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Nautius

(434 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
Name of a patrician gens, whose last known representative N. ( tr. mil. 258 BC) is placed by tradition in the middle of the 3rd cent. BC. According to Varro (HRR II p. 9 = Serv. Aen. 2,166; cf. 3,407; 5,704) the ancestor of the gens was a companion of Aeneas by the name of Nautes, to whom Diomedes [1] surrendered the Palladion of Troy, which had been plundered by the Greeks, and this was the origin of a gentile cult for Minerva observed among the Nautii (cf. Fest. 164 L.; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 6,69,1). [German version] [1] N., Sp. Legate of the consul L. Papieius Cursor, contributed considera…

Publilius

(1,664 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Benz, Lore (Kiel) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Plotke, Seraina (Basle)
I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] P. Relative of Cicero's second wife Publilia A close relative (brother?) of Cicero's second wife Publilia; for this reason, he is frequently mentioned in Cicero's letters to T. Pomponius [I 5] Atticus. Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] P., Volero People's tribune in 472 and 471 BC People's tribune in 472 and 471 BC (MRR 1, 29 f.). P. is said to have introduced a bill in 472 to have the election of the tribunes of the plebs take place not in the comitia curiata, which were dominated by patricians and their clients, but in the comitia tributa (Co…

Tarquinius

(1,599 words)

Author(s): Schirmer, Brigitte | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
[German version] [1] Nomen gentile The name T. is the Latinized form of an Ancient Etruscan nomen gentile * tarq/χ u-na, from which the Latin name was derived by means of the -i̯o suffix inherited from the indo-European basic form. In Etruscan itself, the name in the form tarq/χ una is not attested; instances of a basic form * tarq/χ-  from the Archaic period are rare (cf. perhaps tarχ umenaia [1. 251, Cl 2.8], tarχ elnas [1. 86, Vs 1.2]). Inherited forms occur in Late Etruscan in the nomina gentilia tarcna/tarχ na ( cf. tarcnai, tar χ nas from the Tomba delle Iscrizioni, Caere, CIE 5907-5974; t…

Horatius

(4,620 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Kytzler, Bernhard (Durban)
Name of a patrician gens which had already died out in the 5th cent. BC. Later bearers of the name owe it to the provenance from the eponymous tribus. [German version] [1] Horatii Member of the Horatius gens (Royal period). According to legend (Liv. 1,24-26; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,13,4-22,10), under King Tullus  Hostilius [I 4], the conflict between Rome and  Alba Longa was decided by a fight between the Horatii triplets and the Curiatii triplets rather than a battle. After two brothers had fallen, the last H. overcame his opponent…

Venulus

(68 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
[German version] Tiburtine, sent in Vergil's Aeneid by Turnus [1] to seek help from Diomedes [1] against Aeneas [1], but fails in this mission and shortly afterwards falls in a cavalry battle (Verg. Aen. 8,9; 11,241-295; 11,741-758; Serv. Aen. 8,9; 11,757). Linguistically it is debatable whether the origin of the name V. is Celtic or Illyrian. Müller, Christian (Bochum) Bibliography C. Feroni, s. v. Venulo, EV 5.1, 1990, 498 f.

Terentilius

(90 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
[German version] T. Harsa, C. According to Livius (3,9,1-10,3; on the historicity of the account see [1. 411-413; 2. 93-95]), as tr. pl. in 462 BC he proposed establishing a five-man college to legally limit the powers of the consuls. Although he later withdrew the proposal, it unleashed long-lasting controversies, which ultimately led to an ambassadorship to Greece (to study law) in 454 and to the establishment of the Decemviri [1] in 451. Müller, Christian (Bochum) Bibliography 1 R. M. Ogilvie, A Commentary on Livy Books 1-5, 1965 2 D. Flach, Die Gesetze der frühen römisch…

Maelius

(344 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
Rare Roman family name, attested in historical traditions only in the 5th and 4th cents. BC. [German version] [1] M., Q. People's tribune 320 BC, gave up his office Jointly responsible for the Caudine treaty, M. gave up his office as tr. pl. 320 BC and was turned over to the Samnites (Liv. 9,8,13-10,2; Cic. Off. 3,109). Müller, Christian (Bochum) [German version] [2] Aspired to the kingly rule of Rome 440/39 BC According to Liv. 4,12,6-16,1 and Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 12,1-4 M., a rich plebeian, gained a broad following in a famine 440/39 BC by buying grain and selling…

Oppius

(1,221 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Oscan praenomen, later a widespread nomen gentile; literary refs. at Rome from as early as the 5th cent. BC (O. [I 5]), but historical evidence only from the 2nd cent. The Tusculan Opiter O., who is said to have given his name to the Mons O. at Rome, is an invention (Varro in Fest. 476 L.). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] O., C. Author of a law of 215 BC to limit displays of wealth Restricted the opportunities for women to display wealth by his law of 215 BC (Liv. 34,1,1-3 et alibi; MRR 1, 255). In 195, this legislation was repealed despite the res…

Iunius

(8,102 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Et al.
Roman surname, derived from the name of the goddess Iuno [1. 470; 2. 731]. The gens was plebeian; the idea that this family originated from the patrician founder of the Republic L. I. [I 4] Brutus (Cic. Att. 13,40,1), which was particularly propagated by the murderers of Caesar, M. and D. I. Brutus [I 10 and 12], was already a matter of controversy in ancient times (Plut. Brutus 1,6-8). T.  Pomponius Atticus (Nep. Att. 18,3) composed a family history at the request of M. Brutus. This gens became politically im…

Veturia

(121 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
[German version] According to a legendary tradition of the early Republic, V. prevented her son Marcius Coriolanus from conquering his home city Rome with a Volscian army (Volsci). The best-known version of this often revisited subject matter is that of Livius [III 2] (2,40,1-12; cf. e.g. Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 8,39-54; Val. Max. 5,4,1; Plut. Coriolanus 33-36, but there, V. is called Volumnia [1]), who simultaneously provides an aetiology for the foundation of the temple of Fortuna Muliebris. Prototypes in Greek tragedy (e.g. Eur. Phoen.; Eur. Hec.) are unmistakable. A po…

Maenius

(930 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman plebeian family, perhaps of Etruscan origin [1. 185; 187]. The most important bearer of the name is M. [I 3]; the family is politically unimportant in the 1st cent. BC. Lex Maenia is the title of a Menippean satire of Varro (Varro Men. 153-155). The law concerned the power of the paternal head of the house; content and dating are contested [3. 1085 - 1121]. A further lex Maenia probably passed before 290 BC directed that the ‘agreement of the Senate’ ( auctoritas patrum) for elections be obtained before proclaiming the election results (Cic. Brut. 55). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Boch…

Opimia

(102 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Vestal vergin, buried alive in 483 BC Vestal virgin, buried alive for unchastity in 483 BC. Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 8,89,4 calls her O., but her name is given differently elsewhere (e.g. Liv. 2,42,11); the name was probably established by ancient authors through associations between the vestal concerned, not known by name, and others whose names were recorded (perhaps O. [2]). Müller, Christian (Bochum) [German version] [2] Vestal virgin, buried alive in 216 BC As a Vestal virgin, she was convicted for unchastity and buried alive in 216 BC (Plut. Fabius…

Tarpeius

(223 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Sylvia | Müller, Christian (Bochum)
[German version] [1] T. mons According to Varro (Ling. 5,41), term for the Capitolium, cf. Tarpeium Saxum. Zimmermann, Sylvia [German version] [2] Epithet of Iuppiter as lord of the Capitolium Epithet of Iuppiter as lord of the Capitolium, where the rock was from which traitors were thrown to their deaths in accordance with a law written by T. [4] (e.g. Ov. Fast. 6,34; Ov. Met. 15,866; Prop. 4,1,7). Zimmermann, Sylvia [German version] [3] T., Sp. Father of Tarpeia Father of Tarpeia, commander of the Capitoline fortress under Romulus [1] during the attack of the Sabine kin…

Latinius

(306 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman family name (Etruscan Latini), a derivation from the ethnicon Latinus. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] L., T. According to the legend, Jupiter told L. during the Latin War to instruct the consuls to have the Ludi Romani repeated According to Livy (2,36,2-8), who sets the legend that was originally probably not fixed in time in 491 BC, Jupiter told L. in a dream during the Latin War that he should instruct the consuls to have the ludi Romani ( ludi ) repeated; L. finally obeyed these instructions after initially ignoring them twice and…

Pompeius

(8,348 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
Name of a Plebeian family (connection with the Campanian city of Pompeii is unclear). The family acquired political significance with P. [I 1]; he is the origin of the Rufi branch. With P. [I 8] a related branch attained consulship and with his son Cn. P. [I 3] Magnus supplied the most significant member of the gens. Both lineages continue until the early Imperial period (family trees: [1; 2; 3]). I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] P., Q. Consul 141 BC A homo novus and popular orator (Cic. Brut. 96), he became consul in 141 BC, despite resistance from the nobility a…

Plautius

(2,995 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Et al.
Name of a Roman plebeian family, in the late Republic also often spelt Plotius, with no clear difference in use (cf. Claudius/Clodius). The earliest epigraphic evidence comes from Praeneste (among it the maker of the Ficoronian Cista, Novios Plautios, CIL I2 561), while the family in Rome achieved political eminence after 367 BC (Münzer therefore considers them to have migrated from Praeneste [1. 42; 44f.; 412]), providing seven consuls between 358 and 318; their migration may explain their interest in integrating Latini (cf. P. [I 5]…

Livius

(6,493 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
Name of a Roman plebeian family, who probably came from Latium and was accepted into Roman nobility when Latium was integrated politically in 338 BC ( Latin law). The most important branches were first the Salinatores, then the Drusi (on the cognomen see Drusus). The third wife of Augustus and mother of the emperor Tiberius, Livia [2] Drusilla came from this branch (Stemma see Augustus; the family history of the branch is in Suet. Tib. 3). The line of the Salinatores was continued in the late Republic by the Livii Ocellae, who i.a. produced Livia Ocella, the stepmother of the emperor Galba [2]. E…

Potitii

(325 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
[German version] Patrician family. According to tradition, the P. provided for a cult of Hercules on the Ara Maxima in Rome - together with the Pinarii (Pinarius), with respect to whom they took precedence. Supposedly at an extremely early time Hercules himself or Evander [1] had entrusted the cult to them. In 312 BC, the censor Appius Claudius [I 2] Caecus converted it into a state cult (Verg. Aen. 8,268-72 with Serv. Aen. ad loc.; Liv. 1,7,8-15; 9,29,9-11; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,40,1-5; Val. Max…

Numitorius

(244 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum)
Name of a Roman gens, documented only since the 2nd cent. BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] N., L. People's tribune in 471 BC Member of the first college of people's tribunes (that of 471 BC) whose members are all known (Calpurnius Piso fr. 23 HRR = Liv. 2,58,1; Diod. Sic. 11,68,8). Müller, Christian (Bochum) [German version] [2] N., P. People's tribune in 449 BC, grandfather or great-uncle of Verginia According to tradition, N. was the grandfather or (great) uncle of Verginia; together with her betrothed, L. Icilius [1], he sought to protect he…

Icilius

(363 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
Name of a plebeian family, that probably already died out in the 4th cent. BC, according to the tradition known for its anti-patrician stance (Liv. 4,54,4). [German version] [1] I., L. People's tribune 456, 455 and 449 BC People's tribune in 456, 455, 449 BC (MRR 1,42; 48). In 456 he is said to have carried through the lex de Aventino publicando, which allocated the Aventine to the plebs (Liv. 3,31,1; 32,7; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 10,31,2-32,5); as the fiancé of  Verginia he bravely resisted the despotism of the decemvir Appius Claudius [I 5] (Liv. 3,44,3; 45,4-46,…

Verginia

(339 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
[German version] According to traditional legend, found in literature most notably in Livy's dramatic rendering (3:44-48; cf. Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 11:28-32), V. was the daughter of Verginius [I 3] and played a role in the demise of the Decemvirate ( decemviri [1]). Recognizing that he had no chance to win her, the decemvir Appius Claudius [I 5] induced one of his clients to claim V., asserting that she was originally his slave and that Verginius had merely been led to believe that she was his child. Not surprisingly, she was awarded to the client…

Pontius

(1,397 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
Oscan praenomen and Oscan/Lat. gentilic. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] Pontius, Gavius Samnite general, delivered Rome its defeat 321 BC at Caudium Samnite general who in 321 BC famously defeated the Romans at Caudium and sent them 'under the yoke' (Liv. 9,2,6-6,4). The fact that the Samnite leader in the Social War (Social Wars [3]), P. [I 4], had the same name is no proof that P.' name entered the tradition only later. The annalistic tradition (in Liv. 9, 15,8), however, of P.'…

Valerius

(11,988 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Et al.
Name of an old patrician family, which was said to have immigrated to Rome under King T. Tatius with V. [I 10] (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 2,46). The name, derived from the old personal name Valesus/ Valerus, was originally Valesios (cf. V. [I 7]; CIL XII p. 298g: Valesies; Fest. 22; Varro, Rerum divinarum fr. 66 Cardauns [4; 5]); the censor App. Claudius [I 2] introduced the new spelling in 312 BC (cf. Dig. 1,2, 2,36). Because in Antiquity the name was derived (etymologically correctly) from valere, 'to be strong', it was considered to be a good omen ( boni ominis nomen, Cic. Div. 1,102; Cic. Sca…

Lucretius

(3,448 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
Italian surname (on its Etruscan connection cf. [1. 182f.]). In the 5th and 4th cents. BC we encounter the patrician family of the Lucretii Tricipitini (among others with the rare praenomen Hostus) which later died out; from the 3rd cent. BC onwards several plebeian families are known (Gallus, Ofella, Trio, Vespillo). The most important bearers of the name are Lucretia [2] from early Roman history and the poet L. [III 1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] L. Prosecutor of M. Livius Drusus [I 5] Claudianus In 54 BC he prosecuted M. Livius Drusus …

Ogulnius

(235 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum)
Name of a Roman gens, first appearing with O. [1]. Later members of the family are politically insignificant. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] O. Gallus, Q. Leader of a Roman embassy in 292 BC that transferred the cult of Asclepius to Rome During an epidemic in Rome in 292 BC, leader of a Roman embassy that transferred the cult of Asclepius from Epidaurus to Rome (MRR 1, 182); in 273, member of the first embassy to the Ptolemaic court in Alexandria [1] (MRR 1, 182; for the background to this embassy see [1. 141-145]). As cos. in 269 (MRR 1, 199), according to Pliny (HN 33…

Mucius

(2,116 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Et al.
Name of a Roman gens (in inscriptions also Muucius, CIL I2, 584, Greek Μούκιος/ Moúkios). Tradition tells us of the legendary C.M. [I 2] Cordus Scaevola; the great age of the family is perhaps demonstrated by the name Mucia Prata of a place to the east of the Tiber [1]. In the historical period (from the 3rd century BC) the family was plebeian and provided a series of significant lawyers (M. [I 5; I 8-9]). One of M. [I 4]'s sons was adopted by a P. Licinius Crassus and as P. Licinius [I 19] Crassus Dives Mucianus founded the reputation of this branch of the family of Licinii Crassi. I. Republican …

Sergius

(1,659 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
Name of an old patrician family. The tribus Sergia was named after it. The family is attested to have attained consulship in the 5th cent. BC (S. [I 5]) but did not achieve lasting importance in the historical period. The attempt of its best-known member, L.S. Catilina, to attain the consulship once more failed with the Catilinarian Conspiracy. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] S., M. The brother of L.S. Catilina (?) According to Plutarch (Sulla 32,3; Cicero 10,3), the brother of L.S. Catilina, killed by him in 81 and posthumously put on the proscriptions…

Volumnia

(194 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Wife of Marcius Coriolanus According to a much-related story about Marcius Coriolanus (in which V. plays only a subordinate role, however), when he and a Volsci army are outside Rome, the pleas of his wife V. and his mother Veturia cause him to refrain from attacking his home city (the story in e.g. Liv. 2,39,1-2,40,11; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 8,40-54; Val. Max. 5,2,1; 5,4,1; Plut. Coriolanus 33,1-36,6, but there, it is not his wife but his mother who bears the name V.). Müller, Christian (Bochum) [German version] [2] Pantomime actress, 1st cent. BC Freedwoman (and lover:…

Minucius

(2,367 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Et al.
Name of a Roman gens. The patrician bearers of the name from the 5th and 4th cents. BC that have come down to us are of disputed historicity, in any case the early family history has been embellished in the late Republic.  It is these Minucii that later membesrs (from the 3rd century BC) trace themselves back to. A prominent cognomen is Augurinus (M. [I 1-3] and [I 5 and 6]), deriving from the first plebeian augur M. [I 7], applied only subsequently to the early Republican members. The political zen…

Sempronius

(6,399 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Et al.
Name of a Roman family. According to tradition, its members of the 5th cent. BC (Atratini, S. [I 3-8]) are supposed to have been patricians and champions of patrician privileges (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 10,41,5; 10,42,3), an assumption that may have been a retrospective invention (the Sempronii only became patricians under Caesar or Augustus); in the historical period, we know only of plebeian branches of the family during the Republic (Asellio, Blaesus, Gracchus, Longus, Tuditanus) who played an important role in the 3rd and 2nd cents. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period …

Tolumnius

(136 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
[German version] Etruscan nomen gentile; most famous bearer: Lars T., king of the Veii, who in 437 BC brought about the killing of Roman ambassadors by the Fidenati (Fidenae), who had defected to him. In the subsequent war, he was killed in single combat by Cornelius [I 20] Cossus (Liv. 4,17,1-5; 4,19,1-5); the year of this single combat was already disputed in ancient tradition (Liv. 4,20,5-11; cf. [1. 563 f.]. Cossus dedicated T.' armour as spolia opima (War booty III.) to Iuppiter Feretrius (for the political role of this under Augustus cf. Licinius [I 13]). The h…

Mamilius

(656 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)
Latin name of an ancient dynasty from Tusculum (in manuscripts frequently confused with Manilius and Manlius). Because the city was considered a foundation of Telegonus, the son of Odysseus and Circe, the Mamilii, from the early 2nd cent. BC at the latest, traced their lineage to Odysseus, via Mamilia, the daughter of Telegonus (coins: RRC 149; 362; in literature, from the Augustan period: Fest. 116f. L; Liv. 1,49,9; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,45,1). In the 5th cent. BC, with M. [I 1] the family was accepted in Ro…

Pinarius

(949 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
(In an older form also Peinarius, CIL I2 1357; 2469f.). Name of a patrician gens. According to tradition, they maintained a cult for Hercules at the Ara Maxima together with the Potitii (further evidence there). Hercules himself - or Evander [1] - is said to have transferred the cult to them at an extremely early time. The derivation of the name from πεινᾶν ( peinân, 'starve') is a scholarly construction based on the P. having had the smaller share in the sacrifices for Hercules (Serv. Aen. 8,270, i.a.). The family was also traced back to Pinus, the ostensib…

Villius

(650 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
[German version] [1] V., Ap. Livy (3,54,13) lists V. as peoples' tribune in 449 BC among those who, after the end of the D ecemviri [1], had been voted into this office "more due to the hopes (that had been put into them) than due to their merits". Müller, Christian (Bochum) [German version] [2] V. Annalis, L. As peoples' tribune in 180 BC, he introduced a law about age limits that regulated the competition for offices and thus proved fundamental in the development of the cursus honorum [1]. In this, he had the consent of the Senate, which earned him and his…

Siccius Dentatus, L.

(188 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
[German version] The tradition portrays S. (sometimes different nomina gentilia in the sources) as a plebeian whose self-confident demeanour, originating in his own military achievements, created enemies and who, as a consequence, was perfidiously eliminated. Thus, S. only narrowly escaped a plan of Romilius [1], cos. in 455 BC (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 10,36-49; 52,2; 56,2), to dispose of him by conferring upon him a military command doomed to failure, after which occurrence, as people's tribune in 454, he had Romilius convicted. Afterwards, h…

Popillius

(1,281 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
(also frequently Popilius). Name of a Plebeian gens attested from the 4th cent. BC. The family maintained a joint funeral cult (Cic. Leg. 2,55). Its most famous branch was the Laenates (with regard to the cognomen Laenas); insignificant from the early Imperial period onwards. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] P. Laenas Augur, in 44 BC adviser of the murderers of Caesar Augur (Cic. Att. 12,13,2), in 44 BC was the adviser of the murderers of Caesar and may perhaps have been tempted to betray them to the dictator (App. B Civ. 2,484; 487). Fündling, Jörg (B…

Volumnius

(521 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)
Name of an originally Etruscan plebeian family (Etruscan form Velimna) that was significant in the early Republic. The Volumnii of the 1st cent. BC are not its descendants. The tomb of the V. in Perusia (modern Perugia) with bilingual inscriptions (CIL XI 1963 - CIE 3763) was used from the 2nd cent. onwards. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] V., P. Fought in 42 BC as a friend of M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus in the battle of Philippi, and wrote about it in a now lost work (Plut. Brutus 48; 51). Possibly identical to V. [4]? Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [2] V. Amintinus Gallus…

Papirius

(3,269 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Et al.
Roman nomen gentile, in its older form, Papisius (Cic. Fam. 9,21,3), from which one of the 16 old rural tribes ( tribus ) took its name. The patrician gens formed several branches at an early time (5th/4th cents. BC: Crassi, Cursores, Mugillani, 3rd cent.: Masones) who played a significant role in the military successes of the Republic, but became either extinct no later than the 2nd cent. BC or politically insignificant. The younger plebeian branch of the Carbones rose in the 2nd half of the 2nd cent. and gained notoriety…

Veturius

(1,228 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman family (also often given as Vetusius; on the origin of the gens Veturia [1. 284]), for which the tribus Voturia was named [2. 42]. The Veturii played a prominent political role in various phases of the Republic: from the beginning of the Republic to the leges Liciniae Sextiae (367 BC) with the Veturii [I 3-6] Cicurini, in the time between 334 and 321 with V. [I 1], and in the time of the 2nd Punic War with the Veturii [I 7-8] Philones. While the patrician status of the Cicurini and Philones can be regarded as certain (but cf. [3.…

Romilius

(217 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
Name of an old, patrician family, which had already died out in the 5th cent. BC, for which the tribus Romilia on the ager Vaticanus (cf. Vaticanus as cognomen for R. [1]) is named. [German version] [1] R. Rocus Vaticanus, T. Consul in 455 BC and decemvir in 451 BC According to tradition, cos. in 455 and decemvir (Decemviri [1]) in 451 BC (MRR 1,42; 45 f.; InscrIt 13,1,24 f.; 93; 362-65). Livius (3,31,3-6) and Dion. Hal. (Ant. Rom. 10,44-46; 48,2-49,6; cf. Plin. HN 7,102) report that, after his consulate in which he achieved a victory over the Aequi,…

Numisius

(590 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Rare Roman nomen gentile (epigraphically Numesius, ILS 9231). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican era [German version] [I 1] One of the praetors of the Latin league in 340 BC One of the two chief magistrates ( praetores) of the Latin League, who, with his colleague L. Annius [I 3], attempted to enforce perfect equality between the Latins and the Romans in 340 BC, firstly through negotiations and then by means of war; he also continued the war after the defeat of the Latins on Mt. Vesuvius (Liv. 8,3,9; 11,5-12). Müller, Christian (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] N. (?) Nucula Membe…

Larcius

(890 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a patrician gens, of Etruscan origin, which brought forth two figures of significance in the early Republican period. Only in the 1st cent. BC does evidence appear for further bearers of the name. I. Republican era [German version] [I 1] L. (Flavus or Rufus ?), T. Consul in 501 and 498 BC, first dictator of Rome Consul in 501 and 498 BC (InscrIt 13,1,88; 350-53). The written record, up to Festus (216 L.), names L. as the first dictator of Rome (MRR I 9f.; 11f.), but it is divided on whether L. occupied the office during his 1st (Liv. 2,18,4-7 …

Sestius

(572 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
Roman nomen gentile, sometimes confused with Sextius. The family surfaced as patrician with S. [1] and [5] in the mid 5th cent. BC. In the late Republic, it had only (politically insignificant) plebeian members. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] S., L. In order to illustrate the just administration of the first collegium of decemviri , especially the justice of C. Iulius [I 13] Iullus, Livy (3,33,9 f.) and Cicero (Rep. 2,61) tell the anecdote that after a corpse was found buried in the house of S., Iulius - who,…

Manlius

(3,605 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Et al.
(in Greek usually Μάλλιος/ Mállios, often confused in MSS with Mallius and Manilius). Name of a Roman patrician family, probably of Etruscan origin [1. 227]. It attained an early political zenith in the 5th and 4th cents. BC with the Vulsones and Capitolini branches (continued by the Torquati). Sources connect the family's history primarily with the repelling of the Celts ( M. [I 8] and [I 12]. Stemmata, details of which are uncertain: [2. 1157f., 1166]). A period of decline ended in about 260 BC wi…

Maelius

(316 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
Seltener röm. Gentilname, in der historischen Überl. nur im 5. und 4. Jh.v.Chr. bezeugt. [English version] [1] M., Q. Volkstribun 320 v. Chr., gab sein Amt auf Mitverantwortlich für den Caudinischen Vertrag, gab M. als tr. pl. 320 v.Chr. sein Amt auf und wurde an die Samniten ausgeliefert (Liv. 9,8,13-10,2; Cic. off. 3,109). Müller, Christian (Bochum) [English version] [2] hatte 440/39 v. Chr. Ambitionen auf eine Königsherrschaft in Rom Nach Liv. 4,12,6-16,1 und Dion. Hal. ant. 12,1-4 gewann M., ein reicher Plebeier, in einer Hungersnot 440/39 v.Chr. durch Aufka…

Iunius

(7,178 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Et al.
Röm. Familienname, vom Götternamen Iuno abgeleitet [1. 470; 2. 731]. Die gens war plebeisch; ihre bes. von den Mördern Caesars, M. und D.I. Brutus [I 10 und 12], propagierte Herkunft vom (patrizischen) Republikgründer L.I. [I 4] Brutus (Cic. Att. 13,40,1) war bereits in der Antike umstritten (Plut. Brutus 1,6-8). Eine Familiengeschichte verfaßte auf Bitten des M. Brutus T. Pomponius Atticus (Nep. Att. 18,3). Politisch bedeutend wurde die gens ab dem 4. Jh.v.Chr. mit den Zweigen der Scaevae, Bubulci und Perae. Ab dem Ende des 3. Jh. traten die Bruti und Silani…

Popillius

(1,155 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Köln)
(auch häufig Popilius). Name einer plebeiischen gens, die seit dem 4. Jh. v. Chr. bezeugt ist. Die Familie pflegte einen gemeinsamen Grabkult (Cic. leg. 2,55). Ihr berühmtester Zweig waren die Laenates (zum Cogn. Laenas); seit der frühen Kaiserzeit unbedeutend. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] P. Laenas Augur, 44 v. Chr. Berater der Caesarmörder Augur (Cic. Att. 12,13,2), war 44 v. Chr. Berater der Caesarmörder und vielleicht versucht, sie an den Dictator zu verraten (App. civ. 2,484; 487). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [English version] [I 2]…

Poetelius

(402 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
Plebeiisches Geschlecht, das im 4. Jh. v.Chr. eine Reihe bedeutender Vertreter hervorbrachte (Stammbaum bei [1]). [English version] [1] P., Q. decemvir 450 v. Chr. Als Mitglied des zweiten Collegiums der decemviri 450 v.Chr. (MRR 1, 46f.) soll er gegen einen Einfall der Sabiner ins Feld geschickt worden sein (Liv. 3,41,9; Dion. Hal. ant. 11,23,1). Müller, Christian (Bochum) [English version] [2] P. Libo, M. Consul 314 v. Chr. Als cos. 314 v.Chr. kämpfte P. mit seinem Kollegen Sulpicius Longus siegreich gegen die Samnites (Liv. 9,24-26; Diod. 19,76,1-5). Nach …

Numisius

(506 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Köln)
Seltener röm. Gentilname (inschr. auch Numesios, ILS 9231). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] Einer der Praetoren des latinischen Bundes 340 v. Chr. Einer der beiden Oberbeamten (Praetoren) des latinischen Bundes, der mit seinem Kollegen L. Annius [I 3] 340 v.Chr. zunächst mit Verhandlungen, dann auch mit Krieg die volle rechtliche Gleichstellung der Latiner mit den Römern durchzusetzen versuchte und auch noch nach der Niederlage der Latiner am Vesuv den Krieg fortsetzte (Liv. 8,3,9; 11,5-12). Müller, Christian (Bochum) …

Potitii

(305 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum)
[English version] Patrizisches Geschlecht. Nach der Überl. versahen die P. einen Hercules-Kult an der Ara Maxima in Rom, der ihnen zusammen mit den Pinarii (Pinarius), denen gegenüber sie einen Vorrang besaßen, angeblich schon in frühester Zeit, nämlich von Hercules selbst bzw. Euandros [1], anvertraut worden war, dann aber im J. 312 v. Chr. durch den Censor Appius Claudius [I 2] Caecus in einen Staatskult überführt wurde (Verg. Aen. 8,268-72 mit Serv. Aen. ad loc.; Liv. 1,7,8-15; 9,29,9-11; Dion.…
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