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Lactuca

(307 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Lettuce plant Lettuce (θρίδαξ/ thrídax, also θρύ-, θρόδαξ/ thrý-, thródax, θριδακίνη/ thridakínē, Lactuca sativa L.), the lettuce plant known in several varieties (Theophr. Hist. pl. 7,4,5 et passim), whose cultivation and protection against pests, as well as culinary and medical uses, are described by Theophrastus. Thus, according to Theophr. Hist. pl. 7,6,2, its juice is said to help against dropsy and eye sores. Lettuce has been cultivated in Europe, North Africa and Asia for a long time …

Geminius

(201 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman family name, probably derived from, and in manuscripts often confused with, Geminus (Schulze 108). I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] G. Friend of Pompey Friend of Pompey, on whose orders he murdered M. Iunius Brutus in 77 BC (Plut. Pompeius 2,6; 16,6). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] G. Friend des M. Antonius Friend of the triumvir Marcus Antonius [I 9], who tried in vain to persuade the latter to return to Rome in 32 BC and become reconciled with Octavian (Plut. Antonius 59,1). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) II. Imperial period [German version] [II 1]…

Favonius

(377 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Flamant, Jaques (Venelles)
Rare Roman family name, occurring in Latium (Schulze 563). [German version] [1] F., M. Opponent of P. Clodius Pulcher He came from the municipal elite and was a follower of M.  Porcius Cato (Uticensis), whose political and personal intransigence he attempted to imitate, leading to envy and numerous electoral defeats. In 61 BC he attacked P. Clodius [I 4] Pulcher, in 60 he unsuccessfully charged Q. Caecilius [I 32] Metellus Pius Scipio. In the 50s he opposed Caesar, Pompey and Crassus in vain. He became aedile in 5…

Saufeius

(145 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
Italic nomen gentile. The family was from the ancient local aristocracy of Praeneste (CIL I2 279-290; 1467-1471; 2439) and is attested in Rome itself and as traders on Delos from the end of the 2nd cent. BC onwards (RRC 204). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] S., L. Appears in Cicero's letters 67-44 BC as an Epicurean (Cic. Att. 7,2,4) and a friend of Pomponius [I 5] Atticus (Cic. Att. 7,1,1). In 43 the latter rescued S., who had been proscribed because of his wealth  (Nep. Att. 12,3). Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [2] S., M. Leader of Annius [I 14] Milo's followe…

Acutius

(77 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] A., M. Tribunus plebis 401 BC Tribunus plebis 401 BC (MRR 1, 84). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] A. Rufus Supporter of Pompeius supporter of Pompeius (Caes. B Civ. 3,83,2). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] A. Nerva, Q. Cos. suff. in AD 100 cos. suff. in AD 100, probably identical to the governor of Lower Germany in 101/102 (CIL XIII 7697; 7715 f.; FOst 45; PIR2 A 101 [1]). Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 Eck, 161 f.

Decidius

(186 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Italic personal name, historically attested since the 1st cent. BC (ThlL, Onom. 3,70). [German version] [1] Decidius Saxa, L. People's tribune 44 BC born in Spain (according to Cic. Phil. 11,5,12), but probably of Italic descent, he fought against the Pompeians in Spain in 49 BC (Caes. B Civ. 1,66,3) and in 45 probably against Pompeius' sons. Designated people's tribune by Caesar for 44, he joined M. Antonius [I 9] after Caesar's death and became a member of a commission for the distribution of land to veterans (MRR 2…

Curio

(238 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Gizewski, Christian (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Cognomen in the gens Scribonia Cognomen in the gens Scribonia ( Scribonius). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography ThlL, Onom. 2, 757-760 Kajanto, Cognomina 318. [German version] [2] Head of each of the 30 curiae Curio is the name traditionally given to the head of each of the 30 curiae, the old class of the Roman people between the tribus and the gentes. The curiones is assisted in his religious role by a flamen curialis; at the head of the curio was a curio maximus (Liv. 27,8,1; CIL VIII 1174) elected by all the people. We cannot delineate in detail a…

Allius

(171 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman gentilicium. [German version] [1] M., friend of Catullus (1st cent. BC) M., friend of Catullus (Carm. 68 is dedicated to him). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Bala, C., mint master in 92 BC Bala, C., mint master in 92 BC (RRC 336). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] Fuscianus, cos. suff. (around 160 AD) Fuscianus, C., praetorian governor of Arabia around AD 160 and cos. suff. (PIR2 A 544) [1]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [4] Fuscus, governor (end of 2nd cent. AD) Fuscus, C., son of no. 3, consular governor of Germania Inferior, p…

Numonius

(173 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Rare Roman family name. We know of a C.N. Vala, who as IIIvir monetalis in 41 BC minted aurei and denarii (RRC 514; see under N. [1]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] N. Vala Addressee of Hor. epist. 1, 15 Horace wrote to him around 20 BC (Hor. Epist. 1,15). Possibly identifiable with the C.N. Vala, who in 41 AD is documented as mint master (RRC 1, 522f. No. 514). PIR2 N 243; 244. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] C.N.Vala Legate of Q. Varus in Germania Legate of Quinctilius Varus on the latter's last campaign through Germania; N. fled with the cavalry in…

Coelius

(856 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Plebeian gentilicium, also Coilius, in surviving manuscripts often confused with Caelius (Schulze 155; ThlL, Onom. 2, 523-525). Bearers of this name are documented since the 2nd cent. BC, usually belonging to the Tribus Aemilia. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] C. Antipater, L. Historiographer, late 2nd cent. BC Possibly the brother of the senator C. Coelius C.f. [1; 2. 16], a highly educated scholar of law and rhetoric (Cic. Brut. 102; Dig. 1,2,2,40), considered the teacher and friend of L. Licinius Crassu…

Optatus

(565 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg)
[German version] [1] Roman cognomen Roman cognomen (“child desired by parents”), very widespread in the Imperial period; equally commonly a slave name. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Kajanto, Cognomina, 75; 77; 296 2 H. Solin, Die stadtrömische Sklavennamen, vol. 1, 1994, 110-111. [German version] [2] Flavius O. Imperial grammar teacher, 4th cent. AD Grammar teacher of the son of the emperor Licinius [II 4]. Allegedly, because of his wife's beauty he had great influence under Constantine [1] the Great and was appointed consul b…

Gracchus

(182 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Liebermann, Wolf-Lüder (Bielefeld)
Roman cognomen probably of Etruscan origin, as a praenomen passed down for the Aequian king G. Cloelius in 458 BC (Liv. 3,25,5). As cognomen prominent in the family of the Sempronii, especially with the people's tribunes Ti. and C.  Sempronius Gracchus. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Writer of Lat. tragedies Writer of Latin tragedies ( Thyestes, Atalanta, Peliades), only a short fragment of each is extant (for Inc. inc. fab. 120-124 2R see [4]); Ov. Pont. 4,16,31 names him together with L.  Varius Rufus in a catalogue of contemporary writers. This…

Perperna

(589 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg)
Nomen gentile of an Etruscan family (or Perpenna on inscriptions ); the family must have received citizenship early: its rise to political power began with P. [2]. P. [3] was the first person with a non-Roman name to become consul, although he lost his citizenship in 126 BC. [German version] [1] P., C. Praetor no later than 91 BC, legate of consul P. Rutilius Lupus in 90 Probably brother of P. [4], praetor no later than 91 BC, was defeated in 90 as legate of consul P. Rutilius Lupus in the Civil War [3] (App. B Civ. 1,179; 183). MRR 2, 20; 29. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] P., M. L…

Varus

(229 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] [1] Roman cognomen Common Roman cognomen, initially an individual epithet ('bow-legged', cf. Plin. HN 11,254). Recorded for Alfenus [3; 5], Aternius, Licinius [I 46-47], Quinctilius [I 1-3; II 7-8], Vibius. The best known bearer was P. Quinctilius [II 7] V. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCap., 149 Id., FCIR, 271 Kajanto, Cognomina, 242. [German version] [2] Sophist from Perge, c. 150 (Οὔαρος/ Oúaros). Sophist from Perge, c. AD 150, from a noble family, presumably the Plancii (Plancius; cf. [1. 22; 2]). Son of one Callic…

Annia

(257 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
[German version] [1] Wife of L. Cornelius Cinna (1st half of 1st cent. BC) Wife of L. Cornelius Cinna († 84), then of M. Pupius Piso Frugi, cos. 61 BC (Vell. Pat. 2,41,2). Perhaps sister of A. [I 12] and daughter of C.  Annius [I 15] Rufus. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] A. Aurelia Galeria Lucilla see Lucilla Aug. Spouse of L. Verus  Lucilla Aug. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2a] A. Fundania Faustina daughter of M. Annius [II 9] Libo, married to T. Pomponius Proculus Vitrasius [4] Pollio; executed under Commodus (AD 180-192, HA Comm. 7,7). PIR2 A 713. Eck, Werner…

Rubrius

(561 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Common nomen gentile in the late Republic and early Principate; its bearers are generally of little political importance (Schulze, 221; 462). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] R., C. (?) People's tribune, 122 BC As people's tribune in 122 BC, he laid down a law concerning the foundation of the colony of Carthage by C. Sempronius Gracchus (Plut. C. Gracchus 10,2; mentioned as lex Rubria CIL I2 585, ch. 59; perhaps also mentioned in Sherk 16, l. 12). MRR 1,517; 3,182. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] R. Propraetor of Macedonia i…

Salvianus

(171 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Letsch-Brunner, Silvia (Zürich)
Roman cognomen, extension of Salvius. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] S. of Massilia Christian theologian at Massilia, died after 465 (modern Marseille), probably born after AD 400 at Trier, evidence of his presence on the Lérins Islands, married, later ascetic, wrote the treatise Ad Ecclesiam (‘To the Church’; Pseudepigraphy [II]) after 435, exhortating all Christians to donate all inheritance for ascetic reasons for the work of the church. S. then lived at Marseille as a priest until his death (after c. 465), there composing De gubernatione Dei (‘The Government…

Pompilius

(148 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
Roman nomen gentile of Etruscan origin ( pumple). King Numa Pompilius was considered as the first ancestor of the family. The known bearers of the name are historically insignificant. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] P. Andronicus, M. Grammarian, 1st cent. BC According to Suet. Gram. 8, a 1st century BC grammarian and freedman from Syria; because of his Epicurean philosophical focus, he failed to establish himself in Rome and so moved to Cumae (Cyme [2]). His main work, a criticism of the Annales of Ennius [1] ( Annalium Enni Elenchi in 16 books), was published by …

Faustinus

(309 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fuhrer, Therese (Zürich) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin)
[German version] [1] see Faustulus See Faustulus. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Wealthy friend of the poet Martial Wealthy friend of the poet Martial, who dedicated bks. 3 (3,2) and 4 (4,10) to him; he owned villae in Baiae (3,58), Tibur (4,57), Tarracina (10,51,8) and Trebula (5,71). PIR2 F 127. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] Governor, in AD 273, of the province of Belgica under Esuvius [1] Tetricus Governor, probably in AD 273, of the province of Belgica under Esuvius [1] Tetricus; according to Polemius Silvius (Chron. Min.…

Fannius

(762 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Plebeian nomen (Schulze 266; 424), attested historically from the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] F.M. f., C. Rom. senator and historian, partaker in the storming of Carthage Roman senator and historian (in Cic. Brut. 99 falsely differentiated from a relative). F. distinguished himself in 146 BC with Ti. Gracchus at the storming of Carthage (Plut. Gracchi 4,6), fought in 141 as tribunus militum in Spain (App. Ib. 287), was the son-in-law of C.  Laelius and heard  Panaetius (Cic. Brut. 100f.). In…

Tremelius

(425 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
Roman nomen gentile (in the MSS very frequently Tremellius), attested from the 2nd. cent. BC onwards. The six generations of praetorian ancestors on whom T. [3] prided himself (Varro, Rust. 2,4,2) are quite believable. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] T., Cn. As tribune of the people, he successfully interceded in 168 BC against an extension of the term served by the censors (Liv. 45,15,9) who had passed him over in the lectio senatus . As praetor in 159 BC, he insulted the pontifex maximus who gave him a penalty ( multa ). A people's court confir…

Furnius

(230 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Plebeian family name, perhaps connected with Etruscan furnial (Schulze 217, with epigraphical evidence). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] F., C. People's tribune 50 BC, orator Like his son F. [2], a famous Roman orator ( Furnii ... clari oratores; Jer. Chron. ad annum 1980-81). People's tribune in 50 BC, legate in 44-43, praetor in 42 (?), envoy in 40 and 39, promagistrate in Asia in 36-35, c onsul designatus for 29 (MRR 2, 249, 331, 353, 359, 376, 389, 402, 408; 3, 97). At first, an admirer of the orator Cicero, he placed himself politically in …

Attius

(775 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Plebeian gentilicium, verifiable since the 2nd cent. BC, in the older form Atius, in the MSS often confused with Accius (on the origin and spread, Schulze 68; 423; 551; ThlL 2,1169-71). The gens first achieved prominence with  Atia, the mother of the emperor Augustus. Early imperial pseudo-genealogy therefore invented an ancestor Atys (Verg. Aen. 5,568 Atys, genus unde Atii duxere Latini). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican era [German version] [I 1] A. Balbus, M. Grandfather of Augustus Brother-in-law of Caesar ( Iulia) and grandfather of Augustus ( Atia [1]). …

Balbinus

(357 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
Roman cognomen (ThlL 2,1694f.; [1. 240]). Consuls with the epithet B.: L. Saenius B. (? 30 BC), P. Coelius B. Vibellius Pius (AD 137), L. Valerius Poblicola B. (AD 256). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] D.C. (Calvinus) B. = Imperator Caesar D.C. Calvinus B. Elected emperor by the Senate in 238 AD According to Zonaras, (12,17, not precise) 60 years old in the year AD 238, when he was elected emperor by the Senate, together with  Pupienus, who is always mentioned before him. Supposed descendant of the Gaditanian Cornelius Balbus (S…

Africanus

(177 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
Originally the epithet of a victor, first assumed by P. Cornelius Scipio A. (Maior) after the victory over Carthage in 201 BC (Liv. 30,45,6), then assumed by his adoptive son P. Cornelius Scipio A. (Minor), cos. 147; later as surname also in other families [1]. In the imperial era surname of the emperors Gordian I and II, Justinian I and Flavius Mauricius. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Greek doctor 2nd or 1st cent. BC Greek doctor of the 2nd or 1st cent. BC, who dedicated a few of his prescriptions to a king Antigonus [1]. Not to be confused with a…

Ap(p)uleius

(3,219 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Zimmerman, Maaike (Groningen)
Plebeian gentile name (on form and distribution [1], ThLL 2, 291). The poet  Apuleius [III, of Madaura] I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] A. Real-estate dealer (1st cent. BC) Late Republican real-estate dealer ( praediator) (Cic. Att. 5,11,16; 12,4,2; 12,17). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] A. Proscribed in 43 BC Proscribed in 43 BC but escaped (App. B Civ. 4,166). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schulze, 427. [German version] [I 3] A., L. People's tribune in 391 BC People's tribune in 391 BC, whose complaint supposedly caused M…

Scaevola

(303 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Probably originally a Roman family name, recorded as a cognomen ('left-handed'), in the Republican period in the Mucii family (Mucius [I 2; 4-10; II 2]); for the legend of origin see Mucius [I 2]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Q. Cervidius S. Roman lawyer, 2nd cent. Roman lawyer, who under Marcus [2] Aurelius (AD 161-180) was a member of his consilium (SHA Aur. 11,10) and from AD 175 was praef. vigilum (CIL XIV 4502); he also remained active under Commodus and Septimius Severus (until c. AD 200) [5. 113 f.]. As a respondent with a practical bent he wrote Digesta

Longus

(1,122 words)

Author(s): Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Author of 'Daphnis and Chloe' (Λόγγος; Lóngos). We have no information about the person who wrote the most famous Greek novel, ‘Daphnis and Chloe’: the name L. in the MSS is typically Roman and frequently attested on Lesbos, the island where the action of the novel takes place, but Roman names were very common among Greeks in the Imperial period. Also as far as the dating of the work is concerned, we only have few indications which leave room for doubt. The refinement of the tale con…

Albinovanus

(212 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA)
Plebeian gentilicium. [German version] [1] P. (1st cent BC) P. (?), one of the accusers of P. Sestius 56 BC de vi (Cic. Vatin. 3,41). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] P. Legate 82 BC P., legate (?) of C. Norbanus in 82 BC (App. B Civ. 1,91). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] P., pontifex minor (middle of 1st cent. BC) P., pontifex minor before 69 BC until after 57 (MRR 2,71; 135; 3,14) identical with [1] or [2] ? Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [4] Celsus, private secretary of the young  Tiberius Celsus, private secretary ( comes scribaque) of th…

Hortensius

(1,235 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna)
Name of a Roman plebeian family, probably derived not from hortus but from the place names Hortense, Hortenses [1. 660; 2. 175; 177; 534]. The first definitely attested bearer of the name is H. [4], the most prominent member the orator H. [7]. Family tree: [3. 75]. [German version] [1] H., L. Praetor 170 BC As praetor in 170 BC commanded the fleet in the third Macedonian War (honours in Athens: IG II2 907, and Delos: IDélos III 461 Aa 83). He conquered Abdera, sold its population into slavery, and oppressed Chalcis, but had to rescind his orders by instruction o…

Nepos

(785 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eigler, Ulrich (Zürich) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Roman cognomen, epithet of Q. Caecilius Metellus N. and his son Roman cognomen (‘grandson’) to distinguish a boy from his father and grandfather of the same name. Epithet of Q. Caecilius [I 28] Metellus N. and his homonymous son [I 29]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 79; 304. [German version] [2] Cornelius N. Biographer and historian, 1st cent. BC ( c. 100-24 BC) represents the dynamic of intellectual culture in Rome during the 1st cent. BC. He hailed from the Transpadana region and was an equestrian. N. …

Tarquitius

(422 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Haase, Mareile (Toronto) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman nomen gentile of Etruscan origin (in Antiquity probably seen as a variant of Tarquinius , cf. Fest. 496). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] T. Priscus Technical author, 1st cent. BC? Latin writer perhaps of the 1st cent. BC (cf. Verg. Catal. 5,3); mentioned in Macrobius [1] (Sat. 3,20,3; 5. cent. BC) as the author of an ostentarium arborarium (Etrusci, Etruria III with ill. on Etrusca disciplina), probably an ordered and annotated list of trees and shrubs ( arbores) of significance in divination. T. may also be meant in Plin. HN 2; …

Sestius

(572 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
Roman nomen gentile, sometimes confused with Sextius. The family surfaced as patrician with S. [1] and [5] in the mid 5th cent. BC. In the late Republic, it had only (politically insignificant) plebeian members. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] S., L. In order to illustrate the just administration of the first collegium of decemviri , especially the justice of C. Iulius [I 13] Iullus, Livy (3,33,9 f.) and Cicero (Rep. 2,61) tell the anecdote that after a corpse was found buried in the house of S., Iulius - who,…

Trebatius

(265 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Roman family name, probably derived from a place name (Treba, Trebula), very common in the Imperial Period. [German version] [1] Samnite leader in the Social Wars, c. 100 BC Leader ( praetor) of the Samnites in the Social Wars [3], he was defeated in 89 BC by C. Cosconius [I 1] on the Aufidus and escaped to Canusium (App. Civ. 1,228). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] T. Testa, C. Roman lawyer, 1st cent. BC Roman jurist ( c. 84 BC until after AD 4), pupil of Q. Cornelius Maximus (Dig. 1,2,2,45) and teacher of  Antistius [II 3] Labeo (Dig. 1,2,2,47). He wa…

Opimius

(381 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main)
Roman family name (in inscriptions also Opeimius), possibly derived from the (undocumented) cognomen Opimus (cf. Quint. Decl. 302). The family gained notoriety through O. [1] in the 2nd cent. BC, but in the 1st cent. BC no longer played a role in politics. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] O., L. Consul in 121 BC, declared opponent of the Gracchi In 125 BC, he was praetor urbanus and destroyed the rebellious town of Fregellae, which had risen up against Rome after M. Fulvius [I 9] Flaccus's initiative to give Roman citizenship to the Italic all…

Caecilia

(562 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Stegmann, Helena (Bonn)
[German version] [1] C. Gaia Wife of Tarquinius Priscus Wife of  Tarquinius Priscus (Fest. p. 276); in Plin. HN 8,194 and Paul. Fest. s.v. G.C. p. 85 L., her name is  Tanaquil (refer [1]). Her name links her to the goddess Gaia and thus with wedding rites. For the connection with the ager Tarquiniorum cf. Liv. 2,5; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 5,13,2-4, with the river god Tiber [2. 378-83]. For the name C. [2. 382]. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography 1 R. Thomsen, King Servius Tullius, 1980, Index s.v. Tanaquil 2 A. Momigliano, Roma Arcaica, 1989, 371-83 (with all sources). …

Flavus

(213 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Losemann, Volker (Marburg/Lahn)
Roman cognomen (‘golden yellow’, ‘blond’, probably named after the hair colour), in the Republican period for C. Alfius [I 6] F., the family of the Decimii, Sp.  Larcius F. and L.  Lucretius Triticipinus F. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Of the Cheruscan tribal aristocracy, father of Italicus, also after AD 9 on the side of Rome Brother of  Arminius, of the Cheruscan tribal aristocracy. Son of  Segimerus, son-in-law of the Chatti princeps Actumerus (Tac. Ann. 11,16,1), father of  Italicus [1. 201f.]. F. remained on the side of Rome…

Florus

(838 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
Roman cognomen (‘blond’, ‘radiant’, with ablaut, related to flavus [1]), in the Republican period epithet of C. Aquilius [I 11] F. and L. Mestius F. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] P. Annius F. Lat. poet and writer, 1st/2nd cent. AD Under the cognomen Florus (in conjunction with the family name Annius or Ann(a)eus and the first name P. or L.) four works or groups of works are known: 1. the introduction to a dialogue Vergilius orator an poeta (P. Annius F.), 2. and 3. fragment of a correspondence (Charisius, Gramm. 66,10f.; 157,21f. B.) and an exchange o…

Gellius

(1,322 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Krasser, Helmut (Gießen)
Roman nomen gentile, which can almost certainly be traced back to the praenomen G. attested from the beginning of the 3rd cent. BC. There is evidence of the bearers of the name in the political life of Rome from the 2nd cent. BC. [German version] [1] Stepbrother of L. Marcius Philippus (Cos. 56 BC) Stepbrother of L. Marcius Philippus ( cos. 56 BC), otherwise unknown supporter of P. Clodius [I 4] from the equestrian class, defamed by Cicero as ‘the wet-nurse of all revolutionaries’ (Cic. Vatin. 4; Cic. Sest. 110-112). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] G., Cn. Rom. historia…

Arrius

(618 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Latin gentile name of Italian origin. I. Republic [German version] [I 1] A. (1st half of 1st cent. BC) Made fun of by Catull (Carm. 84) due to affected pronunciation. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] A., C. Neighbour of Cicero Neighbour of Cicero at his Formianum (Cic. Att. 2.14.2; 15.3). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 3] A., L. City praetor of Cales City praetor of Cales (ILLRP 560). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 4] A., Q. Praetor in 73 BC Praetor in 73 BC [1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schulze, 422-423. …

Pythodorus

(519 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
(Πυθόδωρος/ Pythódōros). [German version] [1] Athenian, paved the way (in 411BC) for the oligarchic constitution of the 400 Athenian who, according to [Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 29,1-2 (cf. Thuc. 8,67,1), in 411 BC made a motion in the public assembly to elect a further 20 'preliminary counselors' ( próbouloi) to draw up proposals for saving the state. He thus paved the way for the oligarchic constitution of the 400 ( tetrakósioi ). Diog. Laert. 9,54 (= Diels/Kranz 80 A 1) names him as the prosecutor of Protagoras [1]. P. may be identical with the …

Annius

(2,226 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Latin, in Rome a plebeian gentilicium, which also occurs in Etruscan and Oscan inscriptions [1]. The Etruscan king Anius, after whom the  Anio was supposedly named (Plut. Mor. 315E-F), is a scholarly invention. In Rome Annii were active from the 3rd cent. BC in public life, produced in the 2nd cent. from the family of the Lusci two consuls and were notorious in the 1st cent. because of T.  A. [14] Milo. In the imperial era the name is widespread, various families are present (e.g. cognomina: Bas…

Deductio

(345 words)

Author(s): Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Legal term There are many different senses of deductio in specialized legal language: in civil case-law the expression in iudicium deducere usually indicates the transition of the dispute to the judgement stage, and so approximately corresponds to the modern concept of pendency. Deductio in domum is the ceremonial introduction of a wife into her husband's house (Dig. 23,2,5). A further frequent use of deductio is to denote the ‘deduction’ of specific components of a debt owed to a provider of services: for example the deduction of costs (D…

Lupus

(214 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA)
[German version] [1] Roman proper name Rare Roman proper name (‘Wolf’) [3. 115], quite common as a cognomen, in the Republican period of L. Cornelius [I 51] Lentulus L. ( cos. in 16 BC) and more widespread among the Rutilii in the Imperial period. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Degrassi, FCIR, 257 2 Kajanto, Cognomina, 327 3 Schulze. [German version] [2] Poet Is named by Ovid (Pont. 4,16,26) as the author of a poem about the return of Menelaus [1] and Helene [1] from Troy. It may be that L. is identical with the orator P. Rutilius Lupus or …

Aelia

(294 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Second wife of Sulla Second wife of Sulla (Plut. Sull. 6,20). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Galla Wife of one Postumus (Augustan period) Wife of one Postumus = ? C. Propertius Postumus, Prop. 3,12,38; related to members of the senatorial Aelii of the Augustan period [1; 2]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [3] Paetina, second wife of  Claudius Ae. Paetina. Probably daughter of Sex. Aelius Catus; second wife of  Claudius, who separated from her (Suet. Claud. 26,2). They had a daughter  Antonia [5].  Narcissus …

Trebius

(110 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
Oscan/Italian praenomen (usual abbreviation in Lat. inscriptions Tr.), later also a Roman gens name, recorded from the 1st cent. BC onwards. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] T., Statius Supposed to have handed his home city of Compsa over to Hannibal [4] in 216 BC (Liv. 23,1,1-3; Zon. 9,2,7). Punic Wars (II) Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) Bibliography J. von Ungern-Sternberg, Capua im Zweiten Punischen Krieg, 1975, 69. [German version] [2] T. Gallus, M. Roman equestrian, Caesar's prefect or tribune in Gaul, who demanded grain from the Coriosolites (…

Fufidius

(223 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Name of a plebeian family (further development of Fufius [1]), prominent in Arpinum, the home town of Cicero. [German version] [1] Rom. eques, 1st cent. BC Roman equestrian, in 57 BC creditor to Apollonia in Illyria (Cic. Pis. 86). Possibly identical with the F. from whom Cicero bought a country estate in Arpinum for his brother in 54 (Ad Q. fr. 3,1,3), who appointed Cicero joint heir in 47 (Att. 11,13,3) and whom Horace attacked as a profiteer (Sat. 1,2,12-22). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Nicolet 2, 882f. [German version] [2] F., L. Propraetor 80 BC Allegedly ex-centurio (O…

Sacerdos

(465 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Rives, James B. (Toronto)
[German version] [1] Name Rare Roman cognomen (‘priest’), in the Republican period attested for the Licinii (Licinius [I 41]), in the Imperial period for Marius Plotius [II 5] Claudius S. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 319. [German version] [2] Priest (plur. sacerdotes). The second part of the Latin word is derived from the Indo-European *dhe- (cf. Greek tithénai, Lat. facere, English do): a sacerdos was thus 'someone who performed sacra '. Sacerdotes became the umbrella term for all religious functionaries, but its meaning as a tech…

Afranius

(936 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Stärk, Ekkehard (Leipzig)
Plebeian tribe, from which senatorial representatives already emerged in the 2nd cent. BC. [German version] [1] L., homo novus, consul 60 BC L., homo novus, supporter of Pompey, distinguished himself as his legate 77-73 (?) BC in the war against Sertorius (Plut. Sert. 19,3 ff.); 72 (?) praetor, 71-67 (?) as proconsul in Spain (conquest of Calagurris, triumph). 66-62 legate in the war against Mithridates. With the support of Pompey, he became consul together with Q. Caecilius Metellus Celer in 60 BC. In 55, sent by Pomp…

Anicius

(1,157 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
Name of a family that came from Praeneste, which is documented there already in the Republican era. An Anician achieved the consulate in 160 BC (see [I 4]), but otherwise the tribe does not distinguish itself again in the Republic. In the imperial era, however, the gens blossomed; from the post-Diocletian era until the 4th cent. AD as an urban Roman family, and then, continued by the members of the female line, emerged as Christian aristocracy of great significance in the 5th cent [1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican era [German version] [I 1] A., C. Senator (middle of the …
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