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Iunius

(8,102 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Et al.
Roman surname, derived from the name of the goddess Iuno [1. 470; 2. 731]. The gens was plebeian; the idea that this family originated from the patrician founder of the Republic L. I. [I 4] Brutus (Cic. Att. 13,40,1), which was particularly propagated by the murderers of Caesar, M. and D. I. Brutus [I 10 and 12], was already a matter of controversy in ancient times (Plut. Brutus 1,6-8). T.  Pomponius Atticus (Nep. Att. 18,3) composed a family history at the request of M. Brutus. This gens became politically im…

Masintha

(121 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
[German version] Young noble Numidian, who fled to Rome to escape the demands for tribute exacted by King Hiempsal [2] II. Caesar represented him in court against Hiempsal's son Juba [1], later hid him and in 61 BC took him to Spain with him. His motives were probably assumed to be of a sexual nature. (Suet. Iul. 71). According to an interpretation of Vitr. De arch. 8,3,25 [1. 31-33], M. owned the territory around Ismuc, not far from Zama, and in 46 he and his son C. Iulius fought on Caesar's side against Juba. Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) Bibliography 1 K. Jeppesen, Vitruvius in Africa, in: H. Geertman, …

Sallustius

(3,055 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
Italian nomen gentile, see also Salustius. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] S., Cn. Friend and correspondent of Cicero Close friend of Cicero, with whom he demonstrably exchanged letters between 67 and 45 BC (Cic. Att. 11,11,2; Cic. Fam. 14,11). In 58, he accompanied Cicero on the first leg of his journey into exile, in 47, he lent him money, and they were together pardoned by Caesar (Cic. Fam. 14,4,6; Cic. Div. 1,59). S. read the draft of Cicero's De re publica and urged him - in vain - to state his views clearly and unambiguously (Cic. Ad Q. Fr. 3,5,1), a request…

Lyson

(152 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
Greek family name. [German version] [1] In 72 BC host of Verres, friend of Cicero L. of Lilybaeum. In 72 BC friend of Cicero, host of Verres who created a statue for him (Cic. Verr. 2,4,37). Cic. Fam. 13,34 is a letter of recommendation for L.'s son. Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [2] Host of Cicero, Pompeian L. of Patrae. Host of Cicero, in 50 BC looked after his sick secretary Tiro (Cic. Fam. 16,4,1f.). L. was a Pompeian in the Civil War and in 46 or 45, after Caesar's victory, he asked for his pardon (13,19; 24). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [3] Greek bronze sculptor Greek bronze…

Maenius

(930 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman plebeian family, perhaps of Etruscan origin [1. 185; 187]. The most important bearer of the name is M. [I 3]; the family is politically unimportant in the 1st cent. BC. Lex Maenia is the title of a Menippean satire of Varro (Varro Men. 153-155). The law concerned the power of the paternal head of the house; content and dating are contested [3. 1085 - 1121]. A further lex Maenia probably passed before 290 BC directed that the ‘agreement of the Senate’ ( auctoritas patrum) for elections be obtained before proclaiming the election results (Cic. Brut. 55). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Boch…

Trebius

(110 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
Oscan/Italian praenomen (usual abbreviation in Lat. inscriptions Tr.), later also a Roman gens name, recorded from the 1st cent. BC onwards. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] T., Statius Supposed to have handed his home city of Compsa over to Hannibal [4] in 216 BC (Liv. 23,1,1-3; Zon. 9,2,7). Punic Wars (II) Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) Bibliography J. von Ungern-Sternberg, Capua im Zweiten Punischen Krieg, 1975, 69. [German version] [2] T. Gallus, M. Roman equestrian, Caesar's prefect or tribune in Gaul, who demanded grain from the Coriosolites (…

Racilius

(85 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
[German version] Italic nomen gentile. Known from L. R., aide of C. Verres in Sicily in 73-71 BC (Cic. Verr. 2,2,31). In 56 a people's tribune of the same name (his son?) acted in the interests of the  Senate against P. Clodius [I 4] (Cic. Fam. 1,7,2; Cic. Ad Q. Fr. 2,1,2; Cic. Planc. 77 with scholia Bobiensia 165 f. Stangl); probably the same R. conspired against Q. Cassius [I 16] Longinus in Spain in 48 and was executed (Bell. Alex. 53,3; 55,2). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)

Marius

(5,642 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Roberts, Michael (Middletown, CT) | Et al.
Oscan praenomen ( Egnatius [I 3]). Attested as a Roman nomen gentile from the 2nd cent. BC. The most important holder is the seven-time consul M. [I 1]; the prominent Imperial-period Spanish bearer of the name, M. [II 3], is probably a descendant of family members of that Marius. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] M., C. Seven-time consul, victor over Jugurtha and over the Cimbri and Teutoni, opponent of Sulla The seven-time consul; victor over Jugurtha and over the Cimbri and Teutoni. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] A. The rise to political prominence Born c. 157 BC…

Mithridates

(3,920 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(also Mithradates; Μιθριδάτης/ Mithridátēs, Μιθραδάτης/ Mithradátēs ). The personal name Μιθραδάτης is Persian - coins [4. 10-17] attest to the original spelling. Inscriptions, (Syll.3 709 passim; 741,14,23; 742,4; 12) sporadically give Μιθριδάτης, even contemporary ones (Greek ILS 37,8, Latin ILS 38,28; 60,5; 9), which is the form found in most later documents (Syll.3 785,10) and manuscripts. The change α/ι is due to weakening of vowels at the morpheme boundary, demonstrable from the 5th century onwar…

Praecia

(49 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
[German version] Proper name derived from praeco ('herald'). Known because of P., the mistress of P. Cornelius [I 15] Cethegus c. 75 BC. By giving her impressive gifts L. Licinius [I 26] Lucullus secured Cethegus’ support and with it the province of Cilicia (Plut. Lucullus 6,2-4). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)

Pompeius

(8,348 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
Name of a Plebeian family (connection with the Campanian city of Pompeii is unclear). The family acquired political significance with P. [I 1]; he is the origin of the Rufi branch. With P. [I 8] a related branch attained consulship and with his son Cn. P. [I 3] Magnus supplied the most significant member of the gens. Both lineages continue until the early Imperial period (family trees: [1; 2; 3]). I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] P., Q. Consul 141 BC A homo novus and popular orator (Cic. Brut. 96), he became consul in 141 BC, despite resistance from the nobility a…

Tillius

(345 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
[German version] [1] Brother of T. [2], 1st cent. BC Brother of T. [2], senator, excluded from the Senate and exiled by Caesar; an appeal for clemency on his behalf was the signal for the murder of the dictator (Nicolaus of Damascus, Vita Caesaris 24,88; Plut. Caesar 66,5; Plut. Brutus 17,3 f.; App. B Civ. 2,490-493). According to Horatius (Sat. 1,6,24 f.; 107-111), T. returned shortly thereafter and became senator again (as people's tribune in 43?). His supposed hopes on becoming praetor were not fulfilled (death at Philippi in 42?). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [2] T. Cimber…

Vergilius

(9,319 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Suerbaum, Werner (Munich) | Blänsdorf, Jürgen (Mainz)
Roman nomen gentile, attested from the 1st cent. BC evident mainly in Gallia Cisalpina (frequently confused with Verginius in MSS). The spelling Virgilius for the name of the poet Vergilius [4] is only documented from the 5th cent. AD onwards. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] V. (less frequently: Verginius), C. Legate of Calpurnius [I 19] in Macedonia, 57-55 BC 57-55 BC; legate of Calpurnius [I 19] in Macedonia; depicted by Cicero (Prov. cons. 7) as an example of integrity in contrast with Piso. Perhaps (as in MRR 2,205) identical with V. [2]. Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) …

Lucullus

(85 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
[German version] Roman cognomen, very rarely also a surname [1. 289]. Probably a diminutive of the forename Lucius [1. 177, 461]. The form Luciolus is also attested [2. 128]. The combination of Lucius and L. appears in about 200 BC in the family of the Licinians: Licinius [I 23-29] (the commander with a proverbially luxurious lifestyle [I 26]). The epithet L. then passes from there by adoption to M. Terentius Varro ( cos. 73) [2. 39]. Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) Bibliography 1 Schulze 2 Kajanto, Cognomina.

Lollius

(1,733 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman plebeian family. Bearers of the name, recorded from the 3rd cent. BC, not of urban Roman origin, emerged as business people from the 2nd cent. (ILLRP 723b; 747; 1025) and received Roman citizenship perhaps only after the Social War [3]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] L., L. Proscribed in 82 BC Read his name on one of Sulla's lists of proscribed persons in 82 BC and was thereupon immediately killed on leaving the Forum (Oros. 5,21,4f.). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] L., L. Pompey's legate against the pirates in 67 BC Pompey'…

Sittius

(250 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
(also Sitius). Italian personal name, originally Campanian [1. 232]. [German version] [1] S., P. Son of a citizen of Nuceria [1] who in 91-88 BC was loyal to Rome (Cic. Sull. 58), an entrepreneur with an estate in Campania, engaged in the grain trade with the Mauretanian kings, until the Civil War a friend of Cicero. In 63 S. recruited troops in Spain, probably for Catilina; when the conspiracy failed he fled with them to northern Africa in order to avoid prosecution. P. Cornelius [I 89] Sulla financed this …

Plautius

(2,995 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Et al.
Name of a Roman plebeian family, in the late Republic also often spelt Plotius, with no clear difference in use (cf. Claudius/Clodius). The earliest epigraphic evidence comes from Praeneste (among it the maker of the Ficoronian Cista, Novios Plautios, CIL I2 561), while the family in Rome achieved political eminence after 367 BC (Münzer therefore considers them to have migrated from Praeneste [1. 42; 44f.; 412]), providing seven consuls between 358 and 318; their migration may explain their interest in integrating Latini (cf. P. [I 5]…

St(h)enius

(107 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
[German version] Originally an Oscan praenomen ( Stenis), later also used as a gens name [1.89, 425]. Known primarily from S. of Thermae Himerae in Sicily (descendent of Mamertini or of Greek origin?). An educated aristocrat, in 82 BC he was responsible for Cn. Pompeius' [I 3] sparing Thermae (Plut. Pompeius 10,6), in 72 he sought help from the Senate against the greed of C. Verres and was condemned in absentia at first to a fine, then to death. The scandalous judgment made a decisive contribution to a lawsuit against Verres, in which S. appeared as a witness (Cic. Verr. 2,2,83-118). Fündling,…

Philotimus

(96 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
[German version] (Φιλότιμος; Philótimos). Freedman of Cicero’s wife Terentia. Notwithstanding Cicero’s suspicion that Ph. had defrauded him in the years 51/50 BC (Cic. Att. 5,8,2f.; 7,1,9), he remained their financial administrator up until their divorce in 47/46 BC. He also caused offence to Cicero as the head of the latter’s messenger service (Cic. Att. 5,17,1; Cic. Fam. 4,2,1). In 46 BC, Ph. who himself owned slaves (Cic. Att. 10,15,1) and had previously been a fervent supporter of Pompey (Cic. Att. 9,7,6; 10,9,1), was co-opted to the Luperci (Lupercalia) (Cic. Att. 12,5,1). Fündli…

Orcivius

(77 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
Italic gens name, attested primarily in Praeneste (ILS 3684; CIL I2 1460; 2439). For other bearers of the name cf. [1. 68; 364; 397] and AE 1983, 173. [German version] [1] O., C. Praetor in 66 BC Praetor in 66 BC together with Cicero. He presided over the court for embezzlement cases ( peculatus) (Cic. Clu. 94; 147; cf. Cornelius [I 87]) and was defended by Cicero in 65 (Q. Cicero, Commentariolum petitionis 19). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) Bibliography 1 Schulze.
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