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Leon

(1,337 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
(Λέων; Léōn). Cf. also Leo. Byzantine emperor Leo [4-9]. Sicilian place name L. [13]. [German version] [1] Spartan king, 6th cent. BC Spartan king, Agiad ( Agiads), grandfather of Cleomenes [3] I (Hdt. 5,39); is said to have been successful in war together with his fellow king Agasicles in the early 6th cent. BC, but to have been defeated by Tegea (Hdt. 1,65). Sparta is said to have already achieved eunomía (‘good order’) before his time [1. 45ff.]. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 M. Meier, Aristokraten und Damoden, 1998. [German version] [2] Tyrant of Phlius, 6th cent. BC Tyran…

Menyllos

(166 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Μένυλλος; Ményllos). [German version] [1] Military officer in the Lamian War, 322 BC After the Athenian defeat in the Lamian War by Antipater [1] in 322 BC, M. was appointed commander of the Macedonian garrison at the Munychia fortress in Piraeus (Diod. 18,18,5; Plut. Phocion 28,1 and 7). He was on good terms with Phocion who was then in charge of Athenian policy. After the death of Antipater, Cassander replaced M. with Nicanor. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography W. S. Ferguson, Hellenistic Athens, 1911, 20. [German version] [2] Envoy of Ptolemy VI to Rome, 163/2 BC In 163/2 BC, M. …

Leosthenes

(368 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Λεωσθένης; Leōsthénēs). [German version] [1] Athenian rhetor and strategos, 4th cent. BC Outstanding Athenian rhetor from the Cephale deme (Aeschin. Leg. 124), father of Leosthenes [2]. Sent as stratēgós against Alexander [15] of Pherae in 362/1 or 361/60 BC, L. was prosecuted in Athens for treason and condemned to death after Peparethus and Panormus had fallen to Alexander and the Piraeus was threatened (Polyaenus, Strat. 6,2,1f.). L. went into exile at the Macedonian court, where he was held in high standing by Philippus II (Diod. Sic. 15,95,2f.; Aeschin. Leg. 124; Hyp. 3,1 Jensen ).…

Antiphilus

(465 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
(Ἀντίφιλος; Antíphilos). [German version] [1] Athenian strategos of hoplites (323/22 BC) The Athenian A. was elected Athenian strategos of hoplites ( Hoplites) after the death of Leosthenes 323/322 BC, whose successor he became. He took over the command of the land forces of the Hellenic League in the Lamian or Hellenic War and distinguished himself through military skills and courage (Plut. Phoc. 24,1-2; Diod. Sic. 18,13,6). He lifted the siege of  Antipater at  Lamia, in 322 defeated a Macedonian army under Le…

Lycinus

(142 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Λυκῖνος; Lykînos). [German version] [1] Athenian, 4th cent. BC Athenian, initiated a paranómōn action against a psḗphisma in 347 BC, which at the request of Aeschines [2] required Philip II to send envoys to Athens to negotiate the Peace of Philocrates (346 BC). L. petitioned for a fine of 100 talents against Aeschines but did not even receive a fifth of the judges' votes (Aeschin. Leg. 13f.; Aeschin. In Ctes. 62). PA 9198. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) [German version] [2] Commander of a Macedonian garrison in Megara, 3rd cent. BC Greek of the 3rd cent. BC, was exiled from his homela…

Ephialtes

(540 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Ἐφιάλτης; Ephiáltēs). Mythology  Aloads. [German version] [1] Son of Eurydemus of Malis Son of Eurydemus of Malis, he is supposed to have shown  Xerxes the path over the mountains at  Thermopylae, in the hope of a large reward. This enabled the Persians to circumvent the Greek army under Leonidas and attack it from the rear. E. himself is said to have led the elite corps of Hydarnes along this path, and so contributed to the defeat of the Spartans. Herodotus was already aware of another version, thought by…

Lysitheides

(159 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Λυσιθείδης; Lysitheídēs). [German version] [1] Persian-friendly Greek, 5th cent. BC A pro-Persian Greek of the 5th cent. BC, rendered great services to the army of Xerxes and is said to have introduced to it Themistocles who had fled from Greece (Diod. Sic. 11,56,4-8; however in Plut. Themistocles 26,4 Nicogenes is mentioned instead of L.). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) [German version] [2] Rich Athenian, 4th cent. BC Rich Athenian (Dem. Or. 21,157) from the deme of Cicynna who owned land in the mining area of Attica; student of Isocrates and honoured with a go…

Cineas

(356 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Κινέας; Kinéas). [German version] [1] Of Konde, king of the Thessalians, offered military help to Hippias against the Spartans in 511 BC C. of Konde, king ( basileús) of the Thessalians, in 511 BC offered military help in the form of 1,000 Thessalian horsemen to the Athenian tyrant  Hippias [1] when he was threatened by the Spartans, and defeated them at Phalerum (Hdt. 5,63f.; [Aristot.] Ath. pol. 19,5). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) [German version] [2] Thessalian (c. 350-277 BC), diplomat of king Pyrrhus, expert on Roman aristocracy The Thessalian C. (about 350-277 BC), diplomat…

Python

(1,161 words)

Author(s): Junk, Tim (Kiel) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) | Et al.
(Πύθων/ Pýthōn). [German version] [1] Dragon killed by Apollo near Delphi An enormous dragon killed by Apollo near Delphi with his arrows. The oldest version of the story is offered by H. Hom. 3,300-374: Apollo overcomes a female dragon who perpetrates her mischief in the vicinity of Delphi and into whose care Hera had given her son Typhon (Typhoeus, Typhon). The town and the god receive the nickname Pythṓ (cf. also the name of the female seer at Delphi, Pythía [1]) from its decaying (πύθεσθαι/ pýthesthai) corpse. According to Eur. IT 1245-1252, the dragon is male and guards the…

Iatrocles

(282 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Binder, Gerhard (Bochum)
(Ἰατροκλῆς; Iatroklês). [German version] [1] Athenian, oligarch, 4th cent. BC Athenian, fled in 411 BC after the pro-democratic uprising of the Athenian fleet off Samos with the trierarch  Eratosthenes [1] and others, when the fleet was operating in the Hellespont, to Athens, where he supported the oligarchy (Lys. 12,42). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography Traill, PAA 531050. [German version] [2] Son of Pasiphon, approx. 350 BC Son of Pasiphon, in 348 BC captured by  Philippus II during the conquest of  Olynthus but then released (Aeschin. Leg. 15-16…

Lamian War

(157 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
[German version] The Lamian (or ‘Hellenic’) War, named after the polis of Lamia, was waged by the Athenians and Aetolians and their allies against Antipater [1]. Its causes were, specifically, Alexander [4] the Great's decree on the exiles, and generally, the hope that the Macedonian hegemony over Hellas could be undone in the wake of Alexander's death (323 BC). After early successes under the leadership of Leosthenes [2], the land war became bogged down at Lamia, where Antipater was besieged i…

Cleobulus

(335 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Κλεόβουλος; Kleóboulos). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Lindus, fl. 7th-6th cent. BC, poet Tyrant of Lindus (Rhodes), flourished in the 7th-6th cent. BC, considered to be one of the  seven wise men [1]. He composed ‘songs and riddles in about 3,000 verses’ (Diog. Laert. 1,89). Apart from 20 sayings (I6 p. 63, 1-12 DK), a short letter to Solon (Epist. p. 207 Hercher), a fragment of a scolion in a moralizing tone (SH 526). Preserved is only a funerary epigram in hexameter for king  Midas (Anth. Pal. 7,153 = GVI 1171a), quoted by Plato (Phaedr. …

Thucritus

(46 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
[German version] (Θούκριτος; Thoúkritos). Son of Thucritides of the deme Halimus; Athenian, whose son Euxitheus had to attest to the citizenship of Th. in a trial c. 346 BC (Dem. Or. 57,28,67 f.). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography LGPN 2, s. v. T., p. 227 No 7  PA 7259.

Nausicles

(155 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
[German version] (Ναυσικλῆς; Nausiklês). Son of Clearchus from the deme of Oe, c. 390-before 325/4 BC (IG II2 1629c,707), in 352 sent as an Athenian strategos (Diod. 16,37,3; Demosth. or. 18,115) to help the Phocaeans. Possibly commander of the Athenian troops that stopped Philip II at Thermopylae. Follower of Eubulus [1]. In 346 one of the negotiators of the peace of Philocrates (hypothesis 2,4 on Demosth. Or. 19). N. was given the distinction of two wreaths of honour (Demosth. Or. 18,114; IG II2 1496 col. 2,40; 3,49), was renewed as strategos in 334/3 (IG II2 1623b,329f), proposed impo…

Xenophron

(90 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
[German version] (Ξενόφρων/ Xenóphrōn). 4th cent. BC Athenian living as one of the hetaíroi of Philippus [I 4] II at his court in Pella [1], son of Phaedria (according to Xen. Hell. 2,3,2 one of the 'Thirty', Triákonta , of 404/3, but in Dem. Or. 19,196, it is his father Phaedimus that is mentioned). X. organized a symposium in Pella in 346 for the Athenian ambassadors to negotiate the Peace of Philocrates [2] (but Aeschin. Leg. 157 names the host as Xenodocus). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography PA 11295 Traill, PAA 733980.

Polycrates

(1,447 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Πολυκράτης; Polycrátēs). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Samos, 540-522 BC Son of Aeaces [1], tyrant of Samos c. 540-522 BC, initially together with his brothers Pantagnostus and Syloson; he killed the former and expelled the latter (Hdt. 3,39). Aristotle calls major constructions comparable to the pyramids [6] 'the works of P.' (Aristot. Pol. 1313b 24); Herodotus pinpoints three buildings on Samos as the largest among those of the Greeks: the Temple of Hera, the harbour mole and the aqueduct of the architect Eu…

Demosthenes

(3,503 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Δημοσθένης; Dēmosthénēs). [German version] [1] Athenian commander during the Peloponnesian War Prominent Athenian commander during the Peloponnesian War. Appointed strategos for the first time in 427/6 BC, he entered Aetolia with Western Greek allies so as to be able to attack Boeotia from the west. Through tactical errors D. suffered a severe defeat and fear prevented him from returning to Athens (Thuc. 3,94-98). However, in the Aetolian and Spartan assault on the Athenian stronghold of Naupactus in 426, D., wit…

Hegesileos

(86 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἡγησίλεως; Hēgēsíleōs). Relative of Eubulus of Probalinthus (Dem. Or. 19,290),   strategos of the Athenian troops in the battle of Mantinea in 362 BC (Xen. Vect. 3,7; Ephoros FGrH 70 F 85; Diod. Sic. 15,84,2) and probably in 349/8 again strategos of the Athenian reinforcements for the tyrant Plutarchus of Eretria. In agreement with the latter he was convicted of deceiving the people in an   eisangelia law-suit (Dem. Or. 19,290 with schol.). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography Develin, no. 1358 PA 6339 Traill, PAA 481385.

Xenopeithes

(142 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Ξενοπείθης/ Xenopeíthēs). [German version] [1] From Athens, c. 400 BC Athenian of the late 5th and early 4th cent. BC, son of Nausimachus from the Paeania deme; won a victory with a boys' chorus at the Thargeliain c. 385-366 (IG II2 1138,20); possibly an uncle of X. [2] (cf. [1]). Traill, PAA 733255. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography 1 PA 11263 2 Davies, 415 f. [German version] [2] From Athens, mentioned in Demosthenes, 4th cent. BC Athenian, son of Nausicrates from the Paeania deme; in c. 350-346 BC, he and his brother Nausimachus again sued the sons of their guardia…

Pytheas

(1,173 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Πυθέας; Pythéas). [German version] [1] P. from Aegina 5th cent. BC, his son proposed revenge measures after the battle of Plataeae After the battle of Plataeae (479 BC) his son Lampon [1] proposed desecrating the corpse of  Mardonius [1] in revenge for Leonidas [1]  (Hdt. 9,78). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) [German version] [2] P. from Aegina Persian POW after a battle at Sciathos, freed after Salamis Fought so bravely in a skirmish at Sciathos that he inspired wonder in the victorious Persians, who consequently treated him with the greatest respect a…
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