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Leo

(2,156 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Arens, Herbert (Aachen) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] see Domitius [II 17] Leo Praefectus urbi under Elagabalus; see Domitius [II 17] Leo. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] Leo Narbonensis High-ranking Gaulish senator, 5th cent. AD High-ranking Gaulish senator ( vir spectabilis), a descendant of Fronto [6]; poet, orator, and jurist. As consiliarius (‘adviser’) to the kings Euricus and Alaricus [3] II, L. was between c. AD 475 and 484 (as a Roman) the most important official within the Visigoth kingdom. He wrote Euricus' speeches and received envoys on his behalf (such as in 474…

Basileus

(3,191 words)

Author(s): Carlier, Pierre (Nancy) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(βασιλεύς; basileús). I. Mycenaean period up to the Hellenistic Monarchies [German version] A. Mycenaean The word basileus has not yet been sufficiently explained etymologically. It is usually translated as ‘king’ and probably stems from the pre-Hellenistic substratum. The Mycenaean form qa-si-re-u is evidently identical to βασιλεύς, but instead of designating the sovereign of a kingdom (he holds the title of wa-na-ka), it refers to a considerably lower position. Qa-si-re-u and its derivation qa-si-re-wi-ja can be found about 20 times in the Linear-B archives of Cn…

Basiliscus

(178 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Βασιλίσκος; Basilískos), Flavius. East Roman counter-emperor, brother of the empress Verina who was the wife of emperor  Leo I (457-474). Since 468, he held the office of mag. militum. In 468, he fought unsuccessfully against the Vandals, in 471, he supported Leo in overthrowing and murdering Aspar ( Ardabur), the powerful mag. militum, and revolted against Leo's son-in-law  Zeno (474-491) from January 475 until August 476 with the support of Monophysite groups. During his rule, he issued an edict to abolish the doctrines establi…

Gobazes

(67 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Γωβάζης; Gōbázēs). King of the Lazes, abdicated in c. AD 456 in favour of his son under pressure from the Roman government, visited Constantinople in 465/6 for negotiations with Emperor Leo I, in which Daniel the Stylite, who lived there and whom he revered, supported him in a mediating role. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography PLRE 2, 515 ODB 1, 585, s.v. Daniel the Stylite.

Iustinianus

(1,554 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] Flavius Iustinianus I. Roman emperor AD 527-565 The Roman emperor Justinian (AD 527-565), born c. 482 of Thracian-Illyrian origins as the son of a farmer, with the Latin name Petrus Sabbatius in Bederiana by Tauresium, in the area of the city Iustiniana Prima, which he later built (probably identical with modern Caričin Grad, 45 km south of Niš; see [1. 1085]), died on 14 November 565 in Constantinople. He owed his rise to  Iustinus [1] I, his mother's brother. He trusted I. especially, who was serving as candidatus in the imperial palace guard when his uncle c…

Romanos

(779 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Ῥωμανός; Rhōmanós). [German version] [1] R. Melodod, the Melodist Byzantine hymnographer, 5th/6th cent. AD (Ῥωμανὸς Μελωδός; Rhōmanòs Melōdós). Byzantine hymnographer of Syrian origin, b. before AD 493 at Emesa (present-day Ḥims in Syria), d. between AD 551 and 565 at Constantinople. Initially deacon at Berytus (Beirut), he took up his post at the Church of the Virgin at Constantinople under the emperor Anastasius [1] I. According to legend, he is said to have decided to become a composer of hymns after receivi…

Stotzas

(92 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Στότζας; Stótzas). Member of Martinus' [2] guard, accompanying him on Belisarius' campaign against the Vandali in AD 533. Rebelling troops in Africa chose him as their leader in 536. After a failed attempt to conquer Carthage, he was defeated in 537 by Germanus [1] and fled to Mauretania. In 541 he rebelled again, assumed the title of emperor and tried to extend his power in northern Africa until in 545 he was killed in a battle. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography A. Kazhdan, s.v. S., ODB 3, 1959f.  PLRE 3B, 1199f.

Demarchos

(417 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Δήμαρχος; Dḗmarchos). Holder of office with political and/or religious duties in Greek communities. Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) [German version] I. Greece until late antiquity (1) In Athens the demarchos was the highest office-holder in each of the 139 demes ( Demos [2]), into which Cleisthenes had divided the polis ([Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 54,8). By no later than the 4th cent. BC the demarchos was elected by lot in each   dḗmos for one year; the demarchos for Piraeus on the other hand was appointed by the polis (Ath. Pol. 54,8). He convened and chaired the assembly of th…

Macrobius

(1,341 words)

Author(s): Flamant, Jaques (Venelles) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[1] M., Theodosius Writer of the Saturnalia, c. 400 [German version] A. Identification There are three Latin works extant under the name Ambrosius Theodosius M., vir clarissimus and illustris (sometimes listed in reverse order): 7 bks. of Saturnalia( Sat.), 2 bks. of Commentarii in Somnium Scipionis ( Somn.) and excerpts from De differentiis et societatibus Graeci Latinique verbi. Otherwise the author is unknown. However, the persons that appear in Sat. (Vettius Agorius Praetextatus, Q. Aurelius Symmachus and several Albini) are well-known Roman aristocrats from …

Logariastes

(82 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (λογαριαστής, λογαριαστεύων, λογιστής; logariastḗs, logariasteúōn, logistḗs). From the 11th cent. AD the financial official responsible for the control of public expenditure in several departments of the central and provincial administration of the Byzantine empire. Alexios I (1081-1118) introduced a mégas logariastḗs as the top supervisor of the state expenses who initially acted with the sakellarios and later acted in his place. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography ODB 2, 1244f. R. Guilland, Titres et fonctions de l'Empire byzantin, 1976, XXI (1969).

Taxes

(6,422 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Römer, Malte (Berlin) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn) | Pack, Edgar (Cologne) | Et al.
[German version] I. Mesopotamia Income needed to finance tasks of state and general social functions (administration, the military, irrigation, prestige buildings, the court, cults, etc.) did not come from an all-embracing system of taxation levied on individuals, transactions or property, but on a general duty of service and labour on the part of subjects. Under the oikos economy (3rd millennium BC), the palace’s income came predominantly from the domestic operation of the institutional economies of temple and palace. In the tribute-based economy da…

Petrus

(2,718 words)

Author(s): Frank, Karl Suso (Freiburg) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Apostle (Πέτρος/ Pétros, literally 'the rock'). Apostle, leading figure in the group of disciples called by Jesus of Nazareth and in the original Christian community. Frank, Karl Suso (Freiburg) [German version] A. General comments Sources documenting his life include: (1) the NT writings: the Gospels, the Acts of the Apostles, Paul's letters (1 Corinthians, Galatians), the 1st and 2nd letter of P. (biographical analysis needs to take into account the special character of these writings); (2) early Church writi…

Narses

(824 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Middle Persian Narseh, Armenian Nersēh, Greek Ναρσῆς/ Narsȇs, also Ναρσαῖος/ Narsaȋos). [German version] [1] Brother of Sapor I, died in AD 302 Brother of Sapor I, when he was prince-governor of (Persian) Armenia in AD 293 he overthrew his great-nephew Wahram III from the Persian throne and documented his success in the Paikuli inscription (cf. [1]). In about 296, N. renewed the conflict with Rome by invading (Roman) Armenia. The emperor Galerius [5] suffered a defeat at Carrhae (Ḥarran) in 297, but was able to besi…

Heraclius [1-7]

(1,041 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Ἡράκλειος; Hērákleios). Two prominent Sicilians known from the trial of  Verres in 70 BC: [German version] [1] Citizen of Syracuse, 1st cent. BC The son of a certain Hieron, a wealthy citizen of Syracuse. In 73 BC he inherited from a homonymous relative a magnificent house including furnishings and 3 million sesterces (Cic. Verr. 2,14,35). Because of the machinations of Verres, who contested the will, H. lost his wealth and the inheritance. The real estate was returned to him by L. Caecilius [I 13] Metellus, the successor of Verres (Cic. Verr. 2,19,47-50; 25,62). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) …

Hypatos

(145 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] The Republican office of consul (Greek ὕπατος, hýpatos) apparently continued under Augustus and his successors, but de facto, until AD 541, only as an honorary title, that after 541 was reserved exclusively for the ruling (east Roman) emperor (until the 7th cent.). As early as from the 7th cent. hypatos is documented on Byzantine seals as a  court title, that no longer has anything in common with the old office of consul. It is a relatively lowly rank according to the catalogues of ranks of the 9th and 10th cents. and is subordinate to the titles ἀνθύπατος ( anthýpatos, procon…

Sebastos

(59 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (Σεβαστός/ Sebastós). Originally a Greek equivalent for the Latin title Augustus, was not introduced as a title in the Byzantine court until the 11th century AD; after 1081 it was conferred - also in combinations such as sebastokrátōr - by the Comnenian emperors predominantly on family members. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography A. Kazhdan, s.v. S., ODB 3, 1862 f.

Lydus

(899 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Mommsen, Heide (Stuttgart) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Λυδός; Lydós). [German version] [1] Mythological king of Lydia Mythological king of Lydia, son of Atys [1], brother of Tyrsenus ( Tyrrhenus). Eponym of the Lydian people ( Lydia) (formerly Maeon: Hom. Il. 2,864): Hdt. 1,94; Str. 5,219; Tac. Ann. 4,55. According to Hdt. 1,171 L., Mysus and Car were brothers, which expresses the tribal kinship of the Lydians, Carians and Mysians ( Carian, Mysia). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Attic black-figured vase painter (ὁ Λυδός/ ho Lydós, ‘the Lydian’). Attic black-figured vase painter, before 560-540/530 BC; a bit older t…

Parakoimomenos

(48 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (παρακοιμώμενος / parakoimṓmenos, 'the one who sleeps nearby'). Senior imperial chamberlain, the highest-ranking court eunuch at Constantinople, probably succeeding the earlier praepositus sacri cubiculi; reliably attested only from AD 780; a highly influential office in the 9th-11th cents. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography ODB 3, 1584.

Protostrator

(59 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] (πρωτοστράτωρ; prōtostrátōr). Byzantine term, 8th-15th cents. AD, for the superintendent of the imperial grooms ('marshal'), who accompanied the emperor when riding. It was an influential position close to the emperor and was considered favourable for further advancement. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography R. Guilland, Recherches sur les institutions byzantines, vol. 1, 1967, 478-497  ODB 3, 1748 f.

Bardas

(86 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] Byzantine statesman, Armenian, brother of Theodora, mother of Emperor Michael III (AD 842-867). Bearer of the highest court title Caesar (καῖσαρ) since 862. He promoted the mission to the Slavs, founded a school for scientific studies in the imperial palace, furthered the elevation of the learned  Photius to patriarch. B. was murdered by the parvenu  Basilius [5] I, the founder of the Macedonian dynasty, on 21.4.866. Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) Bibliography LMA 1, 1456 ODB 1, 255f. P. Speck, Die kaiserliche Universität von Konstantinopel, 1974.
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