/3 he launched the struggle against the 30 Tyrants ( Triakonta) from  Phyle (Dem. Or. 24,135). After the victory he was a proponent of preserving the general amnesty and opposed to expanding Athenian citizenship (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 40,1 f.). The Ionian alphabet was introduced in Athens at his suggestion in 403/2 (Theop. FGrH 115 F 155; PA, 2526; Traill PAA, 213880. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)

Dorylaus

(227 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(Δορύλαος; Dorýlaos). [German version] [1] Great-great-grandfather of Strabo, friend of Mithridates V From Amisus, great-great-grandfather of the geographer Strabo, recruited mercenaries in Thrace, Greece and Crete as anḕr taktikós and friend of Mithridates V of Pontus. In Knossos he was chosen as stratēgós and defeated the Gortynians. After the assassination of Mithridates in 120 BC he remained in Knossos (Str. 10,4,10). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Son of Philetaerus, participated in the 1st Mithridatic War Son of Philetaerus, nephew of D. [1]. Raise…

Axiochus

(75 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἀξίοχος; Axíochos). Uncle of  Alcibiades (Pl. Euthd. 275a), and accused together with him in 415 BC of the profanation of the Mysteries in the house of Charmenides, after which he fled from Athens (And. 1,16); his possessions were auctioned. On his alleged amorous adventures: cf. Ath. 12,534F-535A; 13,574E and [1. 20]. He appears in the pseudo-Platonic dialogue that is named after him. Traill, PAA 139755. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibliography 1 W. M. Ellis, Alcibiades, 1989.

Rhetra

(758 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(ῥήτρα/ rhḗtra, Ionian ῥήτρη/ rhḗtrē, Elean ράτρα/ wrátra; related to εἴρειν/ eírein ('speak')). [German version] [1] Contract (general) Generally 'ceremonial utterance, something said with a claim to authority', figuratively also 'agreement, contract' (e.g., Hom. Il. 14,393; Syll.3 9, Elis, 6th cent. BC), later 'resolution, law' [1. 17-22; 2. 431; 3. 120283]. The phrase εὐθεῖαι ῥῆτραι/ eutheîai rhêtrai ('legal covenants') attested in Tyrtaeus fr. 1b,6 = °14,6 Gentili/Prato (2nd half of 7th cent. BC) expresses an ideal of a consensus extending to all po…

Maldras

(92 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] Son of Massilia, was elevated to king of the Suebi by the king of the West Goths Theodericus II in AD 456 after the murder of Rechiarius, although he had to defend himself against other pretenders [1. 124]. In 457 he plundered Olisipo (Lisbon) and laid waste to Gallaecia, in 459 to Lusitania and Portumcale Castrum (Oporto). In the same year, he murdered his brother, was then killed himself in 460 (Chron. min. 2,29-31 Mommsen). PLRE 2, 704. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibliography 1 D. Claude, Geschichte der Westgoten, 1970.

Endius

(106 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἔνδιος; Éndios). Spartan, son of Alcibiades. In 420 BC, E. attempted in vain as a delegate in Athens to prevent a symmachia between the Athenians and Argos, Mantineia and Elis (Thuc. 5,44-47). As ephor he voted in 413/2 on the advice of Alcibiades [3], who was banned from Athens and with whose family he was associated by proxenia, for a rapid shift of the war theatre to the territory of Athens' allies in Asia Minor (Thuc. 8,6; 17). After the Spartan defeat at Cyzicus (410 BC) E. attempted in vain to broker a peace in Athens (Diod. Sic. 13,52f.). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)

Herpyllis

(120 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἑρπυλλίς; Herpyllís). Life companion (first as slave, then freed, but probably not second wife) of Aristotle [6] (died 322 BC), in whose will she was lavished with money, servants, and the right of residence in the philosopher's estates in Chalcis and Stageira because of her excellent care of him (ὅτι σπουδαία περὶ ἐμὲ ἐγένετο). In case of a future marriage, the executors were to take care that she would not be given to someone unworthy of her (Diog. Laert. 5,13). It is impossible…

Abascantus

(54 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἀβάσκαντος; Abáskantos). Athenian from Cephisia, son of Eumolpus, from AD 135/6 34 years παιδοτρίβης δια βίου ( paidotríbēs dia bíou) (CIA 3,1112; 740 and passim), died after 169/70 Traill, PAA, 101125). His son A. (Traill, PAA, 101135) was κοσμητὴς τῶν ἐφήβων ( kosmētḕs tôn ephḗbōn) 192/3-200/1 (CIA 3, 1159). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)

Herostratus

(117 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἡρόστρατος; Hēróstratos). Arsonist, of unknown origin, involved in the destruction of the Temple of Artemis at  Ephesus in 356 BC. Under torture he confessed that he had been motivated by a thirst for glory, whereupon the Ephesians decided that his name should never again be mentioned. According to Valerius Maximus (8,14 ext. 5), only Theopompus did not abide by that (Ael. NA 6,40; Solin. 40,2-5; Str. 14,1,22 are based on him). In fact, other sources (collected in [1. 262ff.]) do …

Dekaprotoi

(303 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (δεκάπρωτοι; dekáprōtoi). College of the 10 highest ranked decuriones ( Decurio), attested from the middle of the 1st cent. AD for communities in the east of the Roman empire. The obligations of the dekaprotoi, the western equivalent of which were the  Decemprimi, varied according to region and in the course of time. As a rule they represented their communities before the Roman magistrates, received the sworn public accounts of departing municipal officials and administered the community treasury. From the 2nd c…

Anytus

(172 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἀνυτος; Ánytos). Son of Anthemion, a well-to-do Athenian. In 409 BC A. was sent as commander with a fleet towards Pylos, but was forced to turn back by a storm; he was, however, cleared at the subsequent investigation -- allegedly through bribery (Diod. Si c. 13,64,6). In 404 he was banished by the ( Thirty), subsequently playing a large part in their overthrow when he joined  Thrasyboulus (Xen. Hell. 2,3,42;44), becoming like him one of the most influential Athenian politicians after 403 (Isoc. Or. 18,23). A lover of  Alc…

Gorgidas

(139 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Γοργίδας/ Gorgídas, or Γοργίας/ Gorgías in Diodorus). The most important Theban politician and commander of the 4th cent. BC (cf. Diod. Sic. 15,39,2) alongside  Epaminondas and  Pelopidas, Hipparchus in c. 383. After the Spartan seizure of the Cadmeia, G. remained in contact with Theban fugitives in Athens (Plut. Mor. 578BC; 576A). He is said to have organized the resistance against Sparta by forming the ‘holy throng’ ( hieròs lóchos, ἱερὸς λόχος) (Plut. Mor. 594AB; Plut. Pel. 12; 18f.; Polyaenus, Strat. 2,5,1; in Ath. 13,602a attributed to Epami…

Diadochi, wars of the

(935 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] The term refers to the wars between the former companions and generals of king Alexander [4] ( Diadochi and Epigoni) for his inheritance, lasting from his death in 323 BC to the formation of the Hellenistic state system. The period of the D. can be roughly divided into two periods: the wars leading up to the death of  Antigonos [1] Monophthalmos (301 BC), who championed most forcefully the unity of the empire, and the subsequent phase, beginning as early as c. 305, in which the Hellenistic successor states of Alexander's empire slowly took on the characteris…
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