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Praktor

(313 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(πράκτωρ/ práktōr, πρακτήρ/ praktḗr: Poll. 8,114, 'executor', 'manager', from práttein, 'do'). [German version] I. Classical Period Greek official of a state executory authority, who, on instruction, recovered state claims, particularly fines. In Athens ten práktores chosen by lot annually were in service. Informed by the authorized court magistrate of penalties imposed, they entered them in the list kept on the Acropolis when state debtors did not pay immediately (IG II2 45; And. 1,77-79; Dem. Or. 25,4; 25,28; 43,71) [1. 270 f.]. An authority of the same name wi…

Lenaeus

(332 words)

Author(s): Courtney, Edward (Charlottesville, VA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] [2] L. Pompeius Satyrist and freedman of Pompey Magnus Suet. Gram. 15 reports, aside from several romantic and improbable occurrences from the life of the young L., that he was a freedman of Pompeius Magnus, accompanied him on almost all his campaigns and after his death and the death of his sons (the last one died in 35 BC) earned his living as a school teacher in Rome. He remained so faithful to Pompey that he reacted to criticism of him in Sallustius' Historiae with an acerbissima satura, an extremely stinging satire, calling Sallust a monster both in his life an…

Hegelochus

(247 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Ἡγέλοχος; Hēgélochos). [German version] [1] Fleet officer under Alexander the Great, 4th cent. BC Son of Hippostratus, officer under  Alexander [4]. Initially commander of the vanguard cavalry, he was commissioned to form a Macedonian fleet from ships collected from Greek cities in the summer of 333 BC (Arr. Anab. 2,2,3; inexact Curt. 3,1,19f.; Amphoterus was his subordinate, not his colleague). After the death of  Memnon his fleet dominated the Hellespont, where he i.a. stopped an Athenian grain fleet (Ps.-…

Xenoi

(675 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(ξένοι/ xénoi). 'Alien', i.e. free-born person not belonging to the Greek citizenship structure, who voluntarily stayed in a place and enjoyed certain rights there. Non-free aliens (slaves, prisoners of war) were not members of the group of xenoi, which was primarily defined in terms of rights. [German version] I. Classical Greece The term xenoi generally describes large groups of free-born people, staying permanently or temporarily in a particular community, without being citizens of it (Thuc. 2,31,1; 2,36,4; 6,30,2; Aristot. Pol. 1300b 31 f.), often used in contrast to ἀστοί/ ast…

Klerouchoi

(1,718 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(κληροῦχοι; klēroûchoi, proprietors of a klêros , of a ‘land allotment’). I. Athens [German version] A. 5th cent. BC Apart from its metaphorical meaning in Sophocles (Soph. Aj. 508: ‘having a certain fate’) first mentioned in literature by Herodotus (5,77,2) as a designation of 400 Athenians, who received fields in Chalcis [1] after the Athenian victory over the Chalcidians in 506/505 BC. The number is probably exaggerated, and cannot be corrected from Aelianus (Var. 6,1), who reports that 2,000 Athenians were settled on lands of the Chalcidian hippobótai . These kleroûchoi had to re…

Harmachis

(225 words)

Author(s): Seidlmayer, Stephan Johannes (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Egyptian Ḥrw-m-ḫ.t, ‘Horus in the horizon’). [German version] [1] Name of the great Sphinx Name under which the great  Sphinx of  Gizeh was venerated as the embodiment of the sun god since the beginning of the New Kingdom ( c. 1500 BC). Many votive steles document the popularity of the cult amongst private people as well as kings. Seidlmayer, Stephan Johannes (Berlin) Bibliography J. Assmann, s.v. H., LÄ2, 992-996. [German version] [2] Priest of Ptah of Memphis, about 200 BC Son of Anemhor, father of Nesysti III; high priest of Ptah of Memphis ( c. 260 ─ after 194-193 BC); sometimes i…

Eirene

(570 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Εἰρήνη; Eirḗnē). The word is perhaps pre-Greek [1; 2]. [German version] [1] Personification and deification of peace Personification and deification of peace (Orph. H. 15,11). E. is one of the  Horae, daughter of Zeus and Themis, sister of Dike and Eunomia (Hes. Theog. 901-902; Pind. Ol. 13,6-8). She is often mentioned in Greek literature as a central figure for the prospering of the political community. Thus, E.'s gifts are praised, for instance, in Bacchyl. fr. 4,61 Snell-Maehler and in Euripides (Bacch. 419-420; TGF 453) while usually being connected, as ‘a giver of wealth’, to ploút…

Leontiscus

(136 words)

Author(s): Decker, Wolfgang (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Λεοντίσκος; Leontískos). [German version] [1] Olympic winner from Messana of Messana (Sicily). Two times Olympic winner in wrestling (456, 452 BC) [1]. He won his fights (in a similar manner to the pancratiast Sostratus) by breaking fingers (Paus. 6,4,3). His victor's statue in Olympia is by Pythagoras of Rhegium [2]. Decker, Wolfgang (Cologne) Bibliography 1 L. Moretti, Olympionikai, 1957, no. 271, 285 2 H.-V. Herrmann, Die Siegerstatuen von Olympia, in: Nikephoros 1, 1988, 154, no. 40. [German version] [2] Son of Ptolemy I, late 4th cent. BC Son of Ptolemy I and Thais, brother …

Antigone

(839 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Ἀντιγόνη; Antigónē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Thessalian  Phere Daughter of Thessalian  Phere and mother of the Argonaut Asterion (Hyg. Fab. 14,1). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [2] Daughter of king Eurytion of Phthia Daughter of king Eurytion of Phthia, wife of  Peleus, by whom she has a daughter Polydora (Pherec. FGrH 3 F 61a). Peleus accidentally kills Eurytion and therefore flees to Acastus at Iolcus, who exculpates him. Acastus' wife Astydameia tries in vain to win him for herself and then in reve…

Andromachus

(676 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Ἀνδρόμαχος; Andrómachos). [German version] [1] Possessor of a dorea (middle of the 3rd cent. BC) Documented between 253 and 249 BC in Egypt as possessor of a δωρεά ( dōreá) of 10,000 arourai. ‘Father’ of  Ptolemaeus Andromachou (?) [1]. Ameling, Walter (Jena) [German version] [2] Strategos of Syria and Phoenicia (end of 3rd cent. BC) Aspendian, commanded the phalanx in 217 BC at Raphia, later strategos of Syria and Phoenicia. PP 2, 2150. Ameling, Walter (Jena) [German version] [3] Ptolemaean official (1st half of 2nd cent. BC) Son of  Eirene, grandson of  Ptolemaeus Agesarchou; c. 197/8…

Leucius

(289 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
(Λεύκιος; Leúkios). [German version] [1] Roman in the Ptolemaic army L. (= Lucius), son of Gaius, Roman, Ptolemaic phroúrarchos on Itanus (between 221-209 BC), thus the first Roman known to have had a higher rank in the Ptolemaic army. PP VI 15117. Ameling, Walter (Jena) [German version] [2] L. Charinus Ostensible author of apocryphal Acts of the Apostles Ostensible author of apocryphal Acts of the Apostles. As such L. appears once with a double name in the middle of the 9th cent. in Photius (Bibl. cod. 114), who ascribes to him the authorship of the …

Sophron

(861 words)

Author(s): Furley, William D. (Heidelberg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Σώφρων/ Sṓphrōn). [German version] [1] Poet, 2nd half of the 5th cent. BC from Syracuse. According to Suda σ 893, approximately contemporaneous with (Arta)Xerxes in Persia and Euripides in Athens, i.e. from the 2nd half of the 5th cent. BC. This is in keeping with the traditional belief that his son Xenarchus composed a mime that referred to a historical event occurring in 394 or 389 BC (fr. 1; 4 Olivieri; [1. 59]). S. became famous for his mimoi, quasi-dramatic dialogues or monologues in a kind of rhythmic prose that depicted everyday characters for humorous purposes t…

Eulaeus

(267 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Εὐλαῖος; Eulaîos). [German version] [1] Main river of the area of Susiana One of the main rivers of the area of Susiana (Arr. Anab. 7,7; Diod. Sic. 19,19,1; Plut. Eumenes 14; Str. 15,3,4; 22; Plin. HN 6,100; 31,35 et al.) on which the metropolis Susa was also situated; it appears in the Hellenistic period as the Greek polis with the name Σελεύκεια ἡ πρὸς τῷ Εὐλαίῳ(Seleucia on the E.). It is indeed certain that E. was named after the river name Ulaï that appears in Mesopotamian and Biblical testimonials; however the identification of E. and the other rivers of Susiana passed…

Menoetius

(182 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Μενοίτιος; Menoítios). [German version] [1] Son of Actor and Aegina Son of Actor [1] and Aegina, who settled in Opus (Pind. Ol. 9,69f.); husband of Sthenele (or Periopis or Polymele), father of Patroclus and Myrto (Apollod. 3,13,8; Plut. Aristeides 20,7). In the Ilias M. is designated as hḗrōs (Hom. Il. 11,771; 18,325). When Patroclus killed Cleitonymus, son of Aphidamas, in battle, M. fled with him to Peleus in Phthia. From there, he sent his son to Troy, in support of Achilles [1] (Hom. Il. 23,83ff.; 11,765ff.). M. himself remained in Pht…

Myrmidon

(122 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Μυρμιδών/ Myrmidṓn, ‘ant’). [German version] [1] Progenitor of the Myrmidones Eponymous progenitor of the Homeric people of the Myrmidones (Hellanikos FHG 1 F 17); son of Eurymedusa, fathered by Zeus in the guise of an ant (Eratosth. In Serv. Aen. 2,7; Clem. Al. Protreptikos 34). With his wife Pisidice, daughter of Aeolus, M. fathered Antiphus and Actor (Apollod. 1,52) as well as the gluttonous Erysichthon (Hellanikos l.c.). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] Military official under Ptolemy I, 315 BC Athenian, sent in 315 BC by Ptolemy I along with 10,000 soldier…

Argaeus

(103 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] [1] Son of Ptolemy I (Ἀργαῖος; Argaîos). Son of Ptolemy I (and of Eurydice?); murdered by Ptolemy II (because of a conspiracy?) after 282 BC. PP 6, 14489. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography C. Habicht, Argaeus, Ptolemy II. and Alexander's corpse, AHB 2,4, 1988, 88-89. [German version] [2] Volcanic massif in Cappadocia (Ἀργαῖος, also Ἀργαῖον ὄρος; Argaîon oros). Erciyes Daǧı, highest volcanic massif in  Cappadocia (3917 m) south of Kayseri. Volcanic peak of the same name (modern Hasan Daǧı) in south-west Cappadocia (3268 m). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography…

Philammon

(224 words)

Author(s): Knorr, Thorsten (Hamburg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Φιλάμμων; Philámmōn). [German version] [1] Singer and lyrist Mythical singer and lyrist of Delphi, a son of Apollo (Pherecydes of Athens FGrH 3 F 120); his mother is variously given as Philonis (ibid.), Chione [2] (Ov. Met. 11,316f.) and Leuconoe [1] (Hyg. Fab. 161). His sons - for whom there are also other genealogical backgrounds - were Thamyris (Eur. Rhes. 916; 925) and Eumolpus (Theoc. 24,108). At Delphi, P. is said to have introduced choirs of virgins (Pherecydes loc. cit.) and choirs within the t…

Philometor

(201 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
(Φιλομήτωρ/ Philomḗtōr, lit. 'the mother-lover'). [German version] [1] Cultic sobriquet of Greek rulers Cultic sobriquet of Greek rulers, firstly of Ptolemaeus VI, whose reign began under the regency of his mother. For many of the subsequent kings (e.g. Ptolemaeus VIII, X, XV, Cleopatra [II 12] VII, Antiochus [10] VIII, Demetrius [9] III), the statement of Gutschmid [1. 112] is valid, namely that they ruled at first under the guardianship of their mothers. There are also Egyptian connotations to the name ( Kamutef, 'the bull of his mother' [sc. Isis]), intended to show tha…

Sosibius

(613 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
(Σωσίβιος/ Sōsíbios). [German version] [1] Egyptian statesman, 3rd cent. BC Son of Dioscurides, father of Ptolemaeus [32], Sosibius [2] and Arsinoe [II 5]; from Alexandria; still under Ptolemaeus [6] III he won victories in the diaulos at the Ptolemaia, in the agéneioi ('beardless') wrestling at the Panathenaea and in chariot racing at the Isthmia and Nemea (Callim. fr. 384 Pfeiffer; [1. 144-149; 2. 79-81]). At the time there was already talk of endowments for Zeus Kasios in Pelusium and the Heraeum (of Argos?). S., who was honoured on Delos c. 240 BC (IG XI 4, 649), was probably…

Helenus

(636 words)

Author(s): Bremmer, Jan N. (Groningen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
(Ἕλενος; Hélenos). [German version] [1] One of the great early seers One of the great early seers, more important in the epic kyklos than in Homer; son of  Priamus and  Hecabe (Hom. Il. 6,76; 7,44; Soph. Phil. 605f.; Apollod. 3,151; P Oxy. 56,3829), twin brother of  Cassandra (Anticlides FGrH 140 F 17; P Oxy. 56,3830). According to a probably archaic tradition, H. received his gift of prophecy when he was still a child in the temple of Apollo Thymbraeus, where he and Cassandra had fallen asleep. When their parents re…
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