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Lytaea

(53 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
[German version] (Λυταία; Lytaía). One of the Hyacinthides. L., together with her sisters Antheis, Aigleis and Orthaea, is sacrificed in Athens on the grave of Geraestus, the Cyclops, when the city is under siege by Minos and suffering from hunger and plague (Apollod. 3,212; cf. Diod. Sic. 17,15,2). Stenger, Jan (Kiel)

Menoetius

(182 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Μενοίτιος; Menoítios). [German version] [1] Son of Actor and Aegina Son of Actor [1] and Aegina, who settled in Opus (Pind. Ol. 9,69f.); husband of Sthenele (or Periopis or Polymele), father of Patroclus and Myrto (Apollod. 3,13,8; Plut. Aristeides 20,7). In the Ilias M. is designated as hḗrōs (Hom. Il. 11,771; 18,325). When Patroclus killed Cleitonymus, son of Aphidamas, in battle, M. fled with him to Peleus in Phthia. From there, he sent his son to Troy, in support of Achilles [1] (Hom. Il. 23,83ff.; 11,765ff.). M. himself remained in Pht…

Minotaurus

(461 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
[German version] (Μινώταυρος; Minṓtauros). Hybrid of man and bull (probably as early as in Hes. Cat. 145), with the animal half generally more prominent. The Minotaur is the product of the union of Pasiphae, the wife of Minos, with the bull that Poseidon sends Minos to consolidate his rule. Daedalus [1] prepares Pasiphae a hollow wooden cow as a disguise to enable congress with the bull (Bakchyl. 26). Minos shuts the resulting Minotaur up in the Labyrinth, where either it is generally fed with huma…

Nemesis

(609 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
[German version] (Νέμεσις/ Némesis). Greek goddess and personification of retribution, avenger of hýbris , daughter of Nyx/Night (Hes. Theog. 223f.). As a mythical figure, N. played a role in the ‘Cypria (Kypria) as the mother of Helen [1]. Beset by aidṓs (shame) and némesis (a feeling of internal reluctance), N. tried to flee from Zeus, who pursued her over sea and land to mate with her. On her flight she transformed herself into all kinds of land and sea creatures (Cypria F 7 EpGF). When she had taken on the form of a goose, Zeus overc…

Philoctetes

(460 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
[German version] (Φιλοκτήτης/ Philoktḗtēs; Lat. Philoctetes). Thessalian hero, son of Poeas (Hom. Od. 3,190) and Demonassa (Hyg. Fab. 97,8); outstanding archer and companion of Heracles [1]. P. is distinguished by his bow, a token of thanks from Heracles for igniting his funeral pyre on Mt. Oeta (Soph. Phil. 801-803). In Apollod. 3,131 and Hyg. Fab. 81, P. is counted among the suitors of Helena [1]. Party, with seven ships, to the Greek campaign against Troy (Hom. Il. 2,716-725), he is bitten by a sn…

Metaneira

(182 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Μετάνειρα; Metáneira). [German version] [1] Wife of the Eleusinian king Keleos Wife of the Eleusinian king Celeus (according to schol. Eur. Or. 964 of Hippothoon), mother of Demophon [1] and of several daughters. Metaneira takes Demeter, who is looking for Persephone, into her house and entrusts her little son, Demophon, to her care. However she unwittingly disturbs the goddess who is trying to make the child immortal in the fire, and Demeter pulls away from him (Hom. h. 2,185-291; Ov. fast. 4,507ff., in …

Meges

(93 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
[German version] (Μέγης/M égēs). Son of Phyleus, sailed with 40 ships from Dulichium to Troy (Hom. Il. 2,625ff.), where he killed several enemies (e.g. ibid. 5,69; Q. Smyrn. 1,276ff.). He is one of Odysseus's men who fetched the propitiatory gifts for Achilles from Agamemnon's tent (Hom. Il. 19,238ff.), and one of those in the Wooden Horse (Quint. Smyrn. 12,326). M. is also mentioned as one of Helen's suitors (Apollod. 3,129). According to Apollod. Epitome 6,15a he is one of the many who died on Euboea during the return voyage. Stenger, Jan (Kiel)

Somnus

(509 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
[German version] (also Sopor, Greek  ῞Υπνος/ Hýpnos). As a god personifying sleep, Hypnos (= H.) is already mentioned in the Iliad, where Hera visits him on Lemnos and asks him to lull Zeus to sleep (Hom. Il. 14,230-360). In return she promises him Pasithea [2], one of the Graces (cf. Catull. 63,42 f.). Once he had done this, so that Hera could inflict harm on Heracles after the first destruction of Troy, H. had to flee from Zeus's anger to Nyx (Night). He then hides from Zeus in the form of a night b…

Mestor

(170 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
(Μήστωρ; Mḗstōr). [German version] [1] Son of Perseus and Andromeda The son of Perseus and Andromeda; the husband of Lysidice, a daughter of Pelops; and the father of Hippothoe. His great-great-grandson, the son of Pterelaus, was also named M. (Apollod. 2,4,5). Stenger, Jan (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Priam The son of Priamus, killed by Achilles on Mount Ida (Apollod. Epit. 3,32); Priamus laments his death in Hom. Il.24, 255ff. [1. 283f.]. In Dictys 6,9, M. accompanies Pyrrhus as a prisoner. Stenger, Jan (Kiel) [German version] [3] Son of Locrian Ajax, companion of Agamemnon A son …

Xuthus

(309 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
(Ξοῦθος; Xoûthos). [German version] [1] Son of Hellen and Orseis/Othreis Son of Hellen and Orseis/Othreis, brother of Dorus and Aeolus [1] (Hes. fr. 9 MW; Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 125; Apollod. 1,49); X. is the mythical ancestor of the tribe of the Ionians (Iones). With Creusa [2], the daughter of the Athenian king Erechtheus, he fathered Ion [1], Achaeus [1] and Diomede (Hes. fr. 10a,20-24 MW; Hdt. 7,94; 8,44; Apollod. 1,50). X. is sent away from Thessaly by his father and journeys to Attica, where he founds …

Megareus

(108 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
(Μεγαρεύς; Megareús). [German version] [1] Son of Poseidon Son of Poseidon (Hyg. fab. 157), father of Hippomenes (Ov. met. 10,605). M. brings an army to the aid of Nisus against Minos and falls in the battle. The city of Nisa is renamed after M. to Megara [2] (Paus. 1,39,5). According to others, M. is married to Nisus's daughter Iphinoe and succeeds him (ibid. 1,39,6; see also 1,41,3). Stenger, Jan (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Creon [1] and Eurydice Son of Creon [1] and Eurydice. He saves Thebes by sacrificing his own life in war (Aeschyl. Sept. 474; Soph. Ant. 1303 with schol.). Stenger, J…

Mantichoras

(127 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
[German version] (μαντιχώρας; mantichṓras, also martichoras, μαρτιχώρας; martichṓras). According to Ctesias (in Aristot. Hist. an. 2,1, 501a 24ff.), an Indian animal with the body of a lion and the face of a human, with three rows of teeth. The fur was vermilion and the tail was shaped like a scorpion's so that the mantichoras could shoot deadly spines like arrows. The voice sounded like a mixture of a shepherd's pipe and trumpet. The mantichoras is described as fast, wild and man-eating (the meaning of the name, which is of Persian origin; cf. Ael. NA 4,21). Accordi…

Peleus

(787 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
[German version] (Πηλεύς; Pēleús). Son of Aeacus (Hom. Il. 21,189) and the daughter of Chiron, Endeis, brother of Telamon (Ov. Met. 7,476f.; cf. Pind. P. 8,100; in Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 60, they are only friends), husband of the Nereid Thetis, father of Achilles [1]. As P. and Telamon intentionally kill their half-brother Phocus (Alcmaeonis F 1 EpGF; Apollod. 3,160), they are banished from their homeland of Aegina by Aeacus. P. goes to Phthia, to Eurytion [4] who purifies him and gives him his daught…

Megareus

(108 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
(Μεγαρεύς). [English version] [1] Sohn des Poseidon Sohn des Poseidon (Hyg. fab. 157), Vater des Hippomenes (Ov. met. 10,605). M. kommt mit einem Heer dem Nisos gegen Minos zu Hilfe und fällt im Kampf. Nach M. wird die Stadt Nisa in Megara [2] umbenannt (Paus. 1,39,5). Nach anderen ist M. mit Nisos' Tochter Iphinoe verheiratet und folgt diesem in der Herrschaft (ebd. 1,39,6; s. auch 1,41,3). Stenger, Jan (Kiel) [English version] [2] Sohn des Kreon [1] und der Eurydike Sohn des Kreon [1] und der Eurydike; rettet Theben durch Opferung des eigenen Lebens im Krieg (Aischyl. Se…

Messe

(93 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
[1] Ort in Lakonien (Μέσση). Einer der bei Hom. Il. 2,582 genannten Orte Lakoniens, deren Herrscher Menelaos ist (vgl. Stat. Theb. 4,226). Strab. 8,5,3 berichtet, daß ein Ort namens M. nirgends gezeigt werde, daß aber einige M. als apokopierte Form für Messene [2] ansähen. Paus. 3,25,9 lokalisiert M. auf dem Weg zw. Tainaron und Oitylos an der Küste des Messenischen Golfes, doch ist auch die bei Strabon gegebene Identifizierung mit Messoa nicht auszuschließen. Stenger, Jan (Kiel) Bibliography E. Visser, Homers Katalog der Schiffe, 1997, 483-488. [2] (christlich) s. Missa (christlich…

Melaneus

(82 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
[English version] (Μελανεύς). Sohn des Apollon (bei Pherekydes FGrH 3 F 82a des Arkesilaos), Vater von Eurytos [1] und Ambrakia; guter Bogenschütze, der über die Dryoper herrscht und Epeiros durch Krieg erobert (Antoninus Liberalis 4,3). Nach Paus. 4,2,2 berichteten die Messenier, daß er von Perieres, dem Herrscher von Messenien, das Oichaliagebiet zugewiesen bekommen habe; die Stadt Oichalia soll ihren Namen von der Frau des M. erhalten haben. Eretria auf Euboia hieß früher nach M. Melaneís (Strab. 10,1,10). Stenger, Jan (Kiel)

Minos

(751 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
[English version] (Μίνως). Myth. König von Kreta, Sohn des Zeus und der Europe [2]; als sterblicher Vater wird Asterios (Asterion [1]) genannt (Apollod. 3,1,2). M. ist Bruder des Rhadamanthys (Hom. Il. 14,321f.), schon bei Hes. cat. 140 auch des Sarpedon; als Gemahl der Pasiphae ist er Vater von Deukalion, Ariadne, Phaidra und weiteren Kindern, auch aus anderen Liebesverhältnissen (namentlich genannt bei Apollod. 3,1,2). Diod. 4,60,3 unterscheidet zwei Herrscher namens M., Großvater und Enkel. M. ist bes. bekannt für seine Tätigkeit als Richter und erster Gesetzgeber…

Patroklos

(905 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Πάτροκλος, auch Πατροκλῆς; lat. Patroclus). [English version] [1] Gefährte des Achilleus Sohn des Menoitios [1] aus Opus (Hom. Il. 11,814; der Name der Mutter bei Homer nicht genannt, Varianten bei Apollod. 3,176), bester Freund des Achilleus [1]. In seiner Kindheit tötet P. aus Zorn beim Würfeln einen Spielkameraden, worauf er nach Phthia zu Peleus flieht, der ihn dem Achilleus zum Gefährten gibt (Hom. Il. 23,85-90; Hellanikos FGrH 4 F 145; Apollod. 3,176). Nach Pind. O. 9,70-79 kämpft P. schon vor dem e…

Messeis

(83 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
[English version] (Μεσσηίς). Bei Hom. Il. 6,457 genannte Quelle. Hektor prophezeit Andromache, daß sie einst in Argos aus den Quellen M. und Hypereia Wasser holen werde. Nach Strab. 9,5,6 zeigten die Einwohner von Pharsalos eine 60 Stadien von ihrer Stadt entfernte völlig zerstörte Stadt Hellas (vgl. Herakleides 3,2), in deren Nähe sich die beiden Quellen befänden. Plin. nat. 4,8,30 lokalisiert die Quelle M. in Thessalien, Paus. 3,20,1 behauptet, bei Therapne in Lakonien den Brunnen M. gesehen zu haben. Stenger, Jan (Kiel)

Nektar

(305 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel)
[English version] (νέκταρ, lat. nectar). N. (abgeleitet aus ägypt. ntry, “göttlich” [1]) dient zusammen mit Ambrosia [2] als Nahrung der Olympischen Götter, die nach Hom. Il. 5,339-341 weder Brot essen noch Wein trinken. Dabei stellt man sich N. zumeist als Trank, Ambrosia als Speise vor (z.B. Hom. Od. 5,93), doch gibt es auch die umgekehrte Auffassung; bei Alkm. fr. 42 PMG und Anaxandrides fr. 58 PCG ist N. Speise. Urspr. hatten N. und Ambrosia aber dieselbe Beschaffenheit (vgl. Hom. Od. 9,359). An den …
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